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Flashcards in 8.3 Deck (30):
1

In Parkinson's disease, which pathway in the brain degenerates?
A. Basal ganglia to cerebellum
B. Substantia nigra to caudate nucleus and putamen
C. Cerebellum to spinal cord
D. Cerebral cortex to spinal cord

B. Substantial nigra to caudate nucleus and putamen.

2

Having an identical twin with Parkinson's disease greatly increases the other twin's likelihood of also getting Parkinson's disease if the:
A. first twin had late-onset Parkinson's disease.
B. first twin had early-onset Parkinson's disease.
C. twins are male.
D. twins are female.

B. First twin had early-onset Parkinson's disease.

3

Parkinson's disease patients, who usually have trouble walking, can walk surprisingly well when they:
A. have their eyes closed.
B. walk backwards.
C. count their steps.
D. are following a parade.

D. Are following a parade

4

Most Parkinson's patients suffer depression:
A. only during the late stages of the disease.
B. as a reaction to the muscle failure they suffer.
C. as one of the symptoms of the disease.
D. if they are under 50 years of age when the disease strikes.

C. As one of the symptoms of the disease

5

In its normal form, part of the gene which controls Huntington's disease repeats its sequence of bases:
A. under ten times.
B. between approximately 11-24 times.
C. at least 36 times.
D. approximately 75 or 80 times.

B. Between approximately 11-24 times.

6

Although Parkinson's disease is usually limited to old people, it has occurred in a small number of young people that:
A. used a designer drug.
B. used cocaine.
C. lived near a nuclear power plant.
D. were on low-protein diets.

A. Used a designer drug

7

Symptoms of Parkinson's disease emerge only after the number of neurons in the substantia nigra decreases to what level?
A. To the point where there are no cells remaining
B. Less than 20% of the original total
C. Less than 50% of the original total
D. Less than 90% of the original total

B. Less than 20% of the original total

8

Which parts of the brain deteriorate most strongly in Huntington's disease?
A. Pathways of neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine
B. The cerebellum and medulla
C. The caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
D. The hippocampus and amygdala

C. The caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus

9

What is the usual age of onset for Huntington's disease?
A. 5-7 years old
B. 12-20 years old
C. 30-50 years old
D. 65 years or older

C. 30-50 years old

10

What is the effect of MPTP?
A. It kills the neurons that release dopamine.
B. It suppresses activity of the immune system.
C. It is converted in the brain to dopamine.
D. It inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.

A. It kills the neurons that release dopamine

11

The gene for Huntington's disease codes for a protein called:
A. huntingtin
B. chorea.
C. protein #4.
D. C-A-G.

A. huntingtin

12

Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease apparently relate to:
A. an imbalance between activity in the left and right hemispheres.
B. a decrease in metabolic activity in the cerebellum.
C. loss of arousal in the cortex.
D. increased excitation of neurons in the substantia nigra.

C. Loss of arousal in the cortex

13

What is one of the main symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
A. Rapid fatigue of the muscles
B. Loss of saccadic eye movements
C. Difficulty initiating movements
D. Inability to coordinate speech with movements

C. Difficulty initiating movements

14

The immediate cause of Parkinson's disease is the:
A. net increase in the excitatory output from the globus pallidus.
B. gradual, progressive death of neurons in the substantia nigra.
C. immediate, mass death of neurons releasing acetylcholine.
D. accumulation of amyloid-beta in neurons.

B. Gradual, progressive death of neurons in the substantia nigra.

15

L-dopa is most effective:
A. in the early to intermediate stages of Parkinson's disease.
B. in the late stages of Parkinson's disease.
C. for females.
D. for either the very young or the very old.

A. In the early to intermediate stages of Parkinson's disease.

16

L-Dopa, a common treatment for Parkinson's disease, is a drug that:
A. inhibits activity of the immune system.
B. increases the brain's production of dopamine.
C. blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
D. facilitates the passage of sodium across neuron membranes.

B. Increases the brain's production of dopamine.

17

Which of the following is a limitation of using L-dopa for Parkinson's disease?
A. It only helps those who are in the later stages.
B. It doesn't cross the blood-brain barrier.
C. It can contribute to a greater loss of dopamine neurons.
D. It blocks glutamate receptors.

C. It can contribute to a greater loss of dopamine neurons.

18

Cigarette smoking and coffee drinking ____ the risk of Parkinson's disease, and marijuana ____ the risk.
A. increase, increases
B. increase, decreases
C. decrease, decreases
D. decrease, increases

D. Decreases, increases

19

What is a common symptom of Huntington's disease?
A. Rapid fatigue of the muscles
B. Loss of both sensation and motor control in certain limbs
C. Twitches, tremors, and writhing that interfere with voluntary movement
D. Impairment of saccadic eye movements and rapid alternating movements

C. Twitching, tremors, and writhing that interfere with voluntary movement

20

The presymptomatic test for Huntington's disease enables one to predict not only who will get the disease but also:
A. the approximate age of onset.
B. what other diseases the person will get.
C. which drugs will best alleviate the disease.
D. which symptoms will become prominent first, and which ones later.

A. The approximate age of onset.

21

What is especially limited in a patient with Huntington's disease?
A. The ability to learn and improve new movements
B. Controlling aim and duration of eye movements
C. Reflexes
D. Short-term memory

A. The ability to learn and improve new movements

22

One effect of an abnormal form of the protein huntingtin on neurons is to:
A. increase dopamine release.
B. damage the nucleus.
C. block acetylcholine receptors.
D. prevent the release of BDNF.

D. Prevent the release of BDNF.

23

As an option for treating Parkinson's patients, transplantation of stem cells appears to be:
A. the most effective technique.
B. more effective in late stages of the disease.
C. modestly effective, as with other treatments.
D. not at all effective.

C. Modestly effective, as with other treatments.

24

The psychological disorders that accompany Huntington's disease could be mistaken for which of the following?
A. Schizophrenia
B. Dissociative identity disorder
C. Antisocial personality disorder
D. Bipolar disorder

A. Schizophrenia

25

Which of the following is TRUE of Huntington's disease?
A. There is a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra.
B. The symptoms can be effectively treated.
C. The earlier the onset, the more rapid the deterioration.
D. It is caused by environmental toxins.

C. The earlier the onset, the more rapid the deterioration.

26

Parkinson's disease is caused by degeneration of a pathway of neurons that releases which neurotransmitter?
A. Acetylcholine
B. Substance P
C. Serotonin
D. Dopamine

D. Dopamine

27

What characteristic of L-dopa makes it an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease?
A. L-dopa has a negative ionic charge.
B. L-dopa dissolves readily in water but poorly in fats.
C. L-dopa binds tightly to both glutamate and GABA synapses.
D. L-dopa can cross the blood-brain barrier.

D. L-dopa can cross the blood-brain barrier.

28

Which of the following is NOT true of Huntington's disease?
A. It is controlled by a gene on chromosome 4.
B. It is possible to predict with nearly 100% accuracy who will get the disease.
C. It is generally treated with L-dopa.
D. The average age of onset is around 40 years.

C. It is generally treated with L-dopa.

29

One thing that many different causes of Parkinson's disease share in common is that they:
A. are all curable.
B. cause damage to the mitochondria.
C. increase dopamine release.
D. occur more often in women than men.

B. Cause damage to the mitochondria

30

Which of the following is NOT common in people with Parkinson's disease?
A. Difficulty initiating voluntary movements
B. Slowness of movements
C. Rigidity and tremors
D. Outbursts of emotion

D. Outbursts of emotion