9.2 Flashcards Preview

Physio Psych > 9.2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.2 Deck (49):
1

The relationship between sleep stage and dreaming is that dreams:
A. occur only in REM sleep.
B. occur only in NREM sleep.
C. are more frequent and more vivid in REM sleep.
D. are more frequent and more vivid in NREM sleep.

C. are more frequent and more vivid in REM sleep.

2

A person who is taking an antidepressant that increases serotonin or norepinephrine levels in the brain is most likely to have:
A. interrupted or shortened REM sleep.
B. prolonged wakefulness.
C. prolonged NREM sleep.
D. enhanced dreaming.

A. interrupted or shortened REM sleep.

3

The EEG record for REM sleep is most similar to which other sleep stage?
A. stage 1
B. stage 2
C. stage 3
D. stage 4

A. stage 1

4

What is synonymous with paradoxical sleep?
A. alpha waves
B. stages 1 and 2
C. stages 3 and 4
D. REM sleep

D. REM sleep

5

Which of the following is NOT true about sleepwalking?
A. It occurs mostly in children.
B. It is dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker.
C. It runs in families.
D. It occurs most often during stages 3 and 4.

B. it is dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker

6

Nightmares are to ____ as night terrors are to ____.
A. children; adults
B. REM; NREM
C. narcolepsy; cataplexy
D. dopamine; serotonin

B. REM; NREM

7

What is the best way to objectively determine if someone is asleep?
A. Monitor breathing rates.
B. Measure muscle tension.
C. Monitor brain waves.
D. Use self-report measures.

C. Monitor brain waves.

8

For a normal person, which part of a night's sleep contains the largest percentage of stage 4 sleep?
A. early in the night
B. the middle of the night
C. toward the end of the night
D. all parts equally

A. early in the night

9

What does cataplexy involve?
A. Dreamlike experiences that the person has trouble distinguishing from reality
B. An attack of muscle weakness while awake
C. A lack of inhibition of movement during REM sleep
D. Repeated involuntary movement of the legs or arms during sleep

B. an attack of muscle weakness while awake

10

Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most characteristic of which sleep stage?
A. stage 1
B. stage 2
C. stage 3
D. stage 4

B. stage 2

11

PGO waves are associated with which of the following?
A. NREM sleep
B. REM sleep
C. relaxation during wakefulness
D. being awakened from REM sleep

B. REM sleep

12

Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
C. increased probability of dreaming
B. facial twitches
C. EEG pattern resembling wakefulness
D. tense and active postural muscles

D. tense and active postural muscles

13

Repeated involuntary movements of the arms and legs that may prevent a person from falling asleep are known as:
A. REM behavior disorder.
B. night terrors.
C. periodic limb movement disorder.
D. restless legs syndrome.

C. periodic limb movement disorder

14

A couple of paths from the hypothalamus release histamine, thereby:
A. increasing arousal.
B. initiating sleep.
C. shifting sleep from REM to NREM.
D. slowing the circadian rhythm.

A. increasing arousal

15

Orexin, produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, appears to be necessary for:
A. getting to sleep.
B. waking up.
C. raising body temperature.
D. staying awake.

D. staying awake.

16

A couple of paths from the hypothalamus release histamine, thereby:
A. increasing arousal.
B. initiating sleep.
C. shifting sleep from REM to NREM.
D. slowing the circadian rhythm.

A. increasing arousal.

17

In response to meaningful events, the locus coeruleus releases:
A. norepinephrine.
B. acetylcholine.
C. dopamine.
D. serotonin.

A. norepinephrine

18

Which of the following has often been interpreted as an intrusion of REM sleep into wakefulness?
A. Narcolepsy
B. Sleep apnea
C. REM behavior disorder
D. Somnambulism

A. Narcolepsy

19

People with REM behavior disorder:
A. show intrusions of REM sleep into wakefulness.
B. show bizarre behaviors while awake due to REM deprivation at night.
C. enter REM sleep at unusual and unpredictable times.
D. move vigorously during REM, apparently acting out their dreams.

D. move vigorously during REM, apparently acting out their dreams.

20

EEG waves are larger when brain activity decreases because:
A. the EEG measures muscle tension, which also decreases.
B. neurons are becoming more synchronized.
C. neurons are becoming more desynchronized.
D. blood flow is increasing.

B. neurons are becoming more synchronized.

21

Similar to the effects of sleep apnea, rats that are repeatedly oxygen-deprived lose neurons throughout the cortex and hippocampus, causing impairments in:
A. learning and memory.
B. dreaming.
C. respiratory reflexes.
D. appetite.

A. learning and memory

22

What does an electroencephalograph measure?
A. action potentials in an individual neuron
B. the electrical resistance of the scalp
C. the rate of glucose uptake in active regions of the brain
D. the average of the electrical potentials of the cells in a given region of the brain

D. the averae of the electrical potentials of the cells in a given region of the brain

23

One explanation for narcolepsy in humans is:
A. a loss of orexin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus.
B. a genetic loss of basal forebrain neurons.
C. swollen tonsils.
D. damage to the locus coeruleus.

A. a loss of orexin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus.

24

The ____ is a structure that extends from the medulla into the forebrain.
A. reticular formation
B. tectum
C. tegmentum
D. thalamus

A. reticular formation

25

Which of these is characteristic of sleep apnea?
A. involuntary movements of the arms and legs during sleep.
B. periods without breathing during sleeping.
C. tendency to fall asleep suddenly during the day.
D. sleep walking and sleep terrors.

