Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrate of BC Part 2 Deck (484):
1

Pacific loon nesting

northern tip of BC

2

Pacific loon migration

huge groups (10's of thousands - >150,000 witnessed passing HG)
large groups susceptible to anthropogenic issues (ex.oil spill)

3

Red-throated loon winter distribution

inshore marine
Alaska - California
solitary - small group (

4

Red-throated loon breeding distribution

small ponds/lakes within 20km of ocean, close to coast
rarely more than 1 pair per pond/lake

5

how can red-throated loons use small ponds

shortest take off distance of loons
some distribution overlap w/ Pacific loon (which is more competitive)

6

drizzle lake site characteristics

4 nesting territories
minimal wave exposure
abundant fish in lake

7

Red-throated loon nesting

choose perfect spot on lake based on fetch, choose site and practice nesting year before (even practice mating)
incubation 28 days

8

why RTLO nests on lake

less predators than ocean

9

RTLO defence

nesting- only protect ~2-3m
after hatching protection area enlarged

10

why RTLO only protects small area when nesting

protecting eggs from ooivores- raccoon, raven, squirrel

11

RTLO defence after chicks hatch

larger area to protect, defend against other birds

12

RTLO defending against other RTLO

same same defence in both sexes

13

RTLO defending against common loon

female takes chick to shore
male defends with very good success

14

why does RTLO have to defend against COLO

COLO eats other loon chicks!

15

RTLO male/female differences

male a little larger
slight difference in necks marks

16

brood patch

bald patch for direct heat transfer to eggs (while incubating)

17

Number of fish eaten vs. age of chick (days), RTLO

declines from ~20 - 10 @ 42 days - 0 @ 48 days

18

why does the number of fish eaten decrease (RTLO)

able to eat bigger fish
change diet at ~12 days from small fish (sand lace, gunnel) to intermediate (herring, smelt, cod..)

19

RTLO ocean trips

up to 18/day
hatchlings need ~20g/day
male carries larger fish

20

relative parental contribution, RTLO

males take longer trips to ocean
males bring back less fish (but more weight)
females 4X as much rearing
males defend 100% successful
total energetic investment equal

21

% of feeding failure vs. age of chick

100% of large fish (brought back by males) are lost up to 6days of age

22

loon abundance in Alaska, BC coast

Alaska- 50% decline in RTLO
Here- ~50% decline in COLO
opposite pattern.. displacing each other?

23

why do RTLO go to ocean to catch fish

anti-parasite mechanism
tape worms in freshwater fish
COLO chicks die

24

where are raptors in the phylogeny

neoaves
all in the top group, landbirds
sister group to shorebirds
not monophyletic
falcons s.g. to owls s.g. to hawks&eagles

25

BC raptors

30 species

26

BC raptor wing span

~50cm - 300cm
characterize niche space

27

Northern Spotted Owl BC range

only SW tip, restricted to old growth coastal forest, declining

28

BC nesting pairs, spotted owl

30-100

29

Spotted Owl characteristics

territorial, nocturnal, solitary in winter, pair in spring/summer, home range 3-50km^2

30

spotted owl diet

small mammals, birds

31

spotted owl predators

red-tailed hawk, great-horned owls, goshawks, marten

32

spotted owl nest

no nest, lay 2 eggs on twigs or in cavities of large conifers

33

spotted owl status

endangered (COSEWIC)
declining ~20%/yr
extinction probably inevitable

34

bald eagle plumage

4th or 5th year

35

bald eagle characteristic

primarily scavenging, piscivory
live 20-30years

36

bald eagle breeding

largest nest of any NA bird, 6000kg, 6m deep, multi year
35 day incubation
12 week pre-fledging period

37

# of west coast bald eagles

50,000 BC and Alaska

38

Bald Eagle dominant diet

autumn- salmon
winter - carrion
spring - herring, eulachon
summer- birds

39

carrion

dead and decaying flesh of an animal

40

eulachon

small anadromous ocean fish, smelt found along Pacific coast of NA, N Cali- Alaska.
unusually high in lipid content

