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Flashcards in 8.1 Deck (44):
1

A contraction of equal force in antagonist muscles of the arm would result in ____ of the arm.
A. flexion
B. extension
C. no movement
D. rotation

C. No movement

2

Compared to the average weekend jogger, a world class marathon runner probably has a higher percentage of which kind of fibers in his legs?
A. slow-twitch
B. fast-twitch
C. smooth muscle
D. white muscle

A. Slow-twitch

3

What type of muscle is responsible for the movement of your body through the environment?
A. smooth
B. striated
C. cardiac
D. syncarpous

B. Striated

4

Compared to a long distance runner, a world class sprinter probably has more of which kind of fibers in her legs?
A. slow-twitch
B. fast-twitch
C. smooth muscle
D. striated muscle

B. Fast-twitch

5

Axons release ____ at junctions with skeletal muscles.
A. many different neurotransmitters
B. dopamine
C. norepinephrine
D. acetylcholine

D. Acetylycholine

6

A physician taps you just below the knee to check a reflex that is based on information from which kind of receptor?
A. a Golgi tendon organ
B. an oscillator
C. a muscle spindle
D. a vestibular organ

C. A muscle spindle

7

During aerobic exercises such as dancing, as glucose is used by the muscles, ____.
A. fast-twitch fibers absorb more glucose
B. slow-twitch muscles produce glucose anaerobically
C. glucose use increases
D. glucose use decreases

D. Glucose use decreases

8

Which of the following are two kinds of proprioceptors?
A. extensors and contractors
B. contractors and muscle spindles
C. muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs
D. muscle spindles and extensors

C. Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs

9

A ballistic movement:
A. is a rhythmic alternation between two movements.
B. is guided by feedback during the course of the movement.
C. proceeds automatically once it has been triggered.
D. tends to overcorrect itself.

C. proceeds automatically once it has been triggered.

10

Moving a leg or arm back and forth requires opposing sets of muscles called:
A. extensor muscles
B. flexor muscles
C. cardiac muscles
D. antagonistic muscles.

D. antagonistic muscles.

11

The absence of acetylcholine will cause a muscle to:
A. relax.
B. contract.
C. fatigue.
D. stretch.

A. Relax

12

When an axon releases a transmitter at the nerve-muscle junction, the response of the muscle is to:
A. always relax.
B. always contract
C. relax or contract, depending on the transmitter.
D. relax or contract, depending on the duration and amount of transmitter.

B. Always contract

13

Which muscle is "antagonistic" to a flexor muscle in the right arm?
A. a flexor muscle in the right arm
B. an extensor muscle in the left arm
C. an extensor muscle in the right arm
D. another flexor muscle in the right arm

C. an extensor muscle in the right arm

14

In adulthood, the rooting and Babinski reflexes:
A. continue to occur, just as in infancy.
B. are completely lost, as the reflexive connections disappear.
C. are suppressed, but they can return if cortical activity decreases.
D. are suppressed, but they can return if the person is motivated.

C. are suppressed, but they can return if cortical activity decreases.

15

What happens when a fish swims at low temperatures?
A. Muscle fibers contract more vigorously than at high temperatures.
B. The fish swims more slowly.
C. The fish swims at its usual speed but fatigues more rapidly.
D. The fish swims at its usual speed but fatigues more slowly.

C. The fish swims at its usual speed but fatigues more rapidly.

16

What type of muscle controls movements of the heart?
A. smooth
B. striated
C. cardiac
D. antagonistic

C. Cardiac

17

Infants have several reflexes, such as the ____ and the ____, that are not seen in adults.
A. knee-jerk reflex; rooting reflex
B. Babinski reflex; knee-jerk reflex
C. rooting reflex; Babinski reflex
D. knee-jerk reflex; grasp reflex

C. rooting reflex; Babinski reflex

18

What is the stimulus for the Babinski reflex?
A. Stroking the sole of the foot
B. Placing an object firmly in the palm of the hand
C. Touching the cheek near the mouth
D. A loud noise

A. Stroking the sole of the foot

19

The stretch reflex:
A. results in a stretch.
B. is caused by a stretch.
C. inhibits motor neurons.
D. sends a message for a muscle to relax.

B. Is caused by a stretch

20

Exercising at a high altitude where there is less oxygen is most likely to affect:
A. intermediate fibers.
B. anaerobic contraction.
C. fast-twitch fibers.
D. slow-twitch fibers.

D. Slow-twitch fibers

21

Closing your eyes and sneezing in response to suddenly seeing a bright light is an example of:
A. the rooting reflex.
B. an allied reflex.
C. a Babinski reflex.
D. a ballistic movement.

B. An allied reflex

22

A fish will adjust to lower water temperatures by:
A. increasing the speed of its action potentials.
B. increasing the amplitude of its action potentials.
C. recruiting different muscle fibers.
D. increasing its basal metabolic rate.

C. Recruiting different muscle fibers

23

Which would be especially important when running up a flight of stairs at full speed?
A. fast-twitch muscles
B. slow-twitch muscles
C. smooth muscles
D. intermediate muscles

A. Fast-twitch muscles

24

Which of the following is an example of a motor program in a human?
A. yawning
B. a list of things to do today
C. a baby's first steps
D. a teenager learning to drive

A. Yawning

25

Cardiac muscles have properties:
A. just like those of smooth muscles
B. just like those of skeletal muscles
C. just like those of antagonistic muscles.
D. intermediate between those of smooth and skeletal.

D. intermediate between those of smooth and skeletal.

26

Which of the following behaviors would most likely result from activity of central pattern generators?
A. a dog shaking itself to dry off
B. catching a baseball
C. playing the piano
D. yawning

A. A dog shaking itself to dry off

27

If a new species were found with legs composed almost completely of fast-twitch muscles, what could we infer about its behavior?
A. It could chase prey over long distances.
B. It could chase prey only over short distances.
C. It probably travels constantly.
D. It probably moves slowly and grazes on vegetation.

B. It could chase prey only over short distances.

28

A proprioceptor is sensitive to the:
A. degree of relaxation or contraction of smooth muscle tissue.
B. position and movement of a part of the body.
C. percentage of fibers that are contracting within a muscle bundle.
D. degree of fatigue in a muscle.

B. position and movement of a part of the body.

29

What is the stimulus for the rooting reflex?
A. Stroking the sole of the foot
B. Placing an object firmly in the palm of the hand
C. Touching the cheek near the mouth
D. A loud noise

C. Touching the cheek near the mouth

30

A muscle spindle responds to the:
A. oxygen level in the muscle.
B. acetylcholine concentration at the nerve-muscle junction.
C. fatigue of the muscle.
D. stretch of the muscle.

D. stretch of the muscle.

31

A motor program is a:
A. mechanism that guides movement on the basis of sensory feedback.
B. mechanism that produces an alternation between two movements.
C. plan for training a brain-damaged person to walk.
D. movement that, once triggered, continues automatically until its completion.

D. movement that, once triggered, continues automatically until its completion.

32

Central pattern generators:
A. contribute to rhythmic patterns of movement.
B. generate movement which is unresponsive to environmental stimulation.
C. constrict the pupils in response to bright light.
D. control all reflexes in adult humans.

A. contribute to rhythmic patterns of movement.

33

What experience is similar to losing proprioception?
A. Losing your sense of equilibrium
B. Walking on a leg that has "fallen asleep"
C. Having a phantom limb
D. Teeth chattering in the cold

B. Walking on a leg that has "fallen asleep"

34

Which of the following is an example of a ballistic movement?
A.threading a needle
B. singing a song
C. picking up a newspaper
D. a reflexive knee jerk

D. a reflexive knee jerk

35

What is the name given to the synapse where a motor neuron's axon meets a muscle fiber?
A. neuromuscular junction
B.polar junction
C. muscle spindle
D. neurofiber synapse

A. neuromuscular junction

36

The role of the Golgi tendon organs is to:
A. prevent extreme muscle contractions.
B. guard against fatigue of muscles.
C. produce rapid repetitive movements such as finger tapping.
D. regulate blood flow to the tendons and muscles.

A. prevent extreme muscle contractions.

37

What type of muscle controls movements of internal organs?
A. smooth
B. striated
C. cardiac
D. antagonistic

A. Smooth

38

Vigorous use of fast-twitch fibers results in fatigue because the process is:
A. aerobic.
B. anaerobic.
C. anabolic.
D. abolic.

B. Anaerobic

39

The eye muscles can be moved with greater precision than the biceps muscles because the:
A. biceps have only slow-twitch muscles
B. biceps have only fast-twitch muscles.
C. biceps are opposed by an antagonistic muscle; the eye muscles are not.
D. eye muscles have a lower ratio of muscle
fibers to axons.

A. Biceps have only slow-twitch muscles

40

Which type of proprioceptor responds to increases in muscle tension?
A. Golgi tendon organ
B. fast-twitch fiber
C. muscle spindle
D. slow-twitch fiber

A. Golgi tendon organ

41

What type of muscle controls movements of internal organs?
A. smooth
B. striated
C. cardiac
D. antagonistic

A. Smooth

42

Vigorous use of fast-twitch fibers results in fatigue because the process is:
A. aerobic.
B. anaerobic.
C. anabolic.
D. abolic.

B. Anaerobic

43

The eye muscles can be moved with greater precision than the biceps muscles because the:
A. biceps have only slow-twitch muscles
B. biceps have only fast-twitch muscles.
C. biceps are opposed by an antagonistic muscle; the eye muscles are not.
D. eye muscles have a lower ratio of muscle
fibers to axons.

D. eye muscles have a lower ratio of muscle
fibers to axons.

44

Which type of proprioceptor responds to increases in muscle tension?
A. Golgi tendon organ
B. fast-twitch fiber
C. muscle spindle
D. slow-twitch fiber

A. Golgi tendon organ