8. Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > 8. Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8. Female Reproductive System Deck (203):
1

nat/o

birth; born

2

cervic/o

cervix

3

ov/i, ov/o

egg, ovum

4

salping/o

fallopian tube

5

men/o

menses, menstruation

6

my/o

muscle

7

ovari/o, oophor/o

ovary

8

culd/o

Douglas' cul-de-sac

AKA rectouterine pouch

9

rect/o

rectum

10

uter/o, hyster/o, metri/o, metr/o

uterus

11

vagin/o, colp/o

vagina

12

gynec/o

women

13

endo-

within

14

neo-

new

15

peri

surrounding

16

-arche

beginning

17

-logy

the study of

18

-logist

one who specialized in the study of

19

-pause

to stop

20

barthol/o

Bartholin's glands

21

labi/o

labia

22

perine/o

perineum

23

hymen/o

vaginal orifice

24

vulv/o, episi/o

vulva

25

mamm/o, mast/o

breast

26

lact/o, galact/o

milk

27

papill/o, thel/o

nipple

28

amni/o

amnion

29

chori/o, chorion/o

chorion

30

fet/o

fetus

31

gravid/o

pregnancy

32

omphal/o, umbilic/o

umbilicus

33

-gravida, -cyesis

pregnancy

34

-tocia, -para

labor, delivery

35

anovulation

failure of the ovary to release an ovum

36

polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

bilateral presence of numerous cysts, caused by a hormonal abnormality leading to the secretion of androgens

can cause acne, facial hair, and infertility

37

adhesion, fallopian tubes

scar tissue that binds surfaces together

a sequela (suh KWEL uh) of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), in which, as a result of the inflammation, the tubes heal closed, causing infertility

38

hematosalpinx

hee mah toh SAL pinks

condition of blood in the fallopian tubes

39

hydrosalpinx

condition of fluid in the fallopian tubes

40

pyosalpinx

condition of pus in the fallopian tubes

41

salpingitis

sal pin JYE tis

inflammation of the fallopian tubes, a part of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

42

endometriosis

condition in which endometrial tissue proliferates outside the uterine cavity

can interfere with the ability to conceive

caused by the backward flow of tissue fragments during menstruation

43

hysteroptosis

hiss tur op TOH sis

falling or sliding of the uterus from its normal location in the body

AKA uterine prolapse

44

retroflexion of the uterus

ondition in which the body of the uterus is bent backwards, forming an angle with the cervix

AKA "tipped uterus."

45

amenorrhea

uh men uh REE ah

lack of menstrual flow

46

dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)

abnormal uterine bleeding not caused by a tumor, inflammation, or pregnancy

PMB stands for postmenopausal bleeding.

47

dysmenorrhea

diss men uh REE ah

painful menstrual flow, cramps

48

menometrorrhagia

men oh met roh RAH zsa

excessive menstrual flow and uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation

49

menorrhagia

men or RAH zsa

abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual period

may be an indication of fibroids

50

metrorrhagia

met roh RAH zsa

uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation

may be caused by uterine lesions

51

oligomenorrhea

oh lig oh men oh REE ah

abnormally light menstrual flow

menorrhea refers to the normal discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus

52

polymenorrhea

abnormally frequent menstrual flow

53

premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

mood disorder that includes depression, irritability, fatigue, changes in appetite or sleep, and difficulty concentrating

occurs 1 to 2 weeks before the onset of the menstrual flow

54

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

poorly understood group of symptoms that occur in some women on a cyclic basis: Breast pain, irritability, fluid retention, headache, and lack of coordination are some of the symptoms

55

cervicitis

inflammation of the cervix that can produce a whitish discharge called leukorrhea

56

leukorrhea

whitish discharge usually resulting from cervicitis

57

vaginal prolapse

downward displacement of the vagina

AKA colpoptosis (kohl pop TOH sis)