41

bald eagle and gull, Barkley Sound study

bald eagle abundance peaked during incubation/hatching of gull eggs - influences activity of gulls and could impact reproductive success

42

Murre and Cormorant abundance based on peregrine falcon, triangle island

highest abundance when peregrine falcon were near (nesting nearby), when away bald eagle and gulls lead to major decrease in nesting/reproductive success
top-down effect of top predator

43

eyrie/aerie

the nest of a bird (such as an eagle or hawk) built high up on a cliff or on the top of a mountain

44

bald eagle kleptoparasitism

pirates ducks captured by peregrine falcons, peregrines must increase kill rate (0.05/hr - 0.18/hr) to compensate

45

Urban Barred Owl

in BC 30-40yrs, succesful in urban area b/c of rat prevalence

46

Barred owl range expansion

displacing Northern Spotted Owl, major habitat/diet overlap

47

Barred owl removal

lethally removed, spotted owl population recovered in that area

48

Cooper's Hawk diet

small-med size birds = majority of diet, American Robin, European Starling (invasive), House Sparrow (invasive)
taking advantage of invasives

49

fraser delta raptor poisoning

carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in wet, low pH conditions of Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors months after application of the pesticides

50

# BC nesting seabirds

15 species
5-6million
500 nest sites

51

best evidence supporting tetrapods on land 7400mya

fossil tracks
molecular data ambiguous
limbs occurred before move to land

52

the transition from dinosaurs to birds is characterized by

NOTHING
there is no transition
birds are dinosaurs

53

what is the major characteristic that allowed the evolution of flight in bids

low wing loading
birds are not the only animal that fly's

54

loons are most closely related to

cormorant, albatross, pelican
aquatic/seabirds

55

changes in seabird abundance from 1980 - present

25% reduction in piscivores
75% reduction in pigeon guillemot

56

how do we measure changes in seabird abundance on our coast

no long term records
sediment cores
tree cores

57

sediment cores for determining changes in seabird abundance

guano reduction

58

The Guano Era

1845-1870
US annexed SP islands to extract guano, traded extensively for fertilizer

59

results of measuring bird abundance with tree cores

significant decrease in tree ring width in the area where trees were found to have burrows, likely due to decrease in burrowing bird density, decrease in guano (nutrients)

60

one problem with the tree ring method

small trees have lower N demand, can be picky, higher isotopic fractionation (this is the centre rings of the tree)

61

Gill nets

widespread (legal and illegal)
1million km of gillnet/yr, 300km/day
abandoned nets
In 1980's asian commercial fishing used gill nets to 8m depth

62

seabirds and gillnets

100,000 - 715,000 drowned/yr
60% shearwater
25% tufted puffin

63

seabird-boat collision during darkness

largest impact - nocturnal fliers
bird attracted to light (law) and hit mast or rigging @ high speed

64

nocturnal fliers

auklets, murrelets, petrels

65

boat collision bird kill

1 night ~35petrels on deck, more in water?
1 40ft boat in Aleutian chain during spring snow storm had a 30,000 alcid, petrels kill in one night

66

offshore drilling and seabirds

routine blowouts- burn off natural gas extracted w/ oil (can be seen from space), seabirds fly into it

67

offshore drilling birdkill

10-100 puffins and murres/night/platform

68

oil tanker spill

Exxon Valdez
250,000 birds killed, 90species, 75% murres

69

freighters and seabirds, oil pollution in Newfoundland

1998-2000 average 315,000 murres and dovekies killed annually from illegal discharges of oil
incidence of oil pollution among the highest in the world

70

Cormorants: the world's most hated bird?

people killing them because they eat fish
500,000 killed since 1998
won't fix their perceived problem- prey are set by carrying capacity

71

Commercial fishing

depletion of herring population, sardine population, chum, huge decrease in estimated escapement
wide impacts

