13. Mental and Behavioral Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13. Mental and Behavioral Health Deck (114):
1

thym/o, psych/o

mind

2

iatr/o

treatment

3

akathisia

inability to remain calm, still, and free of anxiety

4

anhedonia

absence of the ability to experience either pleasure or joy, even in the face of causative events

5

catatonia

paralysis or immobility from psychological or emotional rather than physical causes

6

confabulation

effort to conceal a gap in memory by fabricating detailed, often believable stories

7

defense mechanism

unconscious mechanism for psychological coping, adjustment, or self-preservation in the face of stress or a threat

ex: denial of an unpleasant situation/condition and projection of intolerable aspects onto another individual

8

delirium

condition of confused, unfocused, irrational agitation

in mental disorders, agitation and confusion may also be accompanied by a more intense disorientation, incoherence, or fear, and illusions, hallucinations, and delusions

9

delusion

persistent belief in a demonstrable untruth or a provable inaccurate perception despite clear evidence to the contrary

10

dementia

mental disorder in which the individual experiences a progressive loss of memory, personality alterations, confusion, loss of touch with relaity, and stupor (seeming unawareness of, and disconnection with, one's surroundings)

11

echolalia

repitition of words or phrases spoken by others

12

hallucination

any unreal sensory perception that occurs with no external cause

may be visual or auditory

13

illusion

inaccurate sensory perception based on a real stimulus

ex: mirages or interpreting music/wind as voices

14

libido

normal psychological impulse drive associated with sensuality, expressions of desire, or creativity

abnormality only occurs when such drives are excessively heightened or depressed

15

psychosis

disassociation with or impaired perception of reality

may be accompanied by hallucinations, delusions, incoherence, akathisia, and/or disorganized behavior

16

somnambulism

sleepwalking

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anxiety

anticipation of impending danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and breathing difficulty not associated with any apparent stimulus

18

dysphoria

generalized negative mood characterized by depression

19

euphoria

exaggerated sense of physical and emotional well-being not based on reality, disproportionate to the cause, or inappropriate to the situation

20

euthymia

normal range of moods and emotions

21

Asperger disorder

disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of inappropriate behavior

22

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

series of syndromes that includes impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, and short attention span

23

autism

a continuum of abnormal development of social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors.

24

conduct disorder

any of a number of disorders characterized by patterns of persistent aggressive and defiant behaviors

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), an example of a conduct disorder, is characterized by hostile, disobedient behavior

25

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD),

 an example of a conduct disorder

characterized by hostile, disobedient behavior

26

mental retardation (MR)

condition of subaverage intellectual ability, with impairments in social and educational functioning

the "intelligence quotient" (IQ) is a measure of an individual's intellectual functioning compared with the general population

 

  • Mild: IQ range of 50-69; learning difficulties result
  • Moderate: IQ range of 35-49; support needed to function in society
  • Severe: IQ range of 20-34; continuous need of support to live in society
  • Profound: IQ <20; severe self-care limitations

27

Rett disorder

condition characterized by initial normal functioning followed by loss of social and intellectual functioning

28

Tourette syndrome

group of involuntary behaviors that includes the vocalization of words or sounds (sometimes obscene) and repetitive movements

vocal and multiple tic disorder

29

acute intoxication

episode of behavioral disturbance following ingestion of alcohol or psychotropic drugs

30

delirium tremens (DT)

acute and sometimes fatal delirium induced by the cessation of ingesting excessive amounts of alcohol over a long period of time

31

dependence syndrome

difficulty controlling use of a substance

32

harmful use

difficulty in controlling use of a drug

causes damage to one's health

33

tolerance

state in which the body becomes accustomed to the substances ingested

the user requires greater amounts to create the desired effect

34

withdrawal state

group of symptoms that occurs during the cessation of the use of a regularly taken drug

35

schizophrenia

any of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by mood disturbances, language and communication disturbances, distorted sense of self and relationship to the external world, disorganized and fragmented thinking, and gross distortion of reality, including hallucinations, delusions, and loosening of associations