58

vaginitis

inflammation of the vagina

59

vulvitis

inflammation of the external female genitalia

60

vulvodynia

idiopathic syndrome of nonspecific complaints of pain of the vulva

61

vulvovaginitis

inflammation of the vulva and vagina

62

mastitis

inflammation of the mammary gland

63

thelitis

thee LYE tis

inflammation of the nipples

AKA acromastitis, meaning inflammation of the extremities of the breast

64

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

abnormal cervical cell formation that may or may not devleop into cancer

`reported in grades I, II, and III

AKA cervical dysplasia

65

endometrial hyperplasia

the excessive development of cells in the uterine lining

of itself, benign but can become malignant

66

fibroadenoma of the breast

noncancerous breast tumors composed of fibrous and glandular tissue

67

fibrocystic changes of the breast

formerly called fibrocystic disease, this benign condition affects the glandular and stromal tissue

changes may take a variety of forms with typical symptoms of cysts, lumpiness, and/or pain

68

leiomyoma

lye oh my oma

benign smooth muscle tumor of the uterus

usually nonpainful growths

may be removed surgically

AKA fibroids

69

ovarian cyst

a benign, fluid-filled sac

either a follicular cyst, which occurs when a follicle does not rupture at ovulation, or a cyst of the corpus luteum, caused when it does not continue its transformation

70

endometrial adenocarcinoma

add den oh kar sin OH mah

malignant cancer that develops from the cells that line the uterus

most common uterine cancer

71

epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)

an inherited mutation of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene is linked to the risk of this malignancy and breast cancer

72

infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC)

most common type of breast cancer that arises from the cells lining the milk ducts

73

leiomyosarcoma

lye oh mye oh sar KOH mah

rare type of cancer of the smooth muscle of the uterus

74

lobular carcinoma

LAHB yoo lur

make up ~15% of breast cancers

tumors begin in the glandular tissue of the breast at the ends of the milk ducts

75

Paget disease of the breast

PAJ et

rare malignancy of the nipple that can occur in both women and men

 

76

squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

most common type of cervical cancer

thought to be caused by HPV

one of the most curable cancers with early detection

77

cervicography

photographic procedure in which a specially designed 35-mm camera is used to image the entire cervix to produce a slide called a 
cervigram

used to detect early cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer

can be combined with colposcopy or done independently

78

hysterosalpingography (HSG)

his tur oh sal pin GAH gruh fee

radiographic procedure using contrast medium to image the uterus and fallopian tubes

79

mammography

imaging technique for early detection of breast cancer

results in an image called mammogram

80

pelvimetry

measurement of the birth canal

types include clinical and x-ray, although x-ray pelvimetry is not commonly done

81

colposcopy

kohl PAH skuh pee

endoscopic procedure used for a cervical/vaginal biopsy

82

culdoscopy

kull DAH skuh pee

endoscopic procedure used for biopsy of Douglas' cul-de-sac

83

hysteroscopy

hiss tuh RAH skuk pee

endoscopic procedure used for a myomectomy (fibroid removal) or polypectomy (polyp removal)

84

laparoscopy

lap uh RAH skuh pee

endoscopic procedure for removing lesions (lysis), performing a hysterectomy, or ovarian biopsy

85

culdocentesis

removal of fluid and cells from the rectouterine pouch to detect dysplasia

86

hormone levels

laboratory measurements of the presence and extent of specific hormones in specimens of blood, urine, or body tissues

useful in evaluating a range of conditions from pregnancy to menopause

87

pap smear

exfoliative cytology procedure useful for the detection of vaginal and cervical cancer

88

alpha-fetoprotein test (AFP)

test for prenatal diagnosis

maternal serum (blood) alpha fetoprotein test performed between 14 and 19 weeks of gestation

may indicate a variety of conditions, such as neural tube defects (spina bifida is the most common finding) and multiple gestations

89

amniocentesis

removal and analysis of a sample of the amniotic fluid with the use of a guided needle through the mother's abdomen into the amniotic sac to diagnose a number of fetal abnormalities

90

chorionic villus samping (CVS)

removal of a small piece of the outer covering of the fetus, the chorion, either transvaginally or through a small incision in the abdomen, to test for chromosomal abnormalities

91

contraction stress test (CST)

test to predict fetal outcome and risk of intrauterine asphyxia by measuring fetal heart rate throughout a minimum of three contractions within a 10-minute period

92

nonstress test (NST)

stimulation of the fetus to monitor for a normal, expected acceleration of the fetal heart rate

a nonreactive stress test should be followed by a CST and possible ultrasound studies

93

pregnancy test

test available in two forms:

  1. a standard OTC pregnancy test, which examines urine for the presence of hCG
  2. a serum (blood) pregnancy test performed in a physician's office or laboratory to get a quantitative hCG

a "triple-screen" is a blood test for hCG, AFP, and uE3 (unconjugated estradiol)

94

cervicectomy

sur vih SECK tuh mee

resection of the uterine cervix

95

colpopexy

KOHL poh peck see

fixation of the vagina to an adjacent structure to hold it in place

96

colpoplasty

KOHL poh plass tee

surgical repair of the vagina

97

dilation and curettage (D&C)

KYOOR ih tahzh

procedure involving dilation of the cervix until a scraping tool (curette) can be inserted to remove the lining of the uterus (curettage)

used to treat and diagnose conditions such as heavy menstrual bleeding, or to empty the uterus of the products of conception

98

hysterectomy

resection of the uterus

may be partial, pan- (all), or include other organs as well (e.g., total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral 
salpingo-oophorectomy [TAH-BSO])

the surgical approach is usually stated: whether it is laparoscopic, vaginal, or abdominal

99

hysteropexy

HISS tur oh peck see

suspension and fixation of a prolapsed uterus

100

lumpectomy

removal of a tumor from a breast

101

mammoplasty

MAM oh plas tee

surgical or cosmetic repair of the breast

options may include augmentation or reduction

102

mastectomy

removal of the breast, either unilateral or bilateral

103

mastopexy

reconstructive procedure to lift and fixate the breasts

104

oophorectomy

oh ah fore ECK tuh mee

resection of an ovary, either unilateral or bilateral

105

pelvic exenteration

ecks zen tuh RAY shun

removal of the contents of the pelvic cavity

pelvic exenteration is usually done in response to widespread cancer to remove the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder, vagina, rectum, and lymph nodes

106

salpingectomy

sall pin JEKT uh mee

resection of a fallopian tube, either unilateral or bilateral

107

salpingolysis

sal ping GALL ih sis

removal of the adhesions in the fallopian tubes to reestablish patency, with the goal of fertility

108

uterine artery embolization (UAE)

em boh lye ZAY shun

injection of particles to block a uterine artery that supplies the blood to a fibroid, which causes death of the fibroid

109

artificial insemination (AI)

introduction of semen into the vagina by mechanical or instrumental means

110

gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)

laboratory mixing and injection of the ova and sperm into the fallopian tubes so that fertilization occurs naturally within the body

111

intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

injection of one sperm into the ovum and subsequent transplantation of the resulting zygote into the uterus

112

in vitro fertilization (IVF)

procedure that allows the mother's ova to be fertilized outside the body and then implanted in the uterus of either the biologic mother or a surrogate to carry to term

113

zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)

mixing of the ova and sperm in the laboratory, with fertilization confirmed before the zygotes are returned to the fallopian tubes

114

sterilization

surgical procedure rendering a person unable to produce children

e.g., hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or tubal ligation

115

tubal ligation

TOO bul

sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are cut, ligated (tied), and cauterized to prevent the ova released from being fertilized by spermatozoa

116

abruptio placentae

plah SEN tee

premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall

may result in a severe hemorrhage that can threaten both infant and maternal lives

AKA ablatio placentae (ah BLAY she oh plah SEN tee)

Fig B

117

cephalopelvic disproportion

condition in which the infant's head is larger than the pelvic outlet it must pass through, thereby inhibiting normal labor and birth

one of the indications for a cesarean section

118

eclampsia

extremely serious form of hypertension secondary to pregnancy

patients are at risk for coma, convulsions, and death

119

ectopic pregnancy

implantation of the embryo in any location but the uterus

120

erythroblastosis fetalis

condition in which mother is Rh-negative and her fetus is Rh-positive, causing the mother to form antibodies to the Rh-positive factor

subsequent Rh-positive pregnancies will be in jeopardy because the mother's anti-Rh antibodies will cross the placenta and destroy fetal blood cells

121

miscarriage/abortion

termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is viable

if spontaneous, it may be termed a miscarriage or a spontaneous abortion

if induced, it can be referred to as a therapeutic abortion

122

oligohydramnios

oh lih goh hye DRAM nee ohs

condition of low or missing amniotic fluid

123

placenta previa

placenta that is malpositioned in the uterus, so that it covers the opening of the cervix

even slight separation of the placenta from the uterine wall can result in bleeding

