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Flashcards in 7.3 Deck (65):
1

Studies indicate that pheromones may play a role in humans':
A. ability to detect odors
B. memories
C. sexual behaviors
D. dietary choices.

C. sexual behaviors

2

Olfactory receptor sites are located:
A. in the brain
B. on cilia
C. in the olfactory bulb
D. on the basilar membrane.






B. on cilia

3

If you are a supertaster, then:
A. you require high concentrations of a particular taste to be able to identify it
B. you have more fungiform papillae in the center of your tongue
C. you are more sensitive than the average person to nearly all tastes
D. your ability to taste makes up for your lack of ability to identify odors by smell.

C. you are more sensitive than the average person to nearly all tastes.

4

Reduced response to one taste after exposure to another is referred to as:
A. adaptation
B. cross-adaptation
C. umami
D. PTC.

B. cross-adaptation

5

A person who "sees" spoken language or music may be experiencing:
A. synesthesia
B. amnesia
C. anesthesia
D. aphasia

A. synthesthesia

6

Exposure to an extremely salty substance decreases sensitivity to other salty substances. What is this phenomenon called?
A. adaptation
B. olfaction
C. umami
D. analgesia

A. adaptation

7

The receptors for taste are like skin cells in that they:
A. are continuously being replaced
B. are covered with a myelin sheath
C. are also sensitive to touch
D. do not release neurotransmitters.

A. are continuously being replaced

8

Repeated exposure to male pheromones may be associated with ____ in young women who are not sexually active.
A. more regular menstrual cycles
B. sweating
C. increased olfactory capabilities
D. increased appetite


A. more regular menstrual cycles

9

One reason why we have difficulty tasting low concentrations of a bitter chemical is that:
A. we have dozens of different types of bitter receptors
B. bitter receptors are located only on the back of the tongue
C. bitter receptors have axons with very slow conduction velocities
D. each bitter receptor responds to a wide variety of chemicals.


A. we have dozens of different types of bitter receptors

10

After soaking your tongue in a sour solution you try tasting salty, sweet, and bitter substances. How are these tastes affected?
A. You will be unable to detect the sweet taste, but the other two will be unaffected
B. You will be unable to detect the sweet or salty tastes, but bitter will be unaffected
C. You will be unable to reliably detect any of the other tastes.
D. There will be little or no effect on these three tastes.

D. There will be little or no effect on these three tastes.

11

Chemicals that prevent sodium from crossing the membrane:
A. intensify the salty taste
B. do not affect taste
C. reduce the intensity of salty tastes
D. cause an increase in sensitivity to other primary tastes.

C. reduce the intensity of salty tastes

12

Olfactory receptors carry their message to the:
A. cochlea
B. NTS
C. insular cortex
D. olfactory bulb.

D. olfactory bulb.

13

How many kinds of olfactory receptors do we have?

1 pts

two or three

seven

twenty

*hundreds

D. hundreds

14

In mammals, each olfactory cell has threadlike dendrites that:

1 pts

*extend from the cell body into the mucous surface of the nasal passage

extend from the cell body directly into the brain

extend from the mucous surface of the nasal passage to the base of the skull

intermingle with one another to form a web-like structure.

A. extends from the cell body into the mucous surace of the nasal passage

15

Taste and smell axons converge onto many of the same cells in an area called the:

1 pts

frontal cortex

striate cortex

insular cortex

*endopiriform cortex.

D. endopiriform cortex

16

We can identify a wide variety of bitter substances because:

1 pts

*we have many different bitter receptors

we have only one bitter receptor that responds to all bitter substances

we can combine the activity of the sour and salty receptors

even Pacinian corpuscles respond to bitter substances.

A. we have many different bitter receptors

17

The taste nerves initially project to the:

1 pts

*nucleus of the tractus solitarius

cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

orbital prefrontal cortex.

A. nucleus of the tractus solitarius.

18

What is unusual about olfactory receptors compared to most other mature mammalian neurons?

1 pts

They have more than one axon each.

They have no axons

*They are replaceable when old neurons die.

They use more than one neurotransmitter.


C. They are replaceable when old neurons die.

19

Many women living in a college dormitory will gradually begin to synchronize their menstrual cycles. The research indicates that this is, at least in part, based on:

1 pts

sound

sight

*pheromones

similar activity schedules.

C. pheromones

20

After soaking their tongues in a sour solution, what do most people experience?

1 pts

*Other sour substances taste less sour

Other sour substances taste more sour

Other sour substances taste sweet as well as sour

All substances are perceived as relatively tasteless.