B. periods without breathing during sleeping.

26

With regard to sleep and arousal, the locus coeruleus is:
A. very active during sleep.
B. active when the pontomesencephalon is not.
C. almost completely inactive during sleep.
D. instrumental in waking us up.

C. almost completely inactive during sleep.

27

Which of the following physical conditions is related to apnea?
A. Puberty
B. Being female
C. Being obese
D. Having asthma

C. being obese

28

The role of the reticular formation in arousal is that it is:
A. the single, critical system in arousing the cortex.
B. only one of several systems involved in arousal.
C. activated only by external stimuli.
D. activated only by internal stimuli.

B. only one of several systems involved in arousal.

29

An polysomnograph displays:
A. action potentials of individual neurons.
B. a combination of EEG and eye-movement records.
C. the rate of glucose uptake in active regions of the brain.
D. the electrical resistance of the scalp.

B. A combination of EEG and eye-movement records.

30

After entering stage 4 for the first time each evening, the sleeper typically:
A. returns immediately to stage 1.
B. enters REM.
C. cycles back through stages 3 and 2.
D. wakes up.

C. cycles back through stages 3 and 2

31

Night terrors are most common in ____ during ____.
A. adults; NREM sleep
B. adults; REM sleep
C. children; NREM sleep
D. children; REM sleep

C. children, NREM sleep

32

Some drugs used to treat allergies may produce drowsiness if they:
A. block histamine.
B. stimulate acetylcholine.
C. decrease adenosine.
D. block GABA.

A. block histamine.

33

What is the result of electrical stimulation to the reticular formation?
A. Sudden onset of sleep
B. Increased alertness
C. Coma
D. Hallucinations

B. Increased alertness

34

Slow-wave sleep is comprised of:
A. alpha wave sleep.
B. stages 1 and 2.
C. stages 3 and 4.
D. REM sleep.

C. stages 3 and 4

35

In comparison to NREM dreams, REM dreams:
A. are less likely to include striking visual imagery.
B. are more likely to include complicated plots.
C. do not contain violence.
D. are almost always less than five minutes.

B. are more likely to include complicated plots

36

What is one of the contradictions in "paradoxical" sleep?
A. The frequency of the brain waves is low, while the amplitude is high.
B. The brain is very active, while many of the muscles are deeply relaxed.
C. Subcortical structures are very active, while the cerebral cortex is inactive.
D. Postural muscles are tense, while heart rate and breathing rate are very low.

B. The brain is very active, while many of the muscles are deeply relaxed.

37

What is a defining criterion for insomnia?
A. a person who consistently feels sleepy during the day
B. consistently less than 6 hours of sleep per night
C. at least 50% less REM sleep than normal
D. more time spent in NREM sleep than in REM sleep

A. a person who consistently feels sleepy during the day

38

PGO (waves) is an abbreviation for which of the following?
A. paradoxical gradual onset
B. psycho-galvanic oscillation
C. pons geniculate occipital
D. psychasthenia glyceric onomatopoeia

C. Pons geniculate occipital

39

Which of the following structures is NOT a brain structure of arousal and attention?
A. suprachiasmatic nucleus
B. reticular formation
C. locus coeruleus
D. raphe nuclei

A. suprachiasmatic nucleus

40

With each succeeding stage of sleep (from 1 to 4):
A. breathing and heart rates increase.
B. brain activity increases.
C. slow, large-amplitude waves increase in number.
D. brain waves become smaller.

C. slow, large-amplitude waves increase in number.

41

After a period of sleep deprivation, PGO waves begin to:
A. occur during sleep stages 2-4 and wakefulness.
B. decrease in intensity.
C. reverse their sequence of brain activity.
D. cause sleep paralysis during waking.

C. reverse their sequence of brain activity.

42

What is narcolepsy?
A. Sleepwalking
B. The inability to breathe while sleeping
C. Involuntary movements of the limbs while sleeping
D. Sudden periods of sleepiness during the day

D. sudden periods of sleepiness during the day

43

For a normal person, about how long does a cycle of sleep (from stage 1 to stage 4 and back again) last?
A. 10 minutes
B. 90 minutes
C. 4 hours
D. 7 hours

B. 90 minutes

44

During sleep, what happens in the brain?
A. cessation of spontaneous activity in neurons
B. increased firing by dopamine neurons
C. decreased firing by dopamine neurons
D. increased firing by GABA neurons

D. increasing firing by GABA neurons

45

Cells in the basal forebrain increase arousal and wakefulness by releasing:
A. norepinephrine.
B. acetylcholine.
C. dopamine.
D. serotonin.

B. acetylcholine

46

Compared to the earlier part, the later part of a night's sleep:
A. includes a larger percentage of REM sleep.
B. includes a lower percentage of REM sleep.
C. is characterized by declining body temperature.
D. has more slow wave sleep.

A. includes a larger percentage of REM sleep.

47

Drugs that are used to control narcolepsy also tend to produce what other effects?
A. uncontrollable hand tremors and facial tics
B. increased wakefulness
C. reduction of sympathetic arousal
D. relief from the symptoms of schizophrenia

B. increased wakefulness

48

What is activated by the reticular formation?
A. the spinal cord
B. only those portions of the cerebral cortex involved in processing sensory information
C. only subcortical structures in the brain stem and midbrain
D. wide regions of the entire cerebral cortex

D. wide regions of the entire cerebral cortex

49

What are the dreamlike experiences at the onset of sleep that are difficult to distinguish from reality?
A. Hypnagogic hallucinations
B. Idiopathic hallucinations
C. Occipital illusions
D. Pseudo-psychedelic visions

A. Hypnagogic hallucinations