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Flashcards in 7.1 Deck (50):
1

Nerve deafness often produces:

hearing loss in the opposite ear.

tinnitus.

inability to hear loud sounds.

infections.

tinnitus

2

According to the frequency theory, the:

tectorial membrane vibrates in synchrony with the auditory nerve.

auditory nerve is responsible for perception of sound but not loudness.

basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound, producing action potentials at the same frequency.

basilar membrane is tuned to a specific frequency and vibrates whenever that frequency is present.

basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound, producing action potentials at the same frequency.

3

What is the name of the receptor cells of the auditory system?

rods and cones

sound bulbs

hair cells

basilar membranes

Hair cells

4

To what lobe of the cerebral cortex is auditory information sent?

occipital

temporal

parietal

frontal

temporal

5

Suppose the highest pitch you can hear is about 20,000 Hz. Under what circumstances will that limit change?

It drops naturally as you grow older.

It drops if you go several months without listening to any high pitches.

It drops only as a result of injury or disease.

It increases with musical training.

It drops naturally as you grow older.

6

The highest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells:

farther along the membrane.

near the base of the membrane.

in the middle of the membrane.

along the entire length of the membrane.

near the base of the membrane.

7

"Every sound causes one location along the basilar membrane to resonate, and thereby excites neurons in that area." This is one way to state which theory about pitch perception?

volley principle

frequency theory

place theory

opponent-process theory

place theory

8

People with conductive deafness:

often have an abnormal cochlea.

often have an abnormal auditory nerve.

often suffer damage to the hair cells.

can benefit from surgery or hearing aids.

can benefit from surgery or hearing aids.

9

If the cochlea suffers damage but it is confined to one part of the cochlea, that individual will lose:

all hearing.

hearing of certain frequencies of sound.

hearing of certain rhythms of sound.

hearing of certain loudness of sound.

hearing of certain frequencies of sound.

10

The fact that the various parts of the basilar membrane are tightly bound together is problematic for which of the following?

the frequency theory

the place theory

the volley theory

both the frequency theory and the place theory

the place theory

11

In the auditory system, hair cells are specialized receptors that respond to:

mechanical displacement.

electromagnetic energy.

chemicals.

vestibular input.

mechanical displacement.

12

The ____ of a sound is the number of compressions per second.

pitch

frequency

amplitude

loudness

frequency

13

Visual imagery is to ____ as auditory imagery is to ____.

A1; A1

V1; V1

area MT; A1

V1; A1

V1; A1

14

Where are the auditory receptor cells located?

in the semicircular canal

on the tympanic membrane

on the basilar membrane

in the malleus

on the basilar membrane

15

A tonotopic map refers to:

an auditory cortex map of sounds.

a diagram of which kinds of sounds are most common in different parts of the world.

a diagram comparing the different tones to which different species are sensitive.

a map showing connections between the auditory cortex and the visual cortex.

an auditory cortex map of sounds.

16

The eardrum is also known as the:

pinna.

ossicle.

tympanic membrane.

cochlea

tympanic membrane.

17

What is the intensity of a sound wave called?

frequency

loudness

amplitude

tone

amplitude

18

The tympanic membrane connects to three tiny bones that transmit the vibrations to the:

cochlea.

pinna.

oval window.

hair cells.

oval window.

19

Which of the following are presented in the correct order when describing some of the structures that sound waves travel through as they pass from the outer ear to the inner ear?

pinna, tympanic membrane, oval window, cochlea

tympanic membrane, pinna, cochlea

pinna, stapes, eardrum

malleus, tympanic membrane, oval window, pinna

pinna, tympanic membrane, oval window, cochlea

20

Loudness is to ____ as pitch is to ____.

frequency; intensity

amplitude; frequency

pitch; tone

amplitude; intensity

amplitude; frequency

21

Within the primary auditory cortex, most cells respond selectively to a particular:

loudness.

rhythm.

frequency.

word.

frequency

22

What is the function of the pinna?

It vibrates in synchrony with high-frequency tones.

It protects the eardrum from overstimulation.

It filters out distracting sounds.

It helps us locate the source of sounds.

It helps us locate the source of sounds.

23

How do sound waves ultimately result in the production of receptor potentials?

The tectorial membrane squeezes the auditory nerve.

The basilar membrane releases neurotransmitters.

Hair cells in the cochlea vibrate, causing ion channels to open in their membrane.

The scala vestibuli has receptors that create action potentials.

Hair cells in the cochlea vibrate, causing ion channels to open in their membrane.

24

The eardrum vibrates at:

a much higher frequency than the sound waves that hit it.

half the frequency of the sound waves that hit it.

the same frequency as the sound waves that hit it.

a constant frequency regardless of the frequency of the sound.

the same frequency as the sound waves that hit it.

25

A person would have the most difficulty locating the sight and sound of an approaching train with damage to the:

area MT.

parietal cortex.

prefrontal cortex.

tympanic membrane.

parietal cortex.

26

At low frequencies, the intensity of the sound is coded by the:

frequency of action potentials.

number of neurons producing action potentials.

oval window.

the relative frequency of action potentials.

number of neurons producing action potentials.