A. Other sour substances taste less sour

21

One major difference between olfaction and VNO receptors is that:

1 pts

there are many more VNO receptors

VNO receptors are continuously growing

*VNO receptors do not adapt

olfactory receptors are sensitive to pheromones.

C. VNO receptors do not adapt

22

Taste perception in the brain depends on:

1 pts

*relative activity of different taste neurons

absolute frequency of action potentials

only taste receptors on the anterior part of the tongue

the angular gyrus.

A. relative activity of different taste neurons

23

Analogous to lateral inhibition, when olfactory receptors are stimulated, they:

1 pts

*inhibit the activity of other receptors.

quickly die

inhibit cell reproduction

inhibit nausea.

A. inhibit the activity of other receptors

24

Olfaction also plays a subtle role in:

1 pts

sleeping

*social behavior

touch sensation

vestibular sensation.

B. social behavior

25

Each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of each of them. This type of coding is referred to as:

1 pts

*across-fiber

labeled-line

hierarchical

reciprocal-excitatory.


A. across-fiber

26

Each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and sends a direct line to the brain. This type of coding is referred to as :

1 pts

across-fiber

*labeled-line

vestibular

hierarchical.

B. labeled-line

27

Pheromones are important for the ____ behaviors of many mammalian species.

1 pts

food-getting

*sexual

temperature-regulating

conscious and intentional

B. sexual

28

The primary taste cortex is known as the:

1 pts

flavor cortex

olfactory cortex

*insular cortex

occipital cortex.

C. insular cortex

29

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a set of receptors located:

1 pts

in the inner ear

*near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors

in the throat

in the cerebral ventricles.

B. near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors

30

What are found in papillae?

1 pts

olfactory receptors

clusters of neurons

hair cells

*taste buds

D. taste buds

31

Given a very faint odor of air freshener, who is most likely to detect it?

1 pts

male

post-menopausal female

*cycling female

pre-pubertal female

C. cycling female

32

Information carried to the brain along the chorda tympani comes from the:

1 pts

posterior one-third of the tongue

posterior two-third of the tongue

center of the tongue.

*anterior two-thirds of the tongue.


D. anterior two-thirds of the tongue

33

Pheromone receptors in humans are located in the:

1 pts

tongue

VNO

*olfactory mucosa

cochlea.

C. ofactory mucosa

34

How is olfactory information coded in receptor cells?

1 pts

Each odor produces a different ratio of firing across three types of olfactory cells

Each odor produces a different ratio of firing across six types of olfactory cells

*There are hundreds of types of receptor molecules, each responsive to a different chemical

Chemicals in the air are transported to the olfactory cortex.

C. There are hundreds of types of receptor molecules, each responsive to a different chemical

35

What do toothpaste, miracle berries, and Gymnema sylvestre have in common?

1 pts

They are extremely expensive

*They modify taste perception

They contain illegal drugs.

They activate substance P receptors.

B. They modify taste perception

36

Sweetness, bitterness and umami receptors operate by:

1 pts

closing potassium channels

depolarizing the membranes

*activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger

simply permitting sodium ions to cross their membranes.

C. activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger

37

Most theorists believe that the first sensory system was:

1 pts

vision.

vestibular.

pain.

*chemical.


D. chemical.

38

The receptors for taste are not true neurons, but are actually modified skin cells. In what way are these cells like neurons?

1 pts

Once taste receptors die, they are never replaced

*They release neurotransmitters

They have axons

They are covered with a myelin sheath.

B. They release neurotransmitters

39

In adult humans, the taste buds are:
A. evenly distributed across the front half of the tongue
B. evenly distributed across the whole tongue
C. concentrated near the center of the tongue
D. concentrated along the outside edge of the tongue.

D. concentrated along the outside edge of the tongue.

40

How many kinds of olfactory receptors do we have?
A. two or three
B. seven
C. twenty
D. hundreds

D. hundreds

41

In mammals, each olfactory cell has threadlike dendrites that:
A. extend from the cell body into the mucous surface of the nasal passage
B. extend from the cell body directly into the brain
C. extend from the mucous surface of the nasal passage to the base of the skull
D. intermingle with one another to form a web-like structure.

A. extends from the cell body into the mucous surace of the nasal passage

42

Taste and smell axons converge onto many of the same cells in an area called the:
A. frontal cortex
B. striate cortex
C. insular cortex
D. endopiriform cortex.

D. endopiriform cortex

43

We can identify a wide variety of bitter substances because:
A. we have many different bitter receptors
B. we have only one bitter receptor that responds to all bitter substances
C. we can combine the activity of the sour and salty receptors
D. even Pacinian corpuscles respond to bitter substances.

