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Flashcards in 8.2 Deck (36):
1

Which of the following would most likely happen with damage to the prefrontal cortex?
A. Inability to move
B. Loss of somatosensory experiences
C. Poorly planned movements
D. No effect on movement

C. Poorly planned movements

2

Longer stimulation (1/2 sec) of the arm region of a monkey's motor cortex results in:
A. brief muscle twitches of the arm.
B. repetitive muscle twitches of the fingers.
C. a fixed set of muscle movements such as contraction of the biceps.
D. a fixed outcome using different muscle movements depending on the initial position of the arm.

D. a fixed outcome using different muscle movements depending on the initial position of the arm.

3

The nuclei of the cerebellum (as opposed to the cerebellar cortex) are most important in:
A. moving a finger rapidly toward a target.
B. holding a finger in a steady position.
C. using the hands to lift heavy weights.
D. coordinating the left hand with the right hand.

B. holding a finger in a steady position.

4

The cerebellum appears to be critical for:
A. motor behaviors only.
B. certain aspects of attention.
C. judging which tone is louder.
D. controlling the force of a movement.

B. certain aspects of attention.

5

A quick typist would rely heavily on the ____ cortex to organize smooth sequences of finger movements.
A. supplementary motor
B. premotor
C. prefrontal
D. occipital

A. supplementary motor

6

The structure composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus is the:
A. basal ganglia.
B. limbic system.
C. cerebellum.
D. sympathetic nervous system.

A. basal ganglia.

7

Cerebellum is to ____ as basal ganglia are to ____.
A. clumsy; paralysis
B. initiation; stopping
C. gross muscle function; fine motor coordination
D. timing; voluntary movements

D. timing; voluntary movements

8

Which behaviors would most likely be impaired by damage to the dorsolateral tract?
A. Writing a check
B. Walking
C. Standing
D. Digesting food

A. Writing a check

9

The prefrontal cortex:
A. is the main area for touch and other body information.
B. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world.
C. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.
D. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.

D. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.

10

Very brief electrical stimulation of the motor cortex results in:
A. relaxation.
B. muscle twitching.
C. laughing.
D. complex, coordinated movements.

B. muscle twitching.

11

The number of Purkinje cells activated determines the ____ of the resulting movement.
A. speed
B. power
C. duration
D. accuracy

C. duration

12

The tract that includes many axons from the primary motor cortex, the reticular formation, and the vestibular nucleus is the:
A. pyramids of the medulla.
B. ventromedial tract.
C. dorsolateral tract.
D. cerebellar tract.

B. ventromedial tract.

13

Speaking, piano playing, athletic skills, and other rapid movements would be most impaired by damage to which structure?
A. Reticular formation
B. Cerebellum
C. Ventromedial hypothalamus
D. Parasympathetic nervous system

B. Cerebellum

14

The premotor cortex:
A. is the main area for touch and other body information.
B. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world.
C. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.
D. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.

C. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.

15

order to elicit movement, the motor cortex:
A. has direct connections to the muscles.
B. sends axons to the brainstem and spinal cord.
C. controls isolated movement in a single muscle.
D. relies on feedback from individual muscle fibers.

B. Sends axons to the brainstem and spinal cord.

16

Movements near the midline of the body, such as bending and turning of the trunk, are controlled by which motor system?
A. Dorsolateral tract
B. Ventromedial tract
C. Supplementary
D. Hippocampal

B. Ventromedial tract

17

The basal ganglia work together to initiate movement by:
A. ceasing to inhibit movement.
B. inhibiting thalamic nuclei.
C. exciting cerebellar nuclei.
D. exciting spinal cord nuclei.

A. ceasing to inhibit movement.

18

After damage to the cerebellar cortex, an individual has trouble with which part of the finger-to-nose test?
A. The initial rapid movement to the nose
B. The second step involving the hold function
C. The third step which involves the finger moving to the nose by a slow movement
D. Both the second and third steps

A. The initial rapid movement to the nose

19

If you have trouble with rapid, ballistic movement sequences that require accurate timing, you probably have suffered damage to the:
A. reticular formation.
B. cerebellum.
C. hippocampus.
D. hypothalamus.

B. cerebellum

20

Which widely branching cells are responsible for all of the output from the cerebellar cortex to the nuclei of the cerebellum?
A. parallel fibers
B. Purkinje cells
C. putamen cells
D. saccade cells

B. Purkinje cells

21

The motor cortex produces a kind of activity called a(n) ____ before any voluntary movement.
1 pts
readiness potential
action potential
evoked potential
motor potential

A. readiness potential

22

The motor cortex produces a kind of activity called a(n) ____ before any voluntary movement.
A. readiness potential
B. action potential
C. evoked potential
D. motor potential

A. readiness potential

23

What is the name of the rapid eye movement occurring when a person moves his or her eyes from one focus point to another?
A. gyration
B. sclerosis
C. slide
D. saccade

D. saccade

24

The posterior parietal cortex:
A. is the main area for touch and other body information.
B. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world.
C. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.
D. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.

B. Keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world

25

Most of the axons of the pyramidal tract go to which side of the body?
A. Contralateral
B. Ipsilateral
C. Bilateral
D. Ventrolateral

A. Contralateral

26

People with damage to the parietal cortex appear to lack ____ related to voluntary movements.
A. feelings of intention
B. the ability to make conscious decisions
C. a sense of timing
D. muscle strength

A. feelings of intention

27

The symptoms of cerebellar damage resemble those of:
A. a heart attack.
B. Parkinson's disease.
C. intoxication.
D. mental illness.

C. intoxication

28

People with posterior parietal damage:
A. cannot walk toward something they hear.
B. have trouble converting vision into action.
C. can walk toward something they see but cannot reach out to grasp it.
D. cannot accurately describe what they see.

B. have trouble converting vision into action

29

The cerebellum is most important for any process that requires:
A. precise timing.
B. control of muscle strength.
C. comparison between the left and right hemispheres.
D. detecting the intensity of a stimulus.

A. Precise timing

30

The supplementary motor cortex becomes active:
A. during the second or two after a movement.
B. during the second or two prior to a movement.
C. only during a movement.
D. only after a movement.

B. During the second or two prior to a movement

31

Studies on conscious decisions regarding voluntary movements suggest that:
A. we are conscious of our decision before brain activity is generated for movement.
B. voluntary movements are the result of free will.
C. brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decision.
D. we are unable to judge when we make conscious decisions.

C. Brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decision.

32

With experience, the motor skills required to drive a car become more automatic over time mostly because of changes in the:
A. cerebellum.
B. primary motor cortex.
C. basal ganglia.
D. spinal cord.

C. Basal ganglia

33

Damage to one side of the dorsolateral tract below the level of the medulla would most likely affect:
A. fine motor control on the opposite side of the body.
B. fine motor control on the same side of the body.
C. bilateral control of the neck, shoulders, and trunk.
D. rapid ballistic movements.

B. Fine motor control on the same side of the body.

34

Children with ____ were found to have less activity in the brain areas believed to contain mirror neurons.
A. MS
B. polio
C. autism
D. ADHD

C. Autism

35

Watching another person shoot a basketball is most likely to activate ____ neurons in the brain of the person who is watching.
A. primary motor cortex
B. spinal cord
C.mirror
D. Observational

C. Mirror

36

Dorsolateral tract axons are responsible for movements in the:
A. arms, hands, and toes.
B. trunk.
C. face and head.
D. internal organs.

A. Arms, hands, and toes