6. Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > 6. Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6. Urinary System Deck (142):
1

cali/o, calic/o, calyc/o

calyx (calyces), calix

KAY licks

extension of the ureter inside the kidney

2

cellul/o, cyt/o

cell

3

chlor/o

chloride

4

cortic/o

cortex

the outer layer of a body structure, as differentiated from the internal substance

5

glomerul/o

glomerulus

glow MAIR yoo lus

tiny ball of capillaries that filter blood into the opening of a nephron

6

hil/o

hilum

notch through which renal artery enters and the ureter & renal vein leave the kidney

7

nephr/o, ren/o

kidney

8

meat/o

meatus

general term for a passageway or opening in the body

9

medull/o

medulla

meh DULL ah

general term for the innermost part of a structure or organ

10

kal/i, potassi/o

potassium

11

peritone/o

peritoneum

12

pyel/o

renal pelvis

13

home/o

same

14

natr/o

sodium

15

trigon/o

trigone

TRY gohn

triangular part of the bladder between the ureters' entrance and the urethral outlet

16

ureter/o

ureter

pair of fibromuscular tubes that transport urine from the kidney to the bladder each tube divides into a pelvic part and an abdominal part

17

urethr/o

urethra

point of exit for excreting urine from the body

18

cyst/o, vesic/o

urinary bladder, sac

19

ur/o, urin/o

urine, urinary system

20

-stasis

controlling, stabilizing

21

extra-

outside

22

anuria

ann YOOR ee ah

condition of no urine

23

diuresis

increased volume of urine

condition of increased formation and excretion of urine, of large volumes of urine

caffeine and alcohol are diuretics (i.e., they increase the amount of urine produced)

24

dysuria

condition of painful urination

25

enuresis

en yoor EE sis

involuntary urination, can be nocturnal or diurnal

AKA bedwetting

26

incontinence

inability to hold urine

27

nocturia

nock TOOR ee ah

condition of excessive urination at night

28

oliguria

ah lig GYOOR ee ah

condition of scanty urination

29

polydipsia

pah lee DIP see ah

conditions of excessive thirst usually accompanied by polyuria

30

polyuria

condition of excessive urination

31

retention

inability to release urine

32

urgency

intense sensation of the need to urinate immediately

33

albuminuria

al BYOO min yur ee ah

albumin in the urine

AKA proteinuria

34

abscess

cavity containing pus and surrounded by inflamed tissue

35

azotemia

eh zoh TEE mee ah

condition of excessive urea in the blood indicating nonfunctioning kidneys

AKA uremia

36

azoturia

a zoh TOOR ee ah

excessive nitrogenous compounds, such as urea, in the urine

37

bacteriuria

bacteria in the urine

38

edema

accumulation of fluid in the tissues can results from kidney failure

39

glycosuria

sugar in the urine

40

hematuria

hee mah TOOR ee ah

blood in the urine

41

hypertension

condition of high blood pressure

42

pyuria

pus in the urine

43

diabetes insipidus (DI)

deficiency of antidiuretic (ADH) hormone, which causes the patient to excrete large quantities of urine (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsia)

44

diabetes mellitus

meh LYE tus

metabolic disease caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, water and electrolyte loss, ketoacidosis, and possible eventual coma

45

polycystic kidney disease

inherited disorder characterized by an enlargement of the kidneys caused by many bilateral renal cysts that reduce functioning of renal tissue

46

renal colic

severe pain associated with stones lodged in the ureter

a stone in the ureter often begins as side pain (flank pain) before shifting to the lower back

47

urolithiasis

yoo ro lih THIGH uh sis

stones anywhere in the urinary tract, but usually in the renal pelvis or urinary bladder

usually formed in patients with an excess of the mineral calcium

 

AKA urinary calculi

48

urinary tract infection (UTI)

infection anywhere in the urinary system, caused most commonly by bacteria, but also by parasites, yeast, and protozoa most frequently occurring disorder in the urinary system

49

glomerulonephritis

gloh MER yoo loh neh FRY tis

inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, decreased urine production, and edema

50

hydronephrosis

hye droh neh FROH sis

dilation of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys resulting from the obstruction of the flow of urine

51

nephritic syndrome

group of signs and symptoms of a urinary tract disorder, including hematuria, HTN, and renal failure

52

nephritis

inflammation of the kidney a general term that does not specify the location of the inflammation or the cause

53

interstitial nephritis

inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney

often caused by a drug rxn, frequently inducing poor renal function, fever, skin rash, and eosinophils in the blood/urine

54

nephropathy

disease of the kidneys a general term that does not specify a disorder

55

nephroptosis

prolapse or sagging of the kidney

56

nephrotic syndrome

abnormal group of symptoms in the kidney, characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema may occur in glomerular disease and as a complication of many systemic diseases (e.g., DM)

AKA nephrosis

57

pyelonephritis

infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma of the kidney

usually the result of lower urinary tract infection

58

renal failure

inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes may be acute or chronic

59

acute renal failure (ARF)

sudden inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, resulting from hemorrhage, trauma, burns, toxic injury to the kidney, pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis, or lower urinary tract obstruction characterized by oliguria and rapid azotemia

60

chronic renal failure (CRF)

long-term inability of the kidney to excrete wastes

61

renal hypertension

high blood pressure secondary to kidney disease

62

renal sclerosis

hardening of the arteries of the kidneys

AKA nephrosclerosis

63

renal adenoma

small, slow-growing noncancerous tumors of the kidney, usually found at autopsy

64

renal oncocytoma

the most common benign solid renal tumor

65

transitional cell papilloma

benign tumor of the bladder

can become malignant on recurrence

66

renal cell carcinoma

10th most common cancer

although cause is unknown, risk factors include smoking and obesity

AKA hypernephroma or adenocarcinoma

67

nephroblastoma

malignant tumors that develop from kidney cells that did not develop fully before childbirth and thus occur mainly in children

