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Flashcards in 329 Biodiversity Deck (188):
1

Endangered species

facing imminent extirpation or extinction

2

endangered example

Blue Whale Oregon Spotted Frog Northern Leopard Frog (SARA, COSEWIC)

3

Extirpated species

species that no longer exist in the wild in BC, but do occur elsewhere

4

extirpated examples

Greater Sage-Grouse (SARA, COSEWIC)

5

Threatened species

likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed

6

threatened species example

Fin Whale Coastal Giant Salamander (SARA, COSEWIC)

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Vulnerable

particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events due to: restricted range, few populations, recent widespread declines, or other factors making them vulnerable to extirpation

8

vulnerable species example

Western Toad Sea Otter (SARA, COSEWIC)

9

red listed species

includes any indigenous species or subspecies that have, or are candidates for, extirpated, endangered, or threatened status in BC

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Blue listed species

any indigenous species or subspecies considered to be of special concern (vulnerable) in BC

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Canada Goose population on VI pre-europeans

Vancouver CG not numerous overwintered at coastal areas

12

CG 1920-1930s

Branta Canadensis moffitti introduced from Okanagan to Elk Lake. Introduced birds made small breeding population then increased to several hundred up coast to duncan

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CG 1970s

hundreds of non-native hybrids introduced

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CG now

15,000 resident CG that live here now year round, significant damage to human-modified and native landscapes

15

CG 1982

Little Qualicum river estuary health and productive brackish marsh, significant sedges, tufted hair grass, high above ground biomass, less than 20 records of CG

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CG 1984

firt CG nesting on LQ estuary

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CG mid 1990s

goose use had increased significantly, impacts to vegetation becoming evident

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CG 2000s

impacts have escalated to the point of needing to be documented

19

CG 2005

gathering of comparative data. 24/56 marsh species significantly changed in frequency/mean cover. over 10,000m^2 changed to primarily bare substrate

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detrital food web losses at LQ estuary

at least 17tonnes of above ground dry mass/year affecting higher trophic levels - apparent trophic cascade

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secondary impact on LQ estuary

increased salinity due to increased aquifer drawdown from human use

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LQ recovery

have to decrease current carrying capacity of geese could take decades especially due to hyper salinity, loss of organic matter, soil compaction

23

where are the worlds richest longline fishing grounds?

key foraging areas for seabirds! areas of upwelling, productive areas

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longline fishing

a long fishing line deployed from a fishing vessel with up to 2500 hooks out at a time over many km's

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longline fishing bycatch

160-320,000 seabirds /yr up to 100,000 albatross/yr caught on hooks and drowned while tying to snatch bait from the line or while foraging behind vessel for waste

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quantifying longline fishing bycatch

difficult b/c diverse, remote nature of fisheries, lack of systematic reporting, nature of seabird by catch rates themselves

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majority of birds caught in longline fisheries

albatross petrel shearwater (some gulls, terns, gannets, boobies, cormorants)

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why do conservation and longline fisheries management have common interests

time lost removing dead birds from hooks and nets fish catches foregone due to bait loss

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trawl fishing

big nets in water bycatch bird deaths mostly as warp cables at back of boat, or entangled in net during hauling

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trawl fishing bycatch

mostly larger bodied albatross and petrels up to 40 species 10s of thousands dying/year

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'discovery' of fishing seabird bycatch

long-line fishing known since 1980s trawl fishery threat much more recently

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trawl fishing in S Africa

all globally threatened or near threatened seabirds being caught BirdLifes Albatross Task Force working with trawl fisheries since 2006 to reduce bycatch- significantly reduced problem

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gillnet fishing

static curtain of netting left to drift at different depths, designed to entangle fish by their gills used to target large species - salmon, tuna, cod banned in international waters since 1991 but continue to operate in territorial and coastal waters (200 nautical miles of coast) around the world

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gillnet bycatch

large number of seabirds and seaducks - loons, grebes, seaducks, auks, cormorants, sharks, mammals ~400,000/yr

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gillnet expansion

rapid in 1960s- development of nets from synthetic material- cheaper, stronger, invisible in water. Improved catch, greater mortality of non-target species

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most frequently entangled species in gillnet

long-tailed duck

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fisheries mitigation strategies

better targeted fishing efforts more visible nets bird-scaring line set longlines at night add weights to lines to sink out of reach of birds streamer lines hook 'pods' cover point and barb of baited hook, opens at depth

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albatross at risk

17/22 species globally threatened remainder near threatened fisheries the major threat

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bird-scaring line strategy

bird by catch = 0 fish catch increase = >30% more fish caught b/c bait was not lost to birds birds steal ~18 baits before being caught

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challenges of implementing fishing mitigations

communicating effectively to diverse communities of fishermen worldwide - what works for 1 fishery may not work for others

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Albatross Task Force

worlds first international team of seabird catch mitigation instructors. work with fisheries to raise awareness and demonstrate simple measures to reduce bycatch

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S Africa mitigation

streamer lines compulsory in trawl fisheries, reduced albatross mortality ~90%

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where does the ATF stand

albatross task force- necessary research is complete, significant advances reached, ensuring adoption of regulations in each country and across entire fleets is next crucial step

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BirdLife remote tracking devices fitted to seabirds

study their movements at sea collate data in online database conserve seabirds around the world

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how has improved technology helped with seabird tracking

smaller, cheaper, more reliable devices

46

why knowledge of seabirds is poor

many species (wandering albatross, sooty shearwater) spend most of life at sea, breed on rocky outcrops in remote parts of the world, travel widely far from land, distribution and behaviour is unknown

47

BirdLife database

www.seabirdtracking.org >50 species of seabird collected from ~100 breeding colonies >100 researchers 2004 brought together to allow unprecedented understanding

48

purpose of BC breeding bird atlas

collect and make freely available the most comprehensive, current source of info on provinces breeding birds. Address conservation priorities and research questions. Enable biologists and land manager to make wiser decisions.

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breeding bird atlas helps biologists and land managers with what sorts of decisions

species at risk status environmental assessment climate change habitat management

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How does BC breeding bird atlas accomplish their purpose

10km^2 distribution maps relative abundance maps written accounts of project findings detailed info on rare and at-risk breeding birds comprehensive baseline for future comparisons major online database with tools, resources for conservation and research

51

Breeding Bird Atlas - the records

600,000 records >320 species 5 breeding seasons ('08-2012) publicly available, free

52

most important products of BBA

maps which inform conservation decisions and tell stand-alone stories

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BBA are among the most published examples in the scientific literature of what

citizen science

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main conservation applications of BBA

species status assessment OR reassessment (>40 species reassessed in BC) setting conservation priorities landscape conservation and stewardship environmental impact assessment development of BCRs

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combining provincial BBA's

BC, Man, Ont, Que, Maritimes combined data used by COSEWIC to determine status assessments standard data collection from broad regions highlights shifts in distribution and abundance

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BCRs

bird conservation regions

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What is an IBA

important bird area started in Canada in 1996 have ID'd 600 in 5 yrs discrete sites that support threatened birds, large groups, birds restricted by range and/or habitat

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IBA size

variable - may encompass private/public land, mar include legally protected sites

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IBA criteria

universally agreed upon for standardization, quantitative, scientifically defensible

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IBAs used for

conservation, prioritizing lands, assessing impacts establishing developmental guidelines

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IBA features

1. internationally significant for conservation and biodiversity 2. recognized worldwide as practical observation tool 3. distinct areas open to practical conservation action 4. identified using standardized criteria

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IBA focus

1. Reinvigorate IBA program nationally, regionally 2. develop national caretaker network to engage citizens in conservation 3. develop monitoring protocols and systems to report on bird populations 4. encourage decision makers to consider IBAs in planning and regulatory processes

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IBA regional caretaker networks

each IBA is assigned a lead volunteer who is assisted by citizen scientists and volunteers networks are in every province and mostly run by provincial nature conservation organizations

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role of provincial organizations in IBA caretaker network

recruit volunteers enlist community/government support oversee review of summary information

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provincial IBA program implementation

provinces are all currently at different stages of program implementation

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IBA database

search site by name, species, province, habitat type, bird conservation region, and read its site summary, additional tools (graphs, frequency chart, protection status), site description, and conservation issues

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why monitor bird populations

we want to understand status and trends of bird populations as an indicators for their environments overall health

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IBA bird programs are designed

to be reliable and accurate specific protocols are still in development

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Merlin Falcon Foundation role

Investigate the life history of our Northwest Merlin and educate by involving people in their conversation stewardship

70

What does MFF do

started in 1983 to observe migration pattern and wintering behavioural ecology, reproductive cycle, habitat/prey utilization Expanded fieldwork to BC in 1998

71

Why study Merlins

rarest breeding falcon in Washington state (and BC?) unknown, uncommon forest raptors

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Merlin identification

chestnut brown on back, white with dark/chestnut brown streaks under throat to lower abdomen, males most into purple-blue black, females retain dark brown all year, females 1/4 larger than males

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Merlin female vs male

f brown, m molts to purple-blue black - sexual dichromatism f 1/4 larger than m - sexual dimorphism

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Merlin Migration

disperse from birth sites migrate across N America, possible into mid-California migration not well known

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Merlin Breeding

courtship begins in Feb-March M/Fs call, chase each other in elaborate displays Ms show Fs nesting platforms and bring them food Fs lay 3-5 eggs in April-May

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Merlin hatchlings

hatchlings may- June; nestlings fledge 4-5wks; remain at breeding territory another 4-5 wks until learn to hunt

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Merlin habitat

NW coastal forest Merlin's are found in ancient - young forests where nest platforms are available in their breeding season migrate and overwinter where prey species occur

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Merlin population status and distribution

appear uncommon-rare true status unknown less common than other threatened/endangered bop like eagles, peregrine falcon, spotted owl, marbled murrelet

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Merlin historic distribution

likely Puget sound - Northern BC habitat likely fluctuating due to human impacts

80

What are raptors

predatory birds that kill what they eat, though some are scavengers including: eagles, hawks, falcons, owls

81

Where does the word raptor come from

rapere - latin for 'to take by force'

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scavengers

find dead prey to eat, not kill it some raptors are scavengers (bald eagle eats dead/dying salmon)

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Raptor special features

sharp talons - capturing/holding prey hooked beak - for tearing flesh

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Raptor importance

aesthetic value spiritual value recreational value educational/scientific value ecological value economic value

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Raptor aesthetic value

admired by public for striking, noble appearance, flying ability, and keen sense. Portrayed in artists and photographers works.

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Raptor spiritual value

Bald and golden eagles have significant role in native american society. Raptors are an emblem of strength, courage, freedom, namesake of teams, vehicles, aircraft. Viewing wild raptors maintains psychological connection with nature.

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Raptor recreational value

bird watching, falconry, raptors are renowned for their ability to attract bird-watchers

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Raptor educational/scientific value

top position in food chain = barometer of environmental changed and overall ecosystem health. Require large areas and healthy prey so conservation for them provides an umbrella of conservation for other plants/animals (ex. DDT)

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Raptor ecological value

consume wide variety of prey - regulate prey populations and nutrient cycling. Genetic variation within species contributes to biodiversity of the region. Full ecologic value not well known.

90

Raptor economic value

reduce pest species (rats, mice, rabbits, starlings, sparrows, grasshoppers). Eagles, vultures reduce spread of disease by cleaning up dead/rotting carcasses. Bring in tourism (travelling birdwatchers). Increase property value - scare away other birds from airports and crops.

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Main threats to raptors on VI

urbanization, agriculture, forestry old-growth forests depleted, coastal habitats greatly modified

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Raptors most affected by threats

spotted owl, northern goshawk, peregrine falcon, merlin, bald eagle, western screech owl

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BMP

best management practices measures to help maintain raptor and their habitats in urban/rural environments most likely to be successful for species that are compatible with human activity

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BMP 1

retain existing habitats and features, minimize loss of natural vegetation

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BMP 2

protect raptor nest sites

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BMP 3

avoid use of pesticide and herbicides

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retaining existing raptor habitats

preserve trees and snags for nesting and perching retain groups of trees not isolates for inter-locking canopy riparian ares w/ large living/dead trees maintain shoreline vegetation retain old farm buildings/sheld for owls

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why retain dead trees

attract woodpeckers -- woodpeckers make nest/perch sites for owls

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key raptor habitat features

nesting, perching, roosting sites, foraging areas, as large of area as possible

100

Protect Raptor Nest Sites

Retain 100-500m buffer around nest sites protect existing and potential nest sites including trees with natural cavities locate trails, buildings, roads away from raptor nesting habitat

101

why do you need a large buffer around raptor nest

Some species like Cooper's Hawk use alternate nests in same general vicinity, important to protect more than just the specific nest area

102

Bald Eagle/Osprey nesting

repeatedly use same nest over many years

103

Avoid us of pesticide and herbicides

use traps rather than poison to control rodents and pests

104

why monitor after protection measures have been implemented

Minimize time/resource wastes if measures are ineffective or counter-productive direct adjustments/refinements needed to find optimal settings (adaptive management) learning from projects that are in place, to help direct other projects

105

eradication of rats on Langara island

increased breeding population of ancient murrelet colony expanded w/ high occupancy rate and hatching success doubling of breeding population 1999-2004

106

why did Ancient Murrelet population increase after eradication of rats

increased adult survival, reduced emigration, behavioural changes such as greater breeding and burrow philopatry

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why do introduced predators shift populations

predation, received predation risk, predator--induced breeding failure (stress), decreased survival of breeders, increased sorrow shifting, emigration to other colonies

108

why are introduced predator populations so hard on endemic populations

small, isolated populations have limited gene pools, limited diversity, and cannot adjust as well to threats, especially new/introduced threats that they haven't had time to adjust to (Island Biogeography theory) Vulnerable due to small geographic range, limited to certain areas. Small to begin with, large kills = non viable population.

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endemic population

native or restricted to a certain area

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Ancient murrelet study methodology

line transects perpendicular to shore, 5x5m quadrat at 40m intervals on right side of transect mapped colony boundaries calculated colony surface area with software estimated breeding population with equation

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quadrats defined as active if

burrows/tunnels/nest material/fecal material were found in or 1/2 distance away

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defined quadrat occupancy rate as

number of burrows that contained eggs or shells (that they could reach the end of)

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number of burrows =

colony area (ha) x burrow density (burrows/ha)

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number of breeding pairs =

number of burrows x occupancy rate

115

trends in the figure of REGEHR et al's RECOVERY OF THE ANCIENT MURRELET SYNTHLIBORAMPHUS ANTIQUUS COLONY ON LANGARA ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA, FOLLOWING ERADICATION OF INVASIVE RATS

# burrows, burrow occupancy, breeding pop. did not respond immediately to rat eradication. Little change up to 2004, then large increase. Either other environmental conditions delayed recovery or a late before breeding activities normalized.

116

Colony area changes

decreased with rat introduction then increased after eradication

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burrow density changes

increased after rat introduction and decreased after eradication

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burrow occupancy changes

didn't change with introduction, increased after eradication

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breeding population changes

decreased slowly after introduction and increased after eradication

120

what is the status of marbled murrelet

California, Oregon, Washington threatened under endangered species act have declined since listing in 1992 27% decline over last decade

121

Recovery efforts of marbled murrelet

increase population size by working with universities and federal/state agencies, tribes, land owners identify causes of decline, purchase land and put into conservation status remove predators from population habitats

122

Threats in the terrestrial environment? (MAMU)

removal of nesting habitat due to harvest, fire, wind want large, intact stands edge effect/fragmenting harmful (trails/roads add more edges)

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threats in the marine environment? (MAMU)

oil spills gill nets derelict fishing gear water quality (pollution)

124

what are some of the changes that have occurred in the MAMU diet?

diet now is lower in caloric value lower prey quality = lower breading success

125

What are the likely effect of climate change on the MAMUs marine environment?

how prey will react to climate change - increased SST, changes in upwelling/stratification, frequency/duration of harmful algal blooms (biomagnification, particularly Puget sound), anoxia

126

effects of anoxia on MAMU

will cause prey species to move further off coast where they are not accessible to MAMU

127

what is the measure of success for the US fish and wildlife services MAMU recovery efforts?

Long way from being able to do that or from de-listing species working for a stable population with continuous decline

128

characteristics of nest platforms for MAMU

mossy pads, limbs, deformities, canopy epiphytes (mainly moss), tree diameter, tree height

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why are tree diameter and height important characteristics of MAMU nest platforms

larger/higher trees have more platform availability platform trees have ≥1/3 epiphyte coverage and 81% intermediate-thick moss mats

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why are ancient forests important for MAMU nesting?

long time to build up large epiphyte mats, litter accumulation, & structural complexity- optimal conditions for nest platform bryophyte biomass increases in late succession only -trees >200 yr

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Extinct example

Dawson caribou

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IBA lead

Regional caretaker network

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What species was studied on Langara island?

Ancient murrelet

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COSEWIC

committee on the status of endangered wildlife in canada

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SARA

species at risk act

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monitoring

repeated sampling of the same population with the same methodology over time

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monitoring influences

recovery committee and plans

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sampling must be

independent unbiased random replicated

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monitoring is counting

individuals/species richness/diversity over time to detect change

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monitoring ecological populations is important

for both academic research and management of natural resources

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why monitor

assess effectiveness of conservation measures, provide early warning of problems

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types of sampling

random systematic

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random sampling

large, uniform sample area, limited time

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common mode of random sampling

quadrat

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systematic sampling

sample at fixed intervals (often along a line, transect), especially relevant along a gradient

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continuous sampling

sampling along whole length of transect

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stratified sampling

take in to account different area/strata, random OR systematic within strata, take into account substantially different areas within sample space. ex. tidal levels

148

tropical rainforest strata

canopy sub canopy understorey ground layer

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sampling error

chance difference between estimate and population parameter. difficult to measure

150

avoid sampling error

good study design

151

sampling bias

systematic discrepancy between estimate and true parameter from poor sampling plan

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measurement bias

error that results solely from manner in which observations are made

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unbiased

accurate

154

precise

samples are all close together

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accurate

samples are close to true parameter

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before monitoring

define purpose. what do you expect to find? what level of precision is needed (absolute, relative..)? define area and units. determine representative sample size, take into account random and independent. what variable need to be measured.

157

descriptive studies

what is present. overview.

158

distribution studies

where is it occurring. general habitat associations. more specific.

159

types of distribution study

inventory (1 time) determine abundance/density monitoring changes (over time)

160

BCT

bird census technique

161

difficult tetrapod census

cryptic, rare/elusive, low density, dense remote habitat, difficult field condition, cluttered habitat, very small population

162

complete census of very small population

can ID individuals ex. territory mapping song birds

163

complete census of highly aggregated population examples

colonial nesting birds seals on a beach

164

can't do complete census

survey (sample population)

165

large spatial scale survey

low accuracy in small area, better over large area

166

large spatial scale survey examples

christmas bird counts breeding bird survey breeding bird atlas

167

small spatial scale survey

higher accuracy for smaller areas

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small spatial scale survey examples

point counts line transects spot mapping marking methods

169

BBS

breeding bird survey, cooperative effort between US wildlife research centre and environment canada canadian wildlife service. monitor NA bird population trends

170

methods for small spatial scale

point count line transect spot mapping

171

point count

count at a single spot for specified time. fixed-radius more accurate. repeat in different areas. fairly accurate for relative abundance and density of individual species.

172

point count sources of error

observer ability, differences in detectability, mobility of species

173

line transect

slow walk down line, count all birds seen/heard, measure distance from line. fixed or variable distance away from line. repeat in different areas.

174

line transect not suitable for

highly mobile species - could be unknowingly double counted

175

reliable line transect

same observer, same time of day and year, similar weather conditions (good conditions)

176

line transect measurement bias

no adjustments for variation in detectability (quiet/high birds harder to hear)

177

spot mapping

territory of individual pair mapped. requires multiple visits to determine boundaries.

178

spot mapping territories determined

territorial behaviour (singing, chases, etc.)

179

spot mapping difficulty

cluttered environment, densely vegetated habitat, tall trees. denser vegetation requires smaller plot size.

180

spot mapping should be done when

early morning, early in breeding season - peak territorial activity

181

spot mapping sources of error

change in territorial behaviour, behaviour differences among species, inaccurate mapping, misidentify individual, different observer effort

182

potentially most accurate sampling

spot mapping if done correctly, also most time consuming

183

mark and recapture purpose

population size, habitat selection, survival rate, dispersal, reproductive success

184

mark and recapture methods

metal ring, colour ring, leg flag, patagial tag, neck collar, plumage dye, radio-tracking, individual marks

185

radar tracking

widely used for murrelets across BC

186

hair collection

bear rubs, barbwire, late summer, fall

187

other methods

radar, hair collection, camera trapping, drones

188

Geolocation

inferring location of tracked animal based, on the time history of sunlight brightness or water temperature and depth measured by an instrument attached to the animal. Such instruments are commonly called archival tags (including microchip implants, Pop-up satellite archival tags, and data storage tags) or dataloggers.