Fig A

124

polyhydramnios

condition of excessive amniotic fluid

125

preeclampsia

abnormal condition of pregnancy with unknown cause, marked by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria

AKA toxemia of pregnancy

126

meconium staining

meh KOH nee um

refers to fetal defecation while in utero

indicates fetal distress

127

nuchal cord

NOO kul

abnormal but common occurrence of the umbilical cord wrapped around the neck of the neonate

128

cephalic version

process of turning the fetus so that the head is at the cervical outlet for a vaginal delivery

129

cerclage

sur KLAHZH

suturing the cervix closed to prevent a spontaneous abortion in a woman with an incompetent cervix

suture is removed when the pregnancy is at full-term to allow the delivery to proceed normally

130

Cesarean section (C-section, CS)

delivery of an infant through a surgical abdominal incision

necessary with severe hemorrhaging as a result of placenta previa

131

episiotomy

incision to widen the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing the tissue of the vulva during delivery

132

oxytocia

ock see TOH sha

rapid birth

133

dystocia

dis TOH sha

difficult birth

134

vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC)

delivery of subsequent babies vaginally after a C-section

in the past, women were told "once a C-section, always a C-section." Currently, this is being changed by recent developments in technique

135

vaginal delivery

(usually) cephalic presentation (head first) through the vagina

136

breech delivery

feet or buttock presentation through the vagina

137

Apgar score

rates the physical health of the infant with a set of criteria 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth

138

congenital hypothyroidism

condition of deficient thyroid hormones

undiscovered and untreated, it can lead to retarded growth and brain development

if caught at birth, oral doses of the missing thyroid hormone will allow normal development

139

phenylketonuria (PKU)

fennel kee tun YOOR ee ah

test for deficiency of enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is responsible for converting phenylalanine, found in certain foods, into tyrosine 

failure to treat this condition will lead to brain damage and mental retardation

140

Cx

cervix

141

EDD

estimated delivery date

142

ERT

estrogen replacement therapy

143

FHR

fetal heart rate

144

hCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

145

hMG

human menopausal gonadotropin

146

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

147

LMP

last menstrual period

148

Rh

Rhesus factor

149

TAH-BSO

total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

150

menarche

men ar kee

the first menstruation and establishment of cyclical menstrual function

151

pituitary gland

an endocrine gland that is suspended under the brain in the fossa of the sphenoid bone

supplies hormones essential to many vital processes, such as FSH

152

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

secreted by the pituitary gland

causes the ovary's follicles (tiny secretory sacs in the ovary) to secrete estrogen

pituitary gland → FSH → ovary follicles → estrogen → hypothalamus → luteinizing hormone (LH) → ovulation → corpus luteum → estrogen & progesterone → fimbriae move ovum to uterus

153

luteinizing hormone (LH)

loot EE uh nye zing

released by the hypothalamus to stimulate the follicle to mature and release its ovum (ovulation)

pituitary gland → FSH → ovary follicles → estrogen → hypothalamus → luteinizing hormone (LH) → ovulation → corpus luteum → estrogen & progesterone → fimbriae move ovum to uterus

154

ovulation

process in which developed ovum/egg is expelled from the ovarian follicle and swept into the fallopian tube

ovarian follicles mature → one or more of the ovarian follicles rupture → a developed ovum is released → ruptured follicle develops golden appearance (corpus luteum)

155

corpus luteum

secretes estrogens and progesterone

after egg is expelled from the follicle into the fallopian tube, the follicular cells on the surface of the ovary form the corpus luteum

last about 12-14 hours if fertilization does not occur

if fertilization does occur, the hCG secreted by zygote keeps corpus luteum active

ovarian follicles mature → one or more of the ovarian follicles rupture → a developed ovum is released → ruptured follicle develops golden appearance → secretes estrogen & progesterone → deteriorates and becomes nonfunctional if fertilization does not occur

 

156

estrogen

generic term for any steroid that produces estrus

responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics, as well as for producing a suitable environment for the fertilization (endometrial thickening), implantation, and nutrition in the early embryo by acting on the female genitalia during the menstrual cycle