A. we have many different bitter receptors

44

The taste nerves initially project to the:
A. nucleus of the tractus solitarius
B. cerebral cortex
C. hypothalamus
D. orbital prefrontal cortex.

A. nucleus of the tractus solitarius.

45

What is unusual about olfactory receptors compared to most other mature mammalian neurons?
A. They have more than one axon each.
B. They have no axons
C. They are replaceable when old neurons die.
D. They use more than one neurotransmitter.


C. They are replaceable when old neurons die.

46

Many women living in a college dormitory will gradually begin to synchronize their menstrual cycles. The research indicates that this is, at least in part, based on:
A. sound
B. sight
C. pheromones
D. similar activity schedules.

C. pheromones

47

After soaking their tongues in a sour solution, what do most people experience?
A. Other sour substances taste less sour
B. Other sour substances taste more sour
C. Other sour substances taste sweet as well as sour
D. All substances are perceived as relatively tasteless.

A. Other sour substances taste less sour

48

One major difference between olfaction and VNO receptors is that:
A. there are many more VNO receptors
B. VNO receptors are continuously growing
C. VNO receptors do not adapt
D. olfactory receptors are sensitive to pheromones.

C. VNO receptors do not adapt

49

Taste perception in the brain depends on:
A. relative activity of different taste neurons
B. absolute frequency of action potentials
C. only taste receptors on the anterior part of the tongue
D. the angular gyrus.

A. relative activity of different taste neurons

50

Analogous to lateral inhibition, when olfactory receptors are stimulated, they:
A. inhibit the activity of other receptors.
B. quickly die
C. inhibit cell reproduction
D. inhibit nausea.

A. inhibit the activity of other receptors

51

Olfaction also plays a subtle role in:
A. sleeping
B. social behavior
C. touch sensation
D. vestibular sensation.

B. social behavior

52

Each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of each of them. This type of coding is referred to as:
A. across-fiber
B. labeled-line
C. hierarchical
D. reciprocal-excitatory.


A. across-fiber

53

Each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and sends a direct line to the brain. This type of coding is referred to as :
A. across-fiber
B. labeled-line
C. vestibular
D. hierarchical.

B. labeled-line

54

Pheromones are important for the ____ behaviors of many mammalian species.
A. food-getting
B. sexual
C. temperature-regulating
D. conscious and intentional

B. sexual

55

The primary taste cortex is known as the:
A. flavor cortex
B. olfactory cortex
C. insular cortex
D. occipital cortex.

C. insular cortex

56

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a set of receptors located:
A. in the inner ear
B.near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors
C. in the throat
D. in the cerebral ventricles.

B. near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors

57

What are found in papillae?
A. olfactory receptors
B. clusters of neurons
C. hair cells
D. taste buds

D. taste buds

58

Given a very faint odor of air freshener, who is most likely to detect it?
A. male
B. post-menopausal female
C. cycling female
D. pre-pubertal female

C. cycling female

59

Information carried to the brain along the chorda tympani comes from the:
A. posterior one-third of the tongue
B. posterior two-third of the tongue
C. center of the tongue.
D. anterior two-thirds of the tongue.


D. anterior two-thirds of the tongue

60

Pheromone receptors in humans are located in the:
A. tongue
B. VNO
C. olfactory mucosa
D. cochlea.

C. ofactory mucosa

61

How is olfactory information coded in receptor cells?
A. Each odor produces a different ratio of firing across three types of olfactory cells
B. Each odor produces a different ratio of firing across six types of olfactory cells
C. There are hundreds of types of receptor molecules, each responsive to a different chemical
D. Chemicals in the air are transported to the olfactory cortex.

C. There are hundreds of types of receptor molecules, each responsive to a different chemical

62

What do toothpaste, miracle berries, and Gymnema sylvestre have in common?
A. They are extremely expensive
B. They modify taste perception
C. They contain illegal drugs.
D. They activate substance P receptors.

B. They modify taste perception

63

Sweetness, bitterness and umami receptors operate by:
A. closing potassium channels
B. depolarizing the membranes
C. activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger
D. simply permitting sodium ions to cross their membranes.

C. activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger

64

Most theorists believe that the first sensory system was:
A. vision.
B. vestibular.
C. pain.
D. chemical.


D. chemical.

65

The receptors for taste are not true neurons, but are actually modified skin cells. In what way are these cells like neurons?
A. Once taste receptors die, they are never replaced
B. They release neurotransmitters
C. They have axons
D. They are covered with a myelin sheath.

B. They release neurotransmitters