15. Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15. Endocrine System Deck (126):
1

adren/o

adrenal gland

2

toc/o

labor, delivery

3

aden/o

gland

4

gonad/o

gonad

5

lob/o

lobe, section

6

lact/o

milk

7

gen/o

origin

8

pancreat/o

pancreas

9

hypophys/o

pituitary gland

10

press/o

pressure

11

gluc/o, glyc/o

sugar

12

thalam/o

thalamus

13

thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland

14

phys/o

to grow

15

crin/o

to secrete

16

trop/o

to turn

17

vas/o

vessel

18

oxy-

rapid

19

pro-

in front of

20

-crine

to secrete

21

-in

a substance

22

hormones

chemical messengers, or secretions, of the endocrine system

travel through the bloodstream, so its effects appear more slowly and last longer

set in motion a number of body functions, including metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water and electrolyte balances

23

exocrine glands

secrete through ducts that lead directly to target organs

ex: sweat glands

24

endocrine glands

secrete directly into the blood stream w/o the use of ducts

25

metabolism

sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in the human body

26

hypophysis

hye POFF uh sis

considered the master gland as it controls the functions of other endocrine glands

located behind the optic nerve in the cranial cavity

divided into anterior and posterior lobes

AKA pituitary gland

27

adenohypophysis

add eh noh hye POFF uh sis

the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that secretes a large number of hormones in response to stimulation by the hypothalamus: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, endorphins, and prolactin

28

somatotropin

growth hormone (GH)

affects the growth of the skeletal muscles and the long bones of the body

also promotes the synthesis of proteins, performs cell repair, and helps to maintain blood glucose levels

29

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

secreted by adenohypophysis

stimulates the adrenal cortex to release steroids

30

gonadotropic hormones

secreted by adenohypophysis

  • ​FSH stimulates the development of gametes in the respective sexes
  • LH stimulates ovulation in the female and the secretion of sex hormones in both the male and female
  • Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) stimulates production of reproductive cells in the male

31

growth hormone (GH)

secreted by adenohypophysis

stimulates growth of long bones and skeletal muscle; converts proteins to glucose

AKA human growth hormone (hGH) or somatotropin hormone (STH)

32

prolactin (PRL)

secreted by adenohypophysis

stimulates milk production in the breast

AKA lactogenic hormone

33

thyrotropin

secreted by adenohypophysis

stimulates thyroid to release two other thyroid hormones

AKA thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

34

neurohypophysis

nur oh hye POFF uh sis

posterior lobe of the pituitary gland composed of nervous tissue

serves as the release point of oxytocin and ADH

 

35

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

secreted by neurohypophysis

stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water and return it to circulation

also a vasoconstrictor that raises blood pressure

AKA vasopressin

36

oxytocin (OT)

secreted by neurohypophysis

stimulates the muscles of the uterus during the delivery of an infant and the muscles surrounding the mammary ducts to contract, releasing milk

37

hypothalamus

ventral portion of the diencephalon, forming the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle

activates, integrates, and controls the endocrine processes, somatic functions, and peripheral autonomic nervous system

38

calcitonin

regulates the amount of calcium in the bloodstream

39

tetraiodothyronine (T4)

teh trah eye oh doh THIGH roh neen

increases cell metabolism

AKA thyroxine

40

triiodothyronine (T3)

try eye oh doh THIGH roh neen

increases cell metabolism

41

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

released by the parathyroid gland to increase calcium levels in the blood by causing it to be released from the bone and reabsorbed by the kidneys and digestive system

42

thyroid

a single organ located on the anterior surface of the neck that secretes T3, T4, and calcitonin

43

parathyroids

4 small glands on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

44

suprarenals

two adrenal glands, each located on top of a kidney

 

45

adrenal cortex

external portion of suprarenals (adrenal glands)

released 3 hormones: mineralocoriticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones

46

mineralocorticoids

any of the corticosteroids secreted by adrenal cortex that regulates blood volume, pressure, and electrolytes

ex: aldosterone

47

glucocorticoids

any of the corticosteroids secreted by adrenal cortex that regulates metabolism of lipids, carbs, and proteins

respond to stress and contribute to anti-inflammatory action

 

48

sex hormones

secreted by the adrenal cortex to provide secondary sex characteristics

49

adrenal medulla

inner portion of each adrenal gland

releases 3 hormones: epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine

50

epinephrine

a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla to dilate bronchi, increase heart rate, raise blood pressure, dilate pupils, and elevate blood sugar levels

AKA adrenaline

51

dopamine

a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla to dilate arteries and to increase blood pressure, cardiac rate, and production of urine

acts as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system

52

norepinephrine

a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels for energy use

AKA noradrenaline

53

pancreas

an elongated nodular gland located behind the stomach b/w the duodenum and the spleen

has both exocrine and endocrine functions

as an exocrine gland, releases digestive enzymes through a duct into the small intestines

as an endocrine gland, uses cells called islets of Langerhands to regulate blood glucose levels

54

islets of Langerhans

eye lets of LANG ger hans

endocrine gland in pancreas

alpha cells produce glucagon to increase blood glucose levels

beta cells secrete insulin, which moves fatty acids, amino acids, and glucose out of the blood and into the tissues

55

thymus gland

located in the mediastinum above the heart

releases a hormone called thymosin to stimulate cells involved in the immune response

56

thymosin

naturally occurring hormone that is secreted by the thymus gland and serves to maintain immune system function

57

pineal gland

located in the center of the brain

secretes melatonin

58

gonads

gamete-producing organs

also act as endocrine glands that influence reproductive functions

59

hypoglycemia

condition of deficient blood glucose

60

hyperglycemia

condition of excessive blood glucose

61

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland, not due to a tumor

may occur in conjunction with increased, decreased, or normal levels of hormone function

62

exophthalmia

protrusion of the eyeballs from their orbits

may be a result of an endocrine disorder

63

hirsutism

HER soot iz um

abnormal hairiness

AKA hypertrichosis

64

anorexia

lack of appetite

65

hypotension

deficient or below normal blood pressure

66

hypocalcemia

condition of deficient calcium in the blood

67

hyponatremia

condition of deficient sodium in the blood

68

paresthesia

abnormal sensation, such as prickling

69

polydipsia

condition of excessive thirst

70

polyphagia

pah lee FAY jee ah

condition of excessive appetite

71

polyuria

condition of excessive urination

72

tetany

continuous muscle spasms

73

acromegaly

ack roh MEG uh lee

a pituitary gland disorder characterized by hypersecretion of somatotropin from adenohypophysis during adulthood

leads to an enlargement of the extremities (hands/feet), jaw, nose, and forehead

74

diabetes insipidius (DI)

a pituitary gland disorder characterized by undersecretion of ADH from the neurohypophysis resulting in polydipsia and polyuria

75

gigantism

a pituitary gland disorder characterized by hypersecretion of somatotropin from adenohypophysis during childhood, leading to excessive growth

76

growth hormone deficiency (GHD)

a pituitary gland disorder characterized by somatotropin deficiency due to dysfunction of adenohypophysis during childhood

results in dwarfism

if during adulthood, patients may develop obesity and experience weakness and cardiac difficulties

77

panhypopituitarism

pan hye poh pih too ih tur iz um

a pituitary gland disorder characterized by deficiency or lack of all pituitary hormones causing hypotension, weight loss, weakness, and loss of libido

AKA Simmonds disease

78

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)

a pituitary gland disorder characterized by oversecretion of ADH from the neurohypophysis leading to the inability to excrete concentrated urine

79

hyperthyroidism

excessive thyroid hormone production

most common form is Graves disease, which may be accompanied by anorexia and/or exophthalmia

80

thyrotoxicosis

severe form of hyperthyroidism

81

hypothyroidism

deficiency of thyroid hormone production

82

myxedema

mick suh DEE mah

extreme adult form of hypothyroidism

83

cretinism

CREE tih nih zum

form of childhood hypothyroidism

results in stunted mental and physical growth

84

hyperparathyroidism

overproduction of parathyroid hormone

symptoms include polyuria, hypercalcemia, hypertension, and kidney stones

85

hypoparathyroidism

deficient parathyroid hormone production results in tetany, hypocalcemia, irritability, and muscle cramps

86

Addison disease

insufficient secretion of adrenal cortisol from the adrenal cortex

manifested by gastric complaints, hypotension, and dehydration

87

Cushing syndrome

excessive secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex

symptoms include obesity, leukocytosis, hirsutism, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and muscle wasting

88

hyperinsulinism

oversecretion of insulin

seen in some newborns of diabetic mothers

causes severe hypoglycemia

89

type 1 diabetes

total lack of insulin production resulting in glycosuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, blurred vision, fatigue, and frequent infections

thought to be an autoimmune disorder

previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

90

type 2 diabetes

deficient insulin production

results from tissue unresponsiveness or resistance to insulin, causes of which include hormone receptor defects or too few receptors on the surface of target cell membranes. Thus, the insulin that is produced is not effective

cause unknown by associated with obesity and family history

previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

91

diabetes mellitus (DM)

MEL uh tuhs

a chronic syndrome of impaired carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism that is caused either by insufficient insulin secretion or by target tissue insulin resistance

92

pheochromocytoma

fee oh kroh moh sye TOH mah

usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla

93

prolactinoma

most common type of pituitary tumor

causes the pituitary to oversecrete prolactin

94

thymoma

usually found in a benign form

most common disorder accompanying myasthenia gravis

95

islet cell carcinoma

pancreatic cancer

4th leading cause of cancer death in US

96

malignant thymoma

rare cancer of the thymus gland

97

thyrocarcinoma

most common types of thyroid carcinoma are follicular and papillary

both have high 5-year survival rates

98

carcin/o

epithelial cancer

99

-emia

blood condition

100

phe/o

dark

101

orex/o

appetite

102

acr/o

extremities, extremes

103

computed tomography (CT) scan

may be used to test for bone desnity in hypoparathyroidism and the size of the adrenal glands in Addison disease

104

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

may be used ot examine changes in the size of soft tissues (pituitary, pancreas, or hypothalamus)

105

radioactive iodine (RAI) uptake scan 

may be used to test thyroid function by measuring the gland's ability to concentrate and retain iodine

useful to test for hyperthyroidism

106

radiography

radiographs are taken to examine suspected endocrine changes that affect the density or thickness of bone

also may reveal underlying causes of an endocrine disorder

107

ultasonography (US)

aside from visualizing the pancreas, may also be used to guide biopsies of the thyroid gland to discern the differences b/w solid or fluid-filled cysts

108

A1c

measure of average blood glucose during a 3-month time span

used to monitor response to diabetes treatment

109

fasting blood sugar (FBS)

after a period of fasting, blood is drawn

amount of glucose present is used to measure the body's ability to break down and use glucose

110

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

blood test to measure the body's response to a concentrated glucose solution

may be used to diagnose DM

111

hormone tests

measure the amount of ADH, cortisol, growth hormone, or parathyroid hormone in the blood

112

radioimmunoassay studies (RIA)

nuclear medicine tests use to tag and detect hormones in the blood through the use of radionuclides

113

thyroid function tests (TFTs)

blood tests done to assess TSH, T3, T4, and calcitonin

may be used to evaluate abnormalities of thyroid function

114

total calcium

measures the amount of calcium in the blood

results may be used to assess parathyroid function, calcium metabolism, or cancerous conditions

115

urine glucose

used as a screen for or to monitor diabetes mellitus

a urine specimen is tested for the presence of glucose

116

urine ketones

test to detect presence of ketones in a urine specimen

may indicated DM or hyperthyroidism

117

urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

test that measures the amount of catecholamine present in urine to detect pheochromocytoma

118

adrenalectomy

bilateral removal of the adrenal glands to reduce excess hormone secretion

119

hypophysectomy

hye poff uh SECK tuh mee

excision of the pituitary gland, usually done to remove a tumor

120

pancreatectomy

pan kree uh TECK tuh mee

excision of all or part of the pancreas to remove a tumor or to treat an intractable inflammation of the pancreas

121

parathyroidectomy

removal of the parathyroid glands

122

thyroidectomy

removal of part or all of the thyroid gland to treat goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to medication

removal of the majority, but not all, of this gland will result in a regrowth of the gland with normal function

if cancer is detected, a total thyroidectomy is performed

123

pancreaticoduodenectomy

treatment for pancreatic cancer

AKA Whipple procedure

124

insulin replacement therapy

used to compensate for impaired pancreatic functioning

may be used for either type of DM

available in either oral, injectable, oral spray, or pump

125

thyroid hormone replacement

used to treat both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

126