72

escapement

portion of anadromous fish population that escapes commercial/recreational fisheries and reaches freshwater spawning grounds

73

where does salmon carcass go

raven, crow, bear, marten, eagle, gull, invertebrates, plants

74

gulls and salmon run

most abundant vertebrate during salmon migration
found to consume ~20% of salmon carcass biomass and ~30% of salmon eggs

75

fishing down the foodweb

puts us more in competition with seabirds

76

importance of salmon return

highly correlated w/ many species abundance
important for winter 'bulk up'

77

passerines and salmon run

salmon carcass-- insects-- songbirds

78

alien species that impact seabird colonies

Norway rat
Raccoon
Fox

79

importance of primary productivity distribution

highly correlated w/ seabird distribution
highest in N hemisphere
affected by T anomalies

80

T shift and Cassin's Auklet

less successful in warm water
match-mismatch hypothesis

81

match-mismatch hypothesis

prey timing key factor in success
climate changes alter trophic interactions
T shift-- bloom shift (timing)-- not available at usual bird nesting time

82

BC mammals #

~150 species

83

BC mammals, native vs. introduce #

native - 136 species
introduced - 13species

84

BC mammals, terrestrial vs. marine #

terrestrial - 120 species
marine - 30 species

85

Mammal skull fenestra

one fenestra
synapsid

86

basal tetrapod fenestra

no fenestra
anapsid
acanthostega

87

BC mammal orders

Carnivora - canines, bears,..
Primates - aboriginals
Rodentia - mouse, squirrel
Lagomorpha - Hare
Insectivora - Shrew
Chiroptera - Bats
Artiodactyl - ungulates
Marsupial - opossum

88

most diverse group of mammals on the planet

Rodentia
squirrel, chipmunk, beaver, mice, gopher, porcupine

89

synapsid origin

carboniferous

90

synapsid radiation

first group of amniotes that diversified (before diapsid)

91

synapsids were most abundant tetrapods when

Paleozoic

92

mammal body size

10-500kg

93

Pelycosaurs

Dimetrodon, tailback, carnivorous, herbivorous, sprawling limbs, long toes
Laurasia- warm, moist

94

Pelycosaur jaw

teeth mostly homodont except canine
first evidence of tooth differentiation

95

end of permian, mammals

most life dies, therapsids survive, diapsids take over, rise of large croc., mammals almost extinct from Jurassic, re-diversify KTB

96

Pelycosaur thermoregulation

elongated neural spines, heavily vascularized, thermoregulation, some of first modifications towards endothermy

97

homodont teeth

all the same

98

mammal lower jaw

1 bone - dentary
only bone with teeth
(3 bones including hinge)

99

mammal jaw hinge

articular (bottom) and quadrate (top)

100

Therapsids time

early Permian

101

Therapsid characteristics

very large temporal fenestra
tooth differentiation
palate development
pelvic and pectoral girdles
limbs thinner, joints more flexible
short foot, toes
limbs move for upright posture

102

almost all modern mammal teeth type

heterodont

103

Therapsid tooth differentiation

incisors
canines
post-canine

104

why arched palate?

breathe and eat

105

why short foot/toes?

running faster

106

importance of hind limb muscles in mammal development

movement of limbs without moving entire body side to side
muscles connected to iliac blade rather than lateral process

107

where therapsids diversified

Laurasia and Gondwana
cooler, less aquatic habitats

108

Therapsid size

rodent - cow

109

Dominant terrestrial tetrapods of the late Permian

Therapsids

110

Major Therapsid extinction end of Permian, 3 groups survive

dicynodonts
theriodonts
cynodonts

111

dicynodonts

herbivore, loss of molar teeth, horny sheath (like turtle), two tusks, derived jaw articulation- lateral movement for grinding

112

Theriodonts

dominant predator, coronoid process on dentary

113

coronoid process

a flattened triangular projection above the angle of the jaw where the temporalis muscle is attached-- increased jaw closing strength

114

cynodonts

dog-sized carnivore, multicast molars, enlarged coronoid process

115

evolution of iliac process

evolution of running

116

fate of 3 remaining therapsid groups

displaced by diapsids in Tri, mostly extinct by end of Triassic

117

cynodont fate

progressive reduction in size, several small groups persist through K

118

persistent cynodonts

zygomatic arch, sculpted, heavily vascularized jaw, surface glands, enlarged infraorbital foramen, innervated face, turbinate bones, possible heterothermy or fully endothermic, 7 cervical vertebrae

119

infraorbital foramen

sensory nerves to brain (for innervated face)

120

innervated face

whiskers

121

turbinate bones

reabsorb water when exhale, present in almost all endotherms, important indicator

122

heterothermy

animals that exhibit characteristics of both poikilothermy and homeothermy

123

poikilotherm

organism whose internal temperature varies considerably. It is the opposite of a homeotherm, an organism which maintains thermal homeostasis

124

nocturnality

widespread amounts mammals, possibly ancestral behavioural pattern, appeared early in synapsid history (before mammals)

125

zygomatic arch

cheek bone, temporal bar arches behind the orbit, allow masseter muscle to attach to lower jaw

126

First True Mammal

Morganucodon, evolved from small bodied cynodont, late Triassic, ~10cm in light (small rat)

127

cynodont-mammal transition

locomotion
nearly complete separation of nasal passage from mouth
turbinate bones
hair (whiskers)
lactation
dentary-squamosal jaw hinge
anisognathus jaw, precise occlusion of molar teeth

128

lizard locomotion, breathing

lateral undulations, air flows side to side rather than in and out

129

mammal locomotion, breathing

bounding locomotion, dorsoventral flexion, facilitates exhalation/inhilation

130

facilitated dorsoventral flexion, mammal breathing while running

loss of lumbar ribs

131

why its hard to trace the origin of endothermy

attribute of the 'soft anatomy' which does not fossilize

132

soft anatomy of endothermy

complex lungs, elevated blood oxygen carrying capacity, mitochondrial density

133

fossilized parts of endothermy

nasal turbinates - may have evolved in association w/ origin of elevated ventilation rates

134

evolution of 'mammalian' oxygen consumption rates

Late Permian, 260mya
Therocephalia & Cynodontia, independently

135

how long for the full evolution of mammalian endotherm

40-50million years

136

muscles required for lactation

major facial muscles- generating a suction seal

137

when was transition from cynodont to true mammal

Cenosoic (probably Jurassic)

138

why did endotherms fall at the end of the paleozoic

oxygen crash

139

isognathus jaw

polyphyodont teeth
reptiles, early synapsids

140

anisognathus jaw

diphydont teeth
Cynodont, modern mammal

141

Poluphyodont

continuous tooth replacement

142

Diphydont

2 successive sets of teeth
milk teeth, and adult teeth with enamel

143

Cretaceous mammals

very small (shrew-rabbit size)
insectivore (from teeth)
3 major groups

144

Cretaceous mammal groups

Allotheria
Prototherian
Therians

145

Allotheria

Multituberculates
rodent-like
longest-lived mammalian group (100my)
arboreal, fossorial (feet)
complex, multicasted teeth - grinding
possible early distinct branch of cynodont

146

Allotheria time

Jurassic - Eocene
longest lived mammalian group

147

Allotheria distribution

predominantly Laurasia (N)

148

Prototheria

monotremes
triangular teeth, extant, early branch of mammals, lay eggs, heterothermic, cervical ribs,

149

extant prototherians

duck-billed platypus, echidna
Australia & New Guinea

150

Prototheria distribution

Gondwana (S hemisphere, Australia, SA)

151

Therians

live birth, mammae, cochlea, external ear, tricuspid molars, major pectoral girdle modification