36

catatonic schizophrenia

involves symptoms that alternate b/w extremes such as kyperkinesis and stupor

may be accompanied by a dream-like state and hallucinations

37

disorganized schizophrenia

involves prominent affective changes; feleting, fragmentary delusions, and hallucinations; and irresponsible and unpredictable behavior involving shallow, inappropriate mood, flighty thoughts, social isolation, and incoherent speech

38

paranoid schizophrenia

characterized by relatively stable, paranoid delusions, often involving auditory hallucinations and perceptual disturbances in affect (emotional range), volition (will), and speech

39

shizotypal disorder

exhibit none of the effects of the other schizophrenic anomalies but may exhibit anhedonia, eccentric behavior, cold affect, and social isolation

40

bipolar disorder

disorder characterized by swings b/w an elevation of mood, increased energy and activity (hypomania and mania), and a lowering of mood and decreased energy and activity (depression)

formerly termed manic depression

41

cyclothymia

disorder characterized by recurring episodes of mild elation and depression that are not severe enough to warrant a diagnosis of bipolar disorder

42

depressive disorder

depression typically characterized by its degree (minimal, moderate, or severe) or number of occurrences (single, recurrent, or persistent)

patient exhibits dysphoria, reduction of energy, and decrease in activity

symptoms include anhedonia, fatigue, parasomnias, diminished appetite, and loss of self-esteem

43

dysthymia

mild, chronic depression of mood that lasts for years but is not severe enough to justify a diagnosis of depression

44

hypomania

disorder characterized by an inappropriate elevation of mood that may include positive and negative aspects

patient may report increased feelings of well-being, energy, and activity, but may also report irritability and conceit

45

persistent mood disorders

group of long-term, cyclic mood disorders in which the majority of the individual episodes are not sufficiently severe to warrant being described as hypomanic or mild depressive episodes

46

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

weather-induced depression resulting from decreased exposure to sunlight in autumn and winter

47

acrophobia

condition of fear of heights

48

agoraphobia

condition of fear of leaving home and entering crowded places

49

anthropophobia

condition of fear of scrutiny by other people

AKA social phobia

50

claustrophobia

condition of fear of enclosed spaces

51

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

one of the most common diagnoses assigned, but not specific to any particular situation or circumstance

symptoms may include persistent nervousness, trembling, muscular tensions, sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness, and epigastric discomfort

52

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

characterized by recurrent, distressing, and unavoidable preoccupations or irresistible drives to perform specific rituals that the patient feels will prevent some harmful effect

53

panic disorder (PD)

recurrent, unpredictable attacks of severe anxiety (panic) that is not restricted to any particular situation

symptoms incude vertigo, chest pain, and palpitations

54

zoophobia

zoh oh foh bee ah

condition of fear of animals

55

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

extended emotional response to a traumatic event

symptoms include flashbacks, recurring nightmares, anhedonia, insomnia, hypervigilance, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and emotional blunting

56

adjustment disorder

disorder that tends to manifest during periods of stressful life changes (e.g., death, divorce, relocation, job loss)

symptoms include anxiety, impaired coping mechanisms, social dysfunction, and a reduced ability to perform normal daily activities

57

dissociative identity disorder

maladaptive coping with severe stress by developing one or more separate personalities

58

dissociative disorder

a less severe form of dissociative identity disorder that results in identity confusion accompanied by amnesia, a dreamlike state, and somnambulism

59

somatoform disorder

any disorder that has unfounded physical complaints by the patient, despite medical assurance that no physiologic problem exists

ex: hypochondriacal disorder, the preoccupation with the possibility of having one or more serious and progressive physical disorders

60

kleptomania

uncontrollable impulse to steal

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pyromania

uncontrollable impulse to set fires

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trichtillomania

uncontrollable impulse to pull one's hair out by the roots

63

anorexia nervosa

prolonged refusal to eat adequate amounts of food and an altered perception of what constitutes a normal minimum body weight caused by an intense fear of becoming obese

primarily affects adolescent females

emaciation and amenhorrhea result

64

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder in which the individual eats large quantities of food and then purges the body through self-induced vomiting or inappropriate use of laxatives

65

dyssomnia

difficulty with the sleep-wake cycle

ex: insomnia, hypersomnia

66

parasomnia

abnormal activation of physiologic functions during the sleep cycle

ex: sleep terrors in which repeated episodes of sudden awakening are accompanied by intense anxiety, agitation, and amnesia