157

progesterone

principal progestional hormone of the body

responsible for the development and maintenance of the endometrial lining

released by the corpus luteum, placenta, and the adrenal cortex

158

fimbria

(pl. fimbriae)

the feathery ends of each fallopian tube, draws matured ovum into the tube

159

uterine adnexa

accessory organs of the uterus

includes fallopian tubes and ovaries

160

follicle

secretory sac

161

perimetreum

outer layer of uterus

162

myometrium

muscle layer of uterus

163

endometrium

innermost lining of the uterus

164

fundus

top, raised area of the uterus between the outlets for the fallopian tubes

165

corpus

large central area of the uterus

AKA body

166

cervix

the lower narrowed area of the uterus

AKA neck of the uterus

167

vagina

muscular, tube-like organ through which uterine lining is shed when the ovum is not fertilized with a spermatozoon

if fertilization does take place, vagina becomes the birth canal for the newborn

168

Douglas' cul-de-sac

small area between uterus and rectum

AKA rectouterine pouch

169

vulva

 external female genitalia

consists of the orifice (vaginal opening), labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and perineum

170

Bartholin's glands

paired glands in the vulva that secrete a mucous lubricant for the vagina

171

lobes

15-20 divisions in each breast in which milk-secreting cells are located

172

lactiferous ducts

small tubular structures that extend from milk-secreting cells and expand into lactiferous sinuses as they converge like spokes toward the nipple

173

conception

event that occurs when one ovum unites with one sperm as a result of sexual intercourse or fertilization in a clinical setting

marks the beginning of pregnancy

174

zygote

cell formed when the sperm and ovum unite

175

gestation

period of about 38 weeks in which the development of a new individual occurs from conception to birth

176

implantation

embedding of a zygote into the uterine lining about 7-10 days after ovulation

177

human chorionic gonadotropin

hormone secreted by the zygote during implantation

prevents corpus luteum from deteriorating and allows the continued production of estrogen and progesterone to support the pregnancy and prevent menstruation

178

embryo

3rd to 8th week of life

179

amnion

thin but tough membrane lining the chorion, containing the embryo and later the fetus

surrounded by amniotic fluid

180

chorion

CORE ee ahn

outermost extraembryonic membrane

composed of trophoblast lined with mesoderm and develops villi about 2 weeks after fertilization

181

placenta

highly vascular structure that provides communication b/w mother and embryo for the exchange of nutrients and wastes

anchors embryo to uterine wall and begins producing progesterone after ~10 weeks of gestation

182

fetus

embryo after 8th week of pregnancy

183

umbilical cord

connects embryo to placenta, which is anchored to uterine wall

184

parturition

PAR tyur ih shun

childbirth

185

afterbirth

the expulsion of placenta from the uterus after parturition

186

pelvic inflammatory disease

an inflammatory condition affecting the female pelvic organs, particularly one caused by bacterial infection

characterized by fever, pain in the lower abdomen, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, and pain in the uterus, uterine tube, or affected ovary during pelvic examination

AKA salpingitis

187

teratoma

tumors composed of different kinds of tissue, none of which normally occur together

most common in the ovaries or testes

188

dermoid cyst

tumor consisting of a fibrous wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing material derived from embryonal tissues

189

lei/o

smooth

190

-drome

run

191

phor/o

carry, bear

192

-ptosis

drooping, sagging

193

lobul/o

small lobe

194

-plasia

formation, development

195

-sarcoma

cancerous tumor of connective tissue

196

-carcinoma

cancerous tumor of epithelial tissue

197

sonohysterography

ultrasonography of the uterus

198

transvaginal ultrasound

uses a proble introduced into the vagina and a high-frequency sound to obtain a transvaginal view of the uterus

199

salpingo-oophorectomy

sal ping oh - oh ah for eck tuh mee

removal of a fallopian tube and an ovary

200

triple-screen

 blood test for hCG, AFP, and uE3 (unconjugated estradiol)

201

incompetent cervix

condition that can lead to a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage

usually occurs b/w 3rd to 13th week of pregnancy and thus results in miscarriage by the 20th week

a cerclage can be performed to prevent this

202

nuch/o

neck

203

eutocia

normal delivery