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Flashcards in 9.1 Deck (35):
1

Which of the following is most clearly under the control of a circadian rhythm in most animals?
A. Sleep
B. storage of body fat
C. migration
D. Mating

A. Sleep

2

When do the secretions of melatonin begin?
A. just before a person awakens
B. when body temperature is at its lowest
C. when body temperature is at its highest
D. a couple of hours before a person naturally falls asleep

D. A couple of hours before a person naturally falls asleep

3

zeitgeber" is a(n):
A. biological clock.
B. animal that does not have a biological clock.
C. environmental cue that resets a biological clock.
D. body activity that is controlled by a biological clock.

C. Environmental cue that resets a biological clock

4

What does "endogenous" mean?
A. occurring at regular intervals
B. learned
C. sensitive to light/dark patterns
D. generated from within

D. Generated from within

5

A disruption of circadian rhythms due to crossing time zones is known as:
A. circashift.
B. phaselag.
C. jetlag.
D. Zeitgeber

C. Jetlag

6

A small branch of the optic nerve, known as the ____ extends directly from the retina to the SCN.
A. opticthalamic path
B. retinahypothalamic path
C. opticretinal path
D. Retinohypothalamic path

Retinohypothalamic path

7

After damage to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the body:
A. cannot generate biological rhythms.
B. still has rhythms in synchrony with c. environmental patterns of light and dark.
C. still has rhythms, but they are less consistent.
D. still has rhythms, but they can only be reset by artificial light.

C. Still has rhythms, but they are less consistent.

8

Which of the following would most likely help someone adjust to jet lag?
A. taking a nap during the day
B. taking melatonin when you need to wake up
C. keeping the room light when you need to stay awake
D. darkening the room when you need to stay awake

C. Keeping the room light when you need to stay awake

9

Social stimuli - that is, the effects of other people - are weak ____, unless they induce exercise or other vigorous activity.
A. effects
B. motivators
C. rhythms
D. zeitgebers

D. zeitgebers

10

A small branch of the optic nerve, known as the ____ extends directly from the retina to the SCN.
A. opticthalamic path
B. retinahypothalamic path
C. opticretinal path
D. Retinohypothalamic path

D. Retinohypothalamic path

11

The proteins PER and TIM, originally discovered in insect but now found in mammals also, influence circadian rhythms by:
A. building up during the day and declining during sleep.
B. being transformed into melatonin.
C. stimulating and inhibiting (respectively) the release of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex.
D. providing negative feedback from the muscles to the neurons that innervate them.

A. building up during th day and declining during sleep.

12

Which of the following would most likely help someone adjust to jet lag?
A. taking a nap during the day
B. taking melatonin when you need to wake up
C. keeping the room light when you need to stay awake
D. darkening the room when you need to stay awake

C. Keeping the room light when you need to stay awake

13

The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the:
A. substantia nigra.
B. caudate nucleus.
C. thalamus.
D. hypothalamus.

D. Hypothalamus

14

When studying disruptions to the biological clock in animals, what did Curt Richter find?
A. Blinding animals strongly disrupted their clock.
B. Rendering animals deaf strongly disrupted their clock.
C. Long periods of forced activity strongly disrupted the clock.
D. The biological clock is insensitive to most forms of interference.

D. The biological clock is insensitive to most to most forms of inference.

15

If a migratory bird is kept in a laboratory room with constant temperature and 12 hours of light each day, when does it show migratory restlessness?
A. steadily at all times
B. never
C. at approximately the correct time of year for migration
D. at random intervals throughout the year

C. At approximately the correct time of year for migration

16

What happens if people are put in an environment that is constantly dark?
A. It does not affect them in any way.
B. They complain that they cannot sleep.
C. They complain that they have difficulty waking up.
D. They follow a cycle closer to 28 hours than to 24 hours.

C. They complain that thy have difficulty waking up.

17

Suppose you work on a submarine with only artificial light. You are required to follow a schedule of working for 12 hours and then sleeping for 6. What rhythm, if any, will your alertness and body temperature show?
A. They will follow a rhythm of 18 hours.
B. They will follow the usual rhythm of 24 hours.
C. They will follow a rhythm of 21 hours.
D. They will cease to show any consistent rhythm.

B. They will follow the usual rhythm of 24 hours.

18

What happens if people are put in an environment that is constantly dark?
A. It does not affect them in any way.
B. They complain that they cannot sleep.
C. They complain that they have difficulty waking up.
D. They follow a cycle closer to 28 hours than to 24 hours.

B. They complain that they cannot sleep

19

If you wanted to go to sleep at 11 pm, the best time to take melatonin would be:
A. at the time you go to bed.
B. about 9 pm.
C. when you wake up that morning.
D. at lunchtime.

B. About 9pm

20

If suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons are disconnected from the rest of the brain, they:
A. no longer produce any activity.
B. continue to produce activity that follows a circadian rhythm.
C. produce a 20-hour rhythm.
D. produce spontaneous bursts of activity, but on no rhythmic pattern.

B. Continue to produce activity that follows a circadian rhythm.

21

Circadian cycles are to ____ as circannual cycles are to ____.
A. light-dark; temperature
B. endogenous; exogenous
C. mating; hibernating
D. daily; yearly

D. daily; yearly

22

What happens if people are put in an environment that is constantly light?
A. It does not affect them in any way.
B. They complain that they cannot sleep.
C. They complain that they have difficulty waking up.
D. They follow a cycle closer to 28 hours than to 24 hours.

B. They complain that they cannot sleep.

23

What is the principal zeitgeber for land animals?
A. Light
B. The tides
C. Temperature
D. Barometric pressure

A. Light

24

The retinohypothalamic path to the SCN comes from a special population of retinal ganglion cells that have their own photopigment, called:
A. circaopsin.
B. photopsin
C. rodopsin.
D. melanopsin.

D. melanopsin

25

A human's body temperature over the course of 24 hours is usually highest:
A. about the time of awakening.
B. mid-morning.
C. mid to late afternoon.
D. in the middle of the night.

C. mid to late afternoon

26

The surest way to disrupt the biological clock is to damage the:
A. substantia nigra.
B. caudate nucleus.
C. lateral hypothalamus.
D. suprachiasmatic nucleus.

D. suprachiasmatic nucleus

27

The SCN produces circadian rhythms by altering:
A. blood pressure.
B. production of proteins.
C. action potential velocity.
D. axon myelination.

B. production of proteins.

28

The PER and TIM proteins accumulate during the day until they cause sleepiness. What prevents them from continuing to accumulate at night?
A. Metabolic rates increase at night, so proteins are digested faster than they can be synthesized.
B. The high levels of melatonin present at night react with the proteins to disable them.
C. The proteins are unstable at the lower body temperatures that are typical at night.
D. When the proteins reach a high level, they turn off the genes that produce them.

D. When the proteins reach a high level, they turn off the genes that produce them.

29

Suppose you fell into a cave and lost your watch. Without any time cues, your circadian rhythm would:
A. increase dramatically over time.
B. cease to exist.
C. decrease over time.
D. remain relatively stable.

D. remain relatively stable

30

Which of the following is TRUE concerning the duration of a self-generated sleep/activity cycle?
A. It is unreliable in most species, and dependably close to 24 hours only in primates.
B. It is longer if the organism is normally active in the dark.
C. There is little or no variability from one individual to another.
D. It is highly consistent in a given individual in a given environment.

D. it is highly consistent in a given individual in a given environment.

31

When traveling across time zones, adjustments are easier when traveling which direction?
A. Travel to the east is easier.
B. Travel to the west is easier.
C. There is no difference.
D. It varies greatly from person to person.

B. Traveling to the west is easier

32

Based on research, it has been determined that the human circadian rhythm appears to be:
A. shorter than 24 hours.
B. exactly 24 hours.
C. just over 24 hours.
D. closer to 28 hours.

C. just over 24 hours

33

Mammals have circadian rhythms:
A. only for their sleep/activity cycle.
B. only for frequency of eating and drinking.
C. for sleep and body temperature only.
D. for a variety of activities, including sleep.

D. for a variety of activities, including sleep.

34

Psychologists in the early to mid part of the 20th century had difficulty with the notion that wake and sleep cycles were generated from within the body because:
A. there was no scientific evidence to support this notion.
B.all species operate on the same cycle.
C. at that time there were no recorded sleep disorders.
D. they accepted the theory that all behaviors were responses to stimuli.

D. they accepted the theory that all behaviors were responses to stimuli.

35

The SCN is located just above the:
A. optic chiasm.
B. thalamus.
C. hypothalamus.
D. visual cortex.

A. optic chiasm