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Flashcards in 11.2 Deck (35):
1

1. Which of the following tends to be more important for women than men in choosing a mate?
a. Health.
b. Earning potential.
c. Physical attractiveness.
d. Intelligence.

b. earing potential

2

2. Which of the following mate-selection preferences is stronger for men than for women?
a. Acceptable order.
b. Likelihood of being a good provider.
c. Youthfulness
d. Intelligence.

c. youthfulness

3

3. In hypothetical situations, women are more upset than men by _____ infidelity.
1 pts
a. genetic
b. cultural
c. emotional
d. sexual

c. emotional

4

In real life situations, men are upset _____ women by emotional infidelity.
1 pts
a. more than
b. less than
c. about the same

c. about the same

5

5. Gender identity can be defined as:
1 pts
a. the pattern of sex chromosomes one has.
b. the sex one identifies with and calls oneself.
c. sexual awareness present in almost all mammalian species.
d. the set of activities presumed to be common for one sex or another in a society.

b. the sex on identifies with and calls oneself.

6

6. Sex differences are to _____ as gender differences are to _____.
1 pts
a. anatomy; behaviors
b. adults; children
c. excitation; inhibition
d. scientists; the public

a. anatomy; behaviors

7

7. Some XX females have either an ovary and a testis, or two testes, or a mixture of testis and ovary tissue on each side as a result of:
1 pts
a. a translocated SRY gene.
b. low body temperature during prenatal development.
c. too much testosterone.
d. too much estrogen.

a. a translocated SRY gene

8

8. Some XY males have poorly developed genitals as a result of:
1 pts
a. a mutation in the SRY gene.
b. low body temperature during prenatal development.
c. too much testosterone.
d. too much estrogen.

a. a mutation in the SRY gene

9

9. Some genetic males (XY) develop a female anatomy. Why?
1 pts
a. High levels of estrogens during prenatal development.
b. Lack of a receptor that enables testosterone to affect cells.
c. Low levels of alpha feto-protein in early development.
d. High levels of alpha feto-protein in early development.

b. lack of receptor that enables testosterone to affect cells.

10

What happens to a female human fetus exposed to excess testosterone during the sensitive period for genital development?
1 pts
a. She is unaffected, since she has no receptors for testosterone.
b. She will often develop without any sexual organs.
c. She will often develop genitals that have an intermediate appearance.
d. She will often develop a complete, functioning set of male reproductive organs.

c. she will often develop genitals that have an intermediate appearance.

11

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) would most likely have the greatest effect on the sexual appearance of:
1 pts
a. young males.
b. adult males.
c. adult females.
d. newborn females.

d. newborn females

12

12. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) occurs because the adrenal gland releases:
1 pts
a. too much cortisol.
b. too much cortisol.
c. too little estrogen.
d. too much insulin.

b. too much cortisol

13

People whose sexual development is intermediate or ambiguous are called:
1 pts
a. intersexes.
b. hermaphrodites.
c. hyperplasias.
d. hermasexes.

b. hermaphrodites

14

14. Which of the following would probably develop as an intersex?
1 pts
a. A genetic female exposed to more testosterone than normal during early development.
b. A genetic male exposed to more estradiol than normal during early development.
c. A genetic female deprived of her normal amount of estradiol during early development.
d. A genetic male exposed to a larger than normal amount of testosterone during early development.

a. A genetic femal exposed to more testosterone than normal during early development.

15

15. A "true hermaphrodite" is someone who:
1 pts
a. has both XX and XY chromosome patterns.
b. has one testis and one ovary.
c. is female, but has sexual interest only in other females.
d. dresses up as the opposite gender.

b. has one testis and one ovary.

16

16. In comparison to other girls, girls who are exposed to higher than normal androgen levels during prenatal development tend to:
1 pts
a. spend more time with boys' toys.
b. develop sex urges at an earlier age.
c. be more verbal.
d. develop lower than normal intelligence.

a. spend more time with boys' toys.

17

17. Which of the following would cause a genetic male to develop a mostly feminine anatomy.
1 pts
a. Exposure to more than the usual amount of estrogen during an early sensitive period.
b. Exposure to more than usual amount of testosterone during an early sensitive period.
c. A condition that prevents androgens from exerting their effects.
d. Excessive levels of alpha-fetoprotein in his blood.

c. A condition that prevents androgens from exerting their effects.

18

18. Someone with androgen insensitivity is genetically:
1 pts
a. female, but looks intermediate between male and female.
b. female, but fails to show any change at puberty.
c. male, looks like a normal male, but behaves more like a female.
d. male, but develops looking more like a female.

d. male, but develop looking more like a female.

19

19. Someone with testicular feminization:
1 pts
a. does not produce enough testosterone.
b. produces too much estrogen.
c. has cells which are insensitive to androgens.
d. looks like a male but is infertile.

c. has cells which are insensitive to androgens.

20

20. In the Dominican Republic, certain genetic males who were regarded in early childhood as girls have developed into boys at puberty. What happened to their gender identity?
1 pts
a. Most adopted a clear male gender identity.
b. Most retained a clear female gender identity.
c. About half developed a clear male identity, the other half retained a clear female gender identity.
d. Most developed a confused gender identity.

a. Most adopted a clear male gender identity.

21

21. Certain genetic males in the Dominican Republic were born with low levels of the enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. This resulted in:
1 pts
a. breast development.
b. lack of pubic hair.
c. minimal penis growth early in life.
d. extreme shortness until the age of 30 or so.

c. minimal penis growth early in life.

22

22. What conclusion can be drawn from the unusual gender identity cases from the Dominican Republic?
1 pts
a. The environment has no affect on gender identity.
b. If given the necessary hormones at puberty, a girl can become a boy.
c. Early child-rearing experiences are not the sole determinant of gender identity.
d. Chromosomes are the determining factor in gender identity.

c. Early child-rearing experieces are not the sole determinant of gender identity.

23

33. Data gathered by studies such as the LeVay study suggest that:
1 pts
a. the hypothalamus determines sexual orientation.
b. the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines sexual orientation.
c. on average, differences in the hypothalamus can be found between individuals of different sexual orientations.
d. there is only a small probability that the brain has anything to do with sexual orientation.

c. on average, differences in the hypothalamus can be found between individuals of diferent sexual orientations.

24

32. A more recent study on differences in the INAH3 suggests that compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men have:
1 pts
a. a larger INAH3.
b. smaller INAH3 neurons, but a comparable number.
c. fewer INAH3 neurons, but they are larger in size.
d. a comparable number and size of INAH3 neurons.

b. smaller INAH3 neurons, but a coparable number.

25

26. When examining the data on sexual orientation of twins and other siblings, what seems to be the most reasonable conclusion?
1 pts
a. Genetic factors completely determine sexual orientation.
b. Genetic factors play no role in sexual orientation.
c. Sexual orientation is determined by genetics as well as other factors.
d. Genetic factors determine sexual orientation in men, but do not seem to play a role for women.

c. Sexual orientation is determined by genetics as well as other factors.

26

27. Sexual orientation has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT:
1 pts
a. prenatal stress.
b. mother's immune system.
c. genetics.
d. adult hormone levels.

d. adult hormone levels.

27

Most homosexual men, as compared to heterosexual men, have:
1 pts
a. lower levels of testosterone.
b. testosterone levels within the same range.
c. higher levels of testosterone.
d. higher levels of estrogen.

b. testosterone levels within the same range.

28

Some studies have linked male homosexuality to having a greater number of:
1 pts
a. older sisters.
b. younger sisters.
c. older brothers.
d. younger brothers.

c. older brothers.

29

30. What measurable differences are apparently related to homosexual versus heterosexual orientation in adult men?
1 pts
a. Their testosterone levels.
b. Their estrogen levels.
c. The size of certain parts of their hypothalamus.
d. The pattern of dendritic branching in their cerebral cortex.

c. the size of certain parts of their hypothalamus.

30

31. The interstitial nucleus 3 of the anterior hypothalamus is known to be more than:
1 pts
a. twice as large in heterosexual women as in men.
b. three times as large in heterosexual women as in men.
c. twice as large in heterosexual men as in women.
d. twice as large in homosexual men as in heterosexual men.

c. twice as large in heterosexual men as in women.

31

23. The result of the sex reassignment in the case of the infant whose penis was accidentally removed was that:
a. he developed a normal female gender identity.
b. he developed a neutral gender identity with no sexual interest.
c. he only experienced difficulties during adulthood.
d. he decided to adopt a male gender identity during adolescence.

d. he decided to adopt a male gender identity during adolescece.

32

24. On the average, homosexual and heterosexual people:
a. do not differ anatomically.
b. differ anatomically in many subtle ways.
c. differ anatomically in many drastic ways.
d. differ very little anatomically.

b. differ anatomically in many subtle ways.

33

25. The frequency of homosexuality in men is highest if:
a. a sister is homosexual.
b. an adopted brother is homosexual.
c. a dizygotic twin brother is homosexual.
d. a monozygotic twin brother is homosexual.

d. a monozygotic twin brother is homosexual.

34

26. When examining the data on sexual orientation of twins and other siblings, what seems to be the most reasonable conclusion?
a. Genetic factors completely determine sexual orientation.
b. Genetic factors play no role in sexual orientation.
c. Sexual orientation is determined by genetics as well as other factors.
d. Genetic factors determine sexual orientation in men, but do not seem to play a role for women.

c. Sexual orientation is determined by genetics as well as other factors.

35

27. Sexual orientation has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT:
a. prenatal stress.
b. mother's immune system.
c. genetics.
d. adult hormone levels.

d. adult hormone levels.