AKA Wilms tumor

68

transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder

malignant tumors that comprise approximately 90% of all bladder cancers and arise from the cells lining the bladder

69

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

70

cystocele

SIS toh seel

herniation of the urinary bladder

71

ureterocele

yoo REE tur oh seel

prolapse of the terminal end of the ureter into the bladder

72

urethral stenosis

narrowing of the urethra AKA urethral stricture

73

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra

74

vesicoureteral reflux

abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder to the ureter

75

intravenous urography (IVU)

radiographic imaging of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder done with a contrast medium

AKA intravenous pyelography (IVP)

76

kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB)

radiographic imaging of the kidney, ureters, and bladder without a contrast medium

see Figure A

77

nephrotomography

neh froh toh MAH gruh fee

sectional radiographic exam of the after IV injection of contrast medium

78

voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)

sis toh yoor ee THRAH gruh free

radiographic imaging of the urinary bladder and urethra done with a contrast medium while patient is urinating

the image made by this procedure is a voiding cystourethrogram

79

cystoscopy

visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

80

catheter

hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a vessel, organ or cavity of the body to withdraw or instill fluid, monitor types of various information, and visualize a vessel or cavity

can be inserted through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine

81

cytoscope

instrument for visual examination of the inside of the bladder

82

laparoscope

LAP ur oh skohp

type of endoscope consisting of an illuminated tube with an optical system, inserted through the abdominal wall for examining the peritoneal cavity

83

lithotrite

LITH oh tryte

instrument used to crush a calculus in the urinary bladder; fragments may then be expelled or washed out

84

nephroscope

fiberoptic instrument used specifically for the disintegration and removal of renal calculi

an ultrasonic probe emitting high-frequency sound waves breaks up the calculi, which are removed by suction through the scope

85

stent

tubular device for supporting hollow structures during surgical anastomosis or for holding arteries open after angioplasty

86

urinometer

types of hydrometer used to measure the specific gravity (DG) of a urine sample AKA urometer

87

ileal conduit

channel, pipe, or tube that guides urine from the ureters to the ileum in the digestive system to be excreted through the large intestine, when the bladder is no longer available for storing the urine and releasing it through the urethra

AKA ureteroileostomy

88

lithotripsy

process of crushing stones either to prevent or clear an obstruction in the urinary system crushing may be manual, by high-energy shock waves, or by pulsed dye laser

In each case, the fragments may be expelled naturally or washed out

89

nephrectomy

resection of the kidney

90

nephrolithotomy

incision of the kidney for removal of a kidney stone

91

nephropexy

suspension or fixation of the kidney

92

nephrostomy

opening made in the kidney so that catheter can be inserted

93

nephrotomy

incision of the kidney

94

transurethral procedure

any procedure conducted through the urethra

95

urethrolysis

destruction of the adhesions of the urethra

96

vesicotomy

vess ih KAH tuh mee

incision of the urinary bladder

97

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

pair eh tuh NEE ul

type of renal dialysis in which an indwelling catheter in the abdomen permits fluid to drain into and out of the peritoneal cavity to cleanse the blood

98

hemodialysis (HD)

removal of certain elements (impurities or wastes) from the blood, performed by diffusion of the blood through a semipermeable membrane

type of renal dialysis that cleanses the blood by shunting it from the body through a machine for diffusion and ultrafiltration, and then returning it to the patient's circulation

99

renal dialysis

process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove substances that a healthy kidney would eliminate, including poisons, drugs, urea, uric acid, and creatinine

100

renal transplant

surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient

101

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

102

ARF

acute renal failure

103

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

this test determines how much urea and nitrogen have accumulated in the blood (uremia) to determine the severity of a pt's renal failure

104

CAPD

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

105

CRF

chronic renal failure

106

Cl

chloride

107

cysto

cystoscopy

108

DI

diabetes insipidus

109

DM

diabetes mellitus

110

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

111

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

112

HD

hemodialysis

113

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

114

IVU

intravenous urography

115

K

potassium

116

KUB

kidney, ureter, and bladder

117

L

liter

118

SG

specific gravity

measures the ability of the kidneys to regulate the concentration of urine

119

UA

urinalysis

120

VCUG

voiding cystourethrography

121

micturition

MIC tyur ition

act of releasing urine

AKA urination, voiding

122

urea

nitrogenous waste product formed in the liver and carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys for transformation into urine

123

nephron

microscopic, functional unit of the kidney

124

renal pelvis

cavity inside the kidney where urine is drained from the collecting tubules before entering the ureter

125

renal corpuscle

located at the entrance of the nephron; contains the glomerulus and its surrounding Bowman's capsule

126

stromal tissue

supportive tissue

127

-cele

herniation

128

olig/o

scanty, few

129

tens/o

stretching

130

azot/o

nitrogen

131

papill/o

nipple

132

intravenous pyelography (IVP)

a contrast medium is introduced into the urine so that the completed pyelogram will show the contrast material filling the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra

133

creatinine clearance test

cree AT tuh nin

test of kidney function that compares the rate at which nitrogenous waste is removed from the blood by comparing its concentration in the blood and urine over a 24-hr period

134

nephrostolithotomy

neh frost toh lith AH tuh mee

stone extraction through an artificial opening (nephrostomy)

135

nephropexy

surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney

136

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

use of shock waves to crush stones in the urinary system

137

-trite

instrument to crush stones

138

stom/o

opening

139

tom/o

section

140

-pexy

fixation, suspension

141

PKU

phenylketonuria

142

parenchymal tissue

functional parts of an organ

e.g., kidney