10.1 Flashcards Preview

Physio Psych > 10.1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10.1 Deck (24):
1

Homeothermic organisms include:
A. amphibians and reptiles.
B. reptiles and fish.
C. amphibians and fish.
D. mammals and birds.

D. mammals and birds

2

Processes that reduce any discrepancies from the set point are known as:
A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. homeothermic.
D. thermostasis.

A. negative feedback

3

In humans, a fever above ____ is life-threatening.
A. 37¡C (98¡F)
B. 39¡C (103¡F)
C. 41¡C (109¡F)
D. 36¡C (96¡F)

C. 41 degrees C (109 degrees F)

4

How do adult mammals with damage to the preoptic area regulate their body temperature?
A. physiologically
B. pharmacologically
C. behaviorally
D. not at all

C. behaviorally

5

Some set points may vary considerably over time in order to respond to changes in the environment. This adaptability is known as:
A. homeostasis.
B. allostasis.
C. negative feedback.
D. homeothermic.

B. allostasis

6

What defines a homeostatic process?
A. the regulation of blood flow
B. any process governed by hormones
C. the maintenance of certain body variables within a fixed range
D. reproduction involving distinct male and female genders in a species

C. the maintenance of certain body variables within a fixd range

7

When the range maintained by homeostatic processes is very narrow, what is it called?
A. a set point
B. a match point
C. idiopathic
D. band specific

A. a set point

8

What is the benefit of maintaining a body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius?
A. warmer muscles
B. more protein
C. more blood
D. more body water

A. warmer muscles

9

The physiological changes that defend body temperature are mainly controlled by the:
A. pineal body and preoptic area.
B. preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus.
C. parietal cortex and hypothalamus.
D. preoptic area and posterior hypothalamus.

B. preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus

10

If an experimenter heats the preoptic area of an animal in a cool environment, the animal will:
A. shiver.
B. pant or sweat.
C. luff its fur.
D. decrease its preference for salty tastes.

B. pant or sweat

11

Which organisms, if any, use behavioral means to regulate their body temperature?
A. poikilothermic, but not homeothermic
B. homeothermic, but not poikilothermic
C. both poikilothermic and homeothermic
D. neither poikilothermic nor homeothermic

C. both poikilothermic and homeothermic

12

Cells in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus monitor which temperatures?
A. internal organs
B. their own and the skin
C. differences between the arteries and veins
D. differences between internal organs and the skin

B. their own and the skin

13

One advantage of being homeothermic is that it:
A. reduces the fuel requirements of the body.
B. prevents excessive reliance on a single sensory system.
C. enables the individual to stay active when the environment is cool.
D. decreases the need for shivering and sweating.

C. enables the individual to stay active when the environment is cool.

14

How do reptiles control their body temperature, if at all?
A. They dilate or constrict blood vessels.
B. They move to different locations in their environment.
C. They shiver and sweat.
D. There is nothing they can do.

B. They move to different locations in thier environment.

15

Generating heat is to ____ as radiating heat is to ____.
A. surface area; temperature of the set point
B. total body mass; surface area
C. raising the set point; lowering the set point
D. sweating; shivering

B. total body mass; surface area

16

Much of motivated behavior can be described as:
A. diabetic feedback.
B. negative feedback.
C. positive feedback.
D. homeothermic mechanisms.

B. negative feedback

17

Humans expend most of their energy on what activity?
A. walking, running, and other forms of locomotion
B. in the beating of their hearts and blood circulation
C. propagating action potentials in the billions of neurons in the nervous system
D. maintaining basal metabolism

D. maintaining basal metabolism

18

A fever:
A. develops independently of the preoptic area.
B. is part of the body's defense against an illness.
C. is an indication that the body is not yet fighting the infection.
D. serves to keep an animal warm during periods of reduced activity.

B. is part of the body's defense against illness

19

The temperature required by reproductive cells of birds and most mammals is:
A. higher than the rest of the body.
B. lower than the rest of the body.
C. the same as the internal organs of the body.
D. fluctuating in direct opposition to changes in body temperature.

B. lower than the rest of the body

20

Poikilothermic organisms include:
A. humans.
B. most mammals.
C. amphibians and reptiles.
D. all mammals and all fish.

C. amphibians and reptiles

21

Set points for temperature and body fat:
A. are fixed.
B. change with time of year only.
C. only change due to varying internal conditions.
D. change depending on many conditions.

D. change depend on many conditions

22

If an experimenter cools the preoptic area of an animal in a warm environment, the animal will:
A. shiver.
B. pant or sweat.
C. move to a colder environment.
D. decrease its preference for salty tastes.

A. shiver

23

Beyond about 40¡ or 41¡C, ___ begin to break their bonds and lose their useful properties.
A. RNA
B. DNA
C. cells
D. proteins

D. proteins

24

Poikilothermic organisms have body temperatures which:
A. remain relatively constant no matter the change in the external environment.
B. are the same as the temperatures of their environments.
C. are nearly constant, although the brain temperature varies.
D. allow them to survive in very warm climates only.

B. are the same as the temperatures of their environments