152

Types of therians

marsupials
placentals

153

mammae

a milk-secreting organ of female mammals

154

Tehran cochlea

>2.5 coils

155

Therian pectoral girdle

for increased mobility

156

Metatherians

Marsupials - opossum, Tasmanian devil, koala, kangaroo

157

Marsupial characteristic

arboreal, omnivorous, heterothermy,

158

Marsupial birthing

give birth to altricial young-- crawl into pouch-- fuse to nipple

159

marsupial origin

oldest fossils found in NA

160

marsupial radiation

NA-- Europe-- Africa-- SA in Cretaceous
Across Antarctica-- Australia in Paleocene

161

Europe/Asia/Africa extinction of marsupials

mid-cenozoic

162

why NZ has no marsupials

separated from Australia before origin of early mammals (monotremes)

163

Placentals

Eutherians

164

Eutherian characteristics

relative to marsupials: longer gestation, reduced lactation, fewer incisors&premolars, strict endothermy

165

Eutherian endothermy

almost entirely, except torpor (which is technically heterothermy)

166

early Eutherians

arose in Asia, shrew-like, insectivorous, minor contribution to fossil record until KTB

167

major groups of Eutherians

edentates, insectivores, primates, rodents, chiroptera, carnivora, ungulates, cetaceans, sirenians, proboscideans

168

edentates

anteaters

169

sirenians

manatee

170

proboscideans

elephant

171

Earth in late mesozoic

forests on all continents
N latitudes warm and wet
broad leaved vegetation
mt range uplift

172

late mesozoic distributions

crocodiles in arctic
dinos, arboreal/fossorial mammals
rodentia in late Cretaceous
Carnivora early Palaeocene

173

orogeny

Rockies, Andes, Himalays in the late Mesozoic, ~100mya

174

largest group of mammals

Rodentia - 40% of all current mammal species

175

most of major modern groups appeared in

early Eocene

176

earths temperature in Eocene

warm, colder towards end

177

genus numbers in the Cenozoic

fairly stable across paleocene, eocene
increase across oligocene
drops in middle of miocene

178

genus numbers and paleotemperature in Cenozoic

rise in oligocene ~correlated with decreased T (ice house world), slight lag

179

# marsupials

~200
opossum group -77
kangaroo, koala, wombat - 110

180

# rodentia

1800

181

# rabbits

~70

182

# insectivora

~400

183

# flying lemurs

4

184

# chiroptera

1000

185

# carnivora

274

186

# cetacea

80

187

# Artiodactyla

~200

188

artiodactyla

even toed- pigs, hippo, deer, cattle

189

perissodactyla

odd-toed - horse, rhino, tapir

190

results of orogeny

vast rainshadows, reduced T (hot house - ice house) = first grasslands (Miocene)

191

Miocene grasslands

diversification of grass-dwelling ungulates (horse, antelope, elephants)

192

start of Pleistocene

gradual cooling, formation of icecaps, major northern hemisphere glaciation

193

mammals and marsupials

parallel adaptive radiation
common species in each group, ecologically equivalent
burrower, anteater, mouse, climber, glider, cat, wolf... not sea animals

194

what happened after dinosaur extinction

niche space opened for large carnivores (mostly mammals, some large carnivorous birds)

195

when were NA and SA separrated

from Jurassic - Late Cainozoic (100my)
independent, separated diversification

196

Panamanian Isthmus

3my, connection between NA/SA
allow interchange of species

197

GAI

great american interchange
asymmetric interchange
immigrants into NA mostly did not persist
50% of SA immigrants persisted, displaced native species

198

why was GAI asymmetric

NH colder

199

North American Pleistocene fauna

persist throughout glaciation
at the time NA was as diverse as Serenghetti

200

some animals in NA pleistocene fauna

giant sloth, short faced bear, giant polar bear, california tapirs, peccaries, american lion, giant condor, american cheetah, sabre-toothed cats, dire wolves, gray wolf, camelids, llamas, bison, moose, ox, horses, mammoths

201

what happened to NA pleistocene fauna

impact event - extraterrestrial glass spheres
fell in to caves and mummified- karstography, constant humidity (no bacterial degradation)

202

La Brea Geology

Rancho La Brea tar pits (LA)
so much oil in ground- sealed to surface- rain sits on top, looks like pond
prey get captured, predators come and get trapped too

203

La Brea skeletons

59 mammal species
135 bird species
skeletons completely in tact, but never together

204

Pleistocene overkill

NA 100,000-12,000ya: 45genera over 40kg
10,000y -present: 12 genera
humans overkill?

205

overkill hypothesis

extinctions correspond well with first significant evidence of human presence. human colonization dominant driver of extinction over climate events. very certain of results.

206

Puma concolor

Cougar

207

cougar characteristics

45-80kg
3m
nocturnal, solitary, ambush predator
jump 6m vertical, 13m horizontally
50km/h
largest back legs of any cat

208

cougar prey

>95% - deer/elk
~1 per week

209

cougar density

4000 in Canada
3500 BC
1/200km^2

210

cougar vs. wolf

interaction common
both predator and prey

211

Cetacean length

Blue Whale 27m
Sperm Whale 18m
Humpback 15m
Gary Whale 15m
Orca 9m
Bottle-Nose Dolphin 2.5m

212

Odontocetes

toothed whales
smaller, fast moving
single blowhole
acoustic
chase prey

213

Killer Whale

Orcinus orca
Delphinids (dolphin)
3 types
female dominated social structure
tell apart by prey, dorsal fin, saddle patch, calls

214

Orca groups

resident
Bigg's (transient) - mammal eater
offshore - shark eater

215

Pacific white-sided dolphin

Lagenirhynchus obliquidens
Delphinids
often in groups
inshore and offshore
~7.5ft , gregarious, showy

216

Harbour porpoise

Phocoena phocoena
Elusive, small group, acoustically sensitive, hybridize, ultrasonic frequency- one of highest frequencies of all mammal

217

Dall's porpoise

Phocoendoides dalli
Fastest cetacean in BC
often confused with orca
bow rider, hybridize, 'friendly', swim 55km/hr, splash

218

Sperm whale

Physter macrocephalous
past shelf break, don't see often here, 1/3 body mass is head - sonar, echo location, fish in complete darkness

219

sperm whale length of time under water

up to 1hr
60min under water = 60 blows

220

BC Odontocetes

Orcas, Pacific white-sided dolphin, Harbour porpoise, Dall's porpoise, Sperm Whale

221

Mysticetes

baleen whales
larger bodies
two nostrils form blow hole
"moustached whale"
engulf prey

222

how to find patchy prey

get big, move efficiently through water -- bigger = bigger mouth = more efficient

223

Humpback whale

Megaptera novaeangliae
dorsal fin rests on hump
often solitary, migrator, acrobatic, primarily small fish feeders, fall anchovata populations

224

Gray Whale

Eschrichtius robustes
solitary, population recovering from whaling, benthic feeder

225

Minke whale

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
elusive, solitary, smallest baleen, common, sporadic, generally small fish feeder, can fall prey to orca

226

Fin whale

Balaenoptera physalus
commonly in offshore waters of N BC, second largest of all whales, density unknown, heavily whaled, very fast, ID by right lower lip

227

Sei whale

Balaenoptera borealis
big target for whaling, drive herring, small fish feeder

228

Blue whale

Balaenoptera musculus
150 tonnes, population significantly reduced, largest animal on earth (possibly ever), not well known, not easily studied, driven off by sonar

229

North Pacific right whale

Eubalaena japonica
huge baleen - up to 15ft, heavily whaled for baleen, copepod feeder

230

Pinnipedds

limbs resemble terrestrial animals, blubber and hair, tactile, vocal
Stellars Sealion, California sea lion, Harbour seals, Sea otter, River otter, Northern fur seal, Northern elephant seal

231

Mysticetes

Humpback whale, Gray whale, Minke whale, Fin whale, Sei whale, Blue whale, North Pacific right whale

232

Pinniped acoustics

Adjusted for under and above water hearing

233

Stellar's Sealion

Eumetopias jubatus
spp. moterirnsis (Laughlin's), haulout, mate at rookeries, sexually dimorphic m>>f, roar, can rotate hind quarters to pull themselves up (unlike seals)

234

California sea lion

Zalophus californianus
Bark, sexual dimorphic, polygamous, dog-like face, crest on front of head @ sexual maturity

235

Harbour Seals

Phoca vitulina richardsi
common, 'true'/earless seal, rarely fight, eyes change shape for in/out water, territorial, don't like to touch each other

236

Sea otter

Ehydra lutris
Heaviest weasel, smallest marine mammal, fur not blubber, rarely leave water, dive deep for food, backwards feet

237

River otter

Lontra canadensis
versatile on land/water, den builder, latrine sites,

238

thickest/most dense hair of all mammals

sea otter
traps air

239

Northern fur seal

Callorhinus ursinus
rare here, up to 7ft, 'true' seal, f live 3X males

240

Northern elephant seal

Mirounga angustirostgis
'trunk' in male, f

241

Cetacean live capture

endangered southern residents for zoo/marine park
primary destabilization
over capture of almost all marine organisms

242

Cetacean tourism

whale watching, marine parks, aquariums
effects of acoustics not well known

243

Cetacean entanglement

follow prey into traps, derelict fishing gear

244

Cetacean pollution

lipophilic chemicals stick to blubber- especially calves

245

persistence (pollution)

affects duration in environment after release

246

volatility (pollution)

affects transport in atmosphere

247

water solubility (pollution)

affects transport in rivers, runoff, ocean currents

248

bioaccumulation potential (pollution)

affects concentrations at higher trophic levels

249

Cetaceans, climate change

reduced arctic sea ice- move into foraging area sooner-- larger more robust offspring
CO2 emissions, acidification, implications for cetaceans not well known

250

Cetaceans, vessel traffic

major increase- strikes, noise
behavioural changes, auditory disturbance, interactions
go through 'best whale routes'

251

ocean noises (Hz)

seismic 1-100
ship traffic 10-1kHz
bubbles/spray 100-100kHz

252

ocean hearing (Hz)

seals/sea lions-100-100kHz
Baleen whale- 10-10kHz
Dolphin- 100-100
Porpoise- 1kHz-100kHz

253

hydophone

set up to listen to whale migration
400lb anchor chain
acoustic release
deployed hyrdophone

254

AMAR

Autonomous Multichannel Acoustic Recorder

255

AMAR deployment

February & May 2015
64&133 days recording
~50&20m water depth
Flores island (feeding ground)

256

grey whale migration

S (breeding) - N (feeding)

257

considerations with AMAR

can't be too close to shore (wave noise)

258

acoustic release system/ pop-up

'call' the pop-up and the 'egg' separates and reals the line back in

259

ocean glider movement

ballast- changing weight, takes on water to sink

260

winter population estimate of cougars in southeastern BC

3.5 cougars/100km^2

261

average home range of male cougar in southeastern BC

151km^2

262

Current cougar populations

declining
increased conflicts btw cougars/humans
92% of mortalities in collared cougars from hunting
average survival rate 59%

263

cougar reproduction stat

average litter 2.53
inter birth interval 18mnth
75% of females reproductively successful

264

Canada Lynx

Lynx canadensis
nocturnal, solitary, ambush, pursuit, mostly canadian shield area (prevalent hare), hunted for pelt

265

Lynx prey

snowshoe hare, rodents, birds

266

cougar unique pelage

unique that it is always the same across wide range of habitats

267

cougar physiological jumping mechanisms

disproportionately large pelvic apparatus for leaping (frog-like)

268

BC Canidae

Grey Wolf
Coyote
Red Fox

269

Wolf paw

middle pads > outside pads
dogs opposite

270

Canada phylogeny

(