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Flashcards in 7.2 Deck (27):
1

Somatosensory information travels from the thalamus to which area of the cortex?

parietal lobe

frontal lobe

hippocampus

limbic cortex


parietal lobe

2

The sensory aspect of pain activates the ____ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ____ cortex.

cingulate, somatosensory

somatosensory, cingulate

fusiform, premotor

premotor, fusiform

somatosensory, cingulate

3

Which of the following drug actions would most likely block the effectiveness of placebos?

blocking capsaicin receptors

blocking endorphin receptors

stimulating substance P receptors

stimulating endorphin receptors

blocking endorphin receptors

4

Studies with placebos and studies using hypnotism suggest that much of the reduction in pain is the result of decreased activation in the:

emotion areas of the brain.

hypothalamus.

spinal cord.

somatosensory areas of the cortex.

emotion areas of the brain.

5

The brain chemicals known as endorphins and enkephalins produce effects similar to which substance?

vitamin B-1 (thiamine)

substance P

opiates

amphetamines

opiates

6

The function of the semicircular canals is to:

locate the source of low frequency tones.

locate the source of high frequency tones.

detect movement of the head

establish a sense of direction while traveling.

detect movement of the head

7

A mild degree of pain releases the neurotransmitter ____. A more intense pain also releases ____.

glutamate, substance P

GABA, substance P

glutamate, dopamine

GABA, dopamine

glutamate, substance P

8

Which two structures provide information about vestibular sensation?

cochlea and otolith organs

semicircular canals and cochlea

semicircular canals and otolith organs

cerebellum and sinuses

semicircular canals and otolith organs

9

What kind of receptors detect pain, warmth, and cold?

cranial

semicircular

vestibular

somatosensory

somatosensory

10

The ____ nucleus of the thalamus is associated with pain perception of the body.

anterior

posterior

ventral posterior

ventral lateral

ventral posterior

11

Someone who has suffered damage to the sensory component of one spinal nerve would lose sensation from:


the contralateral half of the body.

the ipsilateral half of the body.

one ventricle.

one dermatome.

one dermatome.

12

Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, relieve pain by:

reducing the release of chemicals from damaged tissues.

dulling the pain information.

blocking synapses.

numbing the damaged tissue.

reducing the release of chemicals from damaged tissues.

13

Which of the following is TRUE about various types of somatosensation?

They are produced by varied responses by a single type of receptor.

They involve different receptors, but the spinal cord integrates the information.

They remain separate through the spinal cord, but are interpreted by a single set of cortical neurons.

They are at least partly distinct all the way from the receptors to the cerebral cortex.

They are at least partly distinct all the way from the receptors to the cerebral cortex.

14

An individual with damage to the primary somatosensory cortex would most have problems with:

memory.

hearing.

ability to locate where someone was touching them.

balance.

ability to locate where someone was touching them.

15

Stimulation of a touch receptor opens ____ channels in the axon.

choline

potassium

sodium

calcium

sodium

16

Itching is primarily the result of:

bad circulation.

baby powder.

histamine release.

substance P release.

histamine release.

17

Morphine is effective in relieving:

pain on the skin.

sharp pain.

slow, dull pain.

pain in the interior of the body.

*slow, dull pain.

18

The current view of how endorphins decrease the experience of pain is that they:

deplete the brain of substance P.

block the release of substance P.

block sodium channels in the membrane of certain neurons.

increase the sensitivity of neurons to dopamine.

block the release of substance P.

19

In the otolith organs, the otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that:

push against hair cells when move

vibrate with different frequencies.

stabilize the semicircular canals.

enhance sound localization.

push against hair cells when move

20

Pacinian corpuscles respond best to:

rapid mechanical pressure.

low frequency sounds.

horizontal head movements.

slow mechanical movements.

rapid mechanical pressure.

21

Each spinal nerve has:

either a sensory or a motor component.

both a sensory and a motor component.

connections to most parts of the body.

connections to each of the major internal organs.

both a sensory and a motor component.

22

What does the vestibular system detect?

-the degree of stretch of muscles
-vibrations on the skin
-the location of sounds
-movement of the head

movement of the head

23

The eighth cranial nerve contains both a(n) ____ component and a ____ component.

-vestibular; somatosensory
-visual; vestibular
-auditory; taste
-auditory; vestibular

auditory; vestibular

24

What is a dermatome?

-an area of the skin innervated by a given spinal nerve
-an instrument used to record impulses in the spinal cord
-the point at which sensory nerves make contact with motor nerves
-an area of the skin that has no touch receptors

an area of the skin innervated by a given spinal nerve

25

An acceleration of the head at any angle causes:

-the jelly-like substance in one of the semicircular canals to move to another canal.
-the jelly-like substance in one of the semicircular canals to push against hair cells.
-fluid to spill out from the otolith organs into the semicircular canals.
-hair cells to become stiff and straight.

the jelly-like substance in one of the semicircular canals to push against hair cells.

26

Pain receptors of the skin are:

-elaborate neuron endings.
-also known as Ruffini endings.
-simple, bare neuron endings.
-also known as Meissner's corpuscles.

simple, bare neuron endings.

27

What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain?

-Pain information grows more intense as it passes each synapse on its way to the brain.
-Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.
-Intense pain can shut out all other sensory information.
-The intensity of pain experience depends entirely on the excitability of pain receptors.

Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.