67

hypoactive sexual disorder

indifference or unresponsiveness to sexual stimuli

inability to achieve orgasm during intercourse

formerly called frigidity

68

nymphomania

relentless drive to achieve sexual orgasm in the female

69

satyriasis

sat tih RYE ah sis

relentless drive to achieve sexual orgasm in the male

70

premature ejaculation

involuntary, anxiety-induced ejaculation of semen during sexual activity

71

sexual anhedonia

inability to enjoy sexual pleasure

72

exhibitionism

condition in which the patient derives sexual arousal from the exposure of his or her genitals to strangers

73

fetishism

reliance on an object as a stimulus for sexual arousal and pleasure

74

pedophilia

sexual preference, either in fantasy or actuality, for children as a means of achieving sexual excitement and gratification

75

sadomasochism

preference for sexual activity that involves inflicting or receiving pain and/or humiliation

76

voyeurism

condition in which an individual derives sexual pleasure and gratification from surreptitiously looking at individuals engaged in intimate behavior

77

borderline personality disorder

disorder characterized by impulsive, unpredictable mood and self-image, resulting in unstable interpersonal relationships and a tendency to see and respond to others as unwaveringly good or evil

78

dissocial personality disorder

disorder in which the patient shows a complete lack of interest in social obligations, to the extreme of showing antipathy for other individuals 

patients frustrate easily, are quick to display aggression, show a tendency to blame others, and do not change their behavior even after punishment

79

paranoid personality disorder

state in which the individual exhibits inappropriately suspicious thinking, self-importance, a lack of ability to forgive perceived insults, and an extreme sense of personal rights

80

schizoid personality disorder

skit zoyd

condition in which the patient withdraws into a fantasy world, with little need for social interaction

most patients have a limited capacity to experience pleasure or to express their feelings

81

paraphilia

condition of abnormal attraction

82

kathis/o

sitting

83

cata-

down

84

orex/o

appetite

85

ton/o

tension

86

claustr/o

a closing

87

nymph/o

woman

88

phor/o

to carry, to bear

89

-mania

condition of madness

90

pol/o

pole

91

man/o

madness

92

-lalia

condition of babbling

93

mental status examination

a diagnostic procedure to determine a patient's current mental state

94

Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF)

assesses a patient's overall function

results in a numerical score

95

Bender Gestalt test

measures visuomotor and spatial capabilities

96

Draw-a-Person (DAP) test

analyzes the patient's drawings of male and female individuals

97

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

assesses personality characteristics through a battery of forced-choice questions

98

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

analyzes stories patients are asked to make up about the pictures they are shown

provides information about needs, fantasies, and interpersonal relationships

99

Rorschach inkblots

used to determine the patient's ability to integrate intellectual and emotional factors in his or her perception of the environment

100

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

used to measure verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ

101

PET scan

an imaging procedure used to examine and map the metabolic activity of the brain

102

behavioral therapy

therapeutic attempt to alter an undesired behavior by substituting a new response or set of responses to a given stimulus

103

cognitive therapy

wide variety of treatment techniques that attempt to help the individual alter inaccurate or unhealthy perceptions and patterns of thinking

104

psychoanalysis

behavioral treatment developed initially by Sigmund Freud to analyze and treat any dysfunctional effects of unconscious factors on a patient's mental state

uses techniques that include analysis of defense mechanisms and dream interpretation

105

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

prevent the presynaptic neuron from taking serotonin back up, thereby increasing the amount of serotonin available in the synapse

106

detoxification

removal of a chemical substance (drug or alcohol) as an initial step in treatment of a chemically dependent individual

107

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

method of inducing convulsions to treat affective disorders in patients who have been resistant or unresponsive to drug therapy

108

light therapy

exposure of the body to light waves to treat patients with depression due to seasonal fluctuations

109

O x 1

oriented to time

110

O x 2

orientation to time and place

111

O x 3

oriented to time, place, and person

112

O x 4

oriented to time, place, person, and objects

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV)

Revised every 10 years

  • Axis I: Clinical Disorders
  • Axis II: Personality Disorders and/or Mental Retardation
  • Axis III: General Medical Conditions
  • Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
  • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF)