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Flashcards in 329 Biodiversity Deck (188)
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1

Endangered species

facing imminent extirpation or extinction

2

endangered example

Blue Whale Oregon Spotted Frog Northern Leopard Frog (SARA, COSEWIC)

3

Extirpated species

species that no longer exist in the wild in BC, but do occur elsewhere

4

extirpated examples

Greater Sage-Grouse (SARA, COSEWIC)

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Threatened species

likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed

6

threatened species example

Fin Whale Coastal Giant Salamander (SARA, COSEWIC)

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Vulnerable

particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events due to: restricted range, few populations, recent widespread declines, or other factors making them vulnerable to extirpation

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vulnerable species example

Western Toad Sea Otter (SARA, COSEWIC)

9

red listed species

includes any indigenous species or subspecies that have, or are candidates for, extirpated, endangered, or threatened status in BC

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Blue listed species

any indigenous species or subspecies considered to be of special concern (vulnerable) in BC

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Canada Goose population on VI pre-europeans

Vancouver CG not numerous overwintered at coastal areas

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CG 1920-1930s

Branta Canadensis moffitti introduced from Okanagan to Elk Lake. Introduced birds made small breeding population then increased to several hundred up coast to duncan

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CG 1970s

hundreds of non-native hybrids introduced

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CG now

15,000 resident CG that live here now year round, significant damage to human-modified and native landscapes

15

CG 1982

Little Qualicum river estuary health and productive brackish marsh, significant sedges, tufted hair grass, high above ground biomass, less than 20 records of CG

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CG 1984

firt CG nesting on LQ estuary

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CG mid 1990s

goose use had increased significantly, impacts to vegetation becoming evident

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CG 2000s

impacts have escalated to the point of needing to be documented

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CG 2005

gathering of comparative data. 24/56 marsh species significantly changed in frequency/mean cover. over 10,000m^2 changed to primarily bare substrate

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detrital food web losses at LQ estuary

at least 17tonnes of above ground dry mass/year affecting higher trophic levels - apparent trophic cascade

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secondary impact on LQ estuary

increased salinity due to increased aquifer drawdown from human use

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LQ recovery

have to decrease current carrying capacity of geese could take decades especially due to hyper salinity, loss of organic matter, soil compaction

23

where are the worlds richest longline fishing grounds?

key foraging areas for seabirds! areas of upwelling, productive areas

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longline fishing

a long fishing line deployed from a fishing vessel with up to 2500 hooks out at a time over many km's

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longline fishing bycatch

160-320,000 seabirds /yr up to 100,000 albatross/yr caught on hooks and drowned while tying to snatch bait from the line or while foraging behind vessel for waste

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quantifying longline fishing bycatch

difficult b/c diverse, remote nature of fisheries, lack of systematic reporting, nature of seabird by catch rates themselves

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majority of birds caught in longline fisheries

albatross petrel shearwater (some gulls, terns, gannets, boobies, cormorants)

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why do conservation and longline fisheries management have common interests

time lost removing dead birds from hooks and nets fish catches foregone due to bait loss

29

trawl fishing

big nets in water bycatch bird deaths mostly as warp cables at back of boat, or entangled in net during hauling

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trawl fishing bycatch

mostly larger bodied albatross and petrels up to 40 species 10s of thousands dying/year