27

Perception of a low tone is to ____ as perception of a high tone is to ____.

volley principle; frequency theory

frequency theory; place theory

place theory; volley principle

gate theory; frequency theory

frequency theory; place theory

28

Conductive deafness is also known as:

nerve deafness.

middle ear deafness.

inner ear deafness.

outer ear deafness.

middle ear deafness.

29

Which statement about tinnitus is FALSE?

Many people with nerve deafness experience tinnitus.

Many people with conductive deafness experience tinnitus.

Tinnitus is common among the elderly.

Tinnitus is a frequent or constant ringing in the ears.

Many people with conductive deafness experience tinnitus.

30

Across species, it appears that the sense organs are most attuned to:

biologically useful stimuli.

low intensity stimuli.

detecting odors of other species.

detection of chemical stimuli.

biologically useful stimuli.

31

Vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea causes?

movement of the pinna.

hair cells to displace.

vibrations of the eardrum.

vestibular input.

hair cells to displace.

32

To what kinds of tones do cells in the primary auditory cortex respond best?

low-pitch tones

high-pitch tones

pure single tones

combinations or patterns of tones

combinations or patterns of tones

33

Damage to V1 produces ____ and damage to A1 produces ____.

blindness; complete deafness

complete deafness; blindness

blindness; deafness to complex sounds

blindness; ringing in the ears

blindness; deafness to complex sounds

34

The ability to hear a note and identify it perfectly is called:

ultimate pitch.

sharp pitch.

tonal pitch.

absolute pitch.

absolute pitch.

35

Which two factors determine whether or not there will be a "sound shadow"?

loudness and ear size

head size and frequency

frequency and cochlea size

suddenness of onset and loudness

head size and frequency

36

Patients with damage in area MT have problems with perception of:

location of sounds.

location of objects.

movement of objects and sounds.

high frequency sounds.

movement of objects and sounds.

37

What kind of deafness is the result of damage to the cochlea or the hair cells?

conductive

nerve

temporary

hysterical

nerve

38

Areas bordering the primary auditory cortex are important for:

detecting loudness of sounds.

analyzing the meaning of sounds.

determining location of sounds.

detecting pitch of sounds.

analyzing the meaning of sounds.

39

What is the major problem for the frequency theory of sound perception?

It cannot account for perception of low pitch sounds.

It cannot account for perception of low amplitude sounds.

It requires the cochlea to vibrate, and it does not.

Neurons cannot respond as quickly as the theory requires.

Neurons cannot respond as quickly as the theory requires.

40

Timing differences can be used most accurately for localizing:

sudden-onset sounds.

gradual-onset sounds.

loud sounds.

bird alarm calls.

sudden-onset sounds.

41

The current view of how we perceive frequencies greater than 1,000 but less than 5,000 Hz is based on:

the frequency of responses by each auditory neuron.

volleys of responses by many auditory neurons.

the area along the basilar membrane where neurons fire most rapidly.

the ratio of firing among three types of receptors.

volleys of responses by many auditory neurons.

42

Where is the basal membrane most sensitive to the vibrations of low-frequency sound waves?

closest to the cochlea

at the apex, farthest from the cochlea

about half-way between the cochlea and the apex

It is equally sensitive across the entire membrane.

at the apex, farthest from the cochlea

43

Which of the following would a person with conductive deafness be able to hear better than a person with nerve deafness?

everything

themselves talking

other people talking

nothing

themselves talking

44

What sound characteristics can be compared between the two ears to locate the source of the sound?

sound shadows and frequency

frequency and amplitude

loudness and timing

timbre and rhythm

loudness and timing

45

Comparisons between which two responses are helpful in locating the source of a sound?

the base and the apex of the basilar membrane

the middle ear and the inner ear

the left ear and the right ear

the start of the sound and the end of the sound

the left ear and the right ear

46

Three small bones connect the tympanic membrane to the oval window. What is the function of these bones?

They hold the tympanic membrane in place.

They convert airwaves into waves of greater pressure.

They spread out the air waves over an area of larger diameter.

They change the frequency of air waves into lower frequencies that can be heard.

They convert airwaves into waves of greater pressure.

47

The structure that we commonly refer to as the ear (on the outside of the head) is formally known as the:

tympanic membrane.

stapes.

pinna.

malleus.

pinna

48

Currently, the most prevalent theory of pitch perception is:

the frequency theory.

the place theory.

the volley principle.

a combination of frequency, place, and volley principles, depending on the frequency of the tone.

a combination of frequency, place, and volley principles, depending on the frequency of the tone.

49

Most auditory information is sent to which hemisphere of the brain?

the ipsilateral side

the contralateral side

the left hemisphere

It depends on whether the individual is dominant for audition in the right or the left hemisphere.

the contralateral side

50

Why is it important for sound vibrations to be amplified as they pass through the ear?

The inner membrane gets less sensitive with age.

More force is needed to create waves in fluid.

Much of the vibration is lost in the eardrum.

Too much is lost through friction.

More force is needed to create waves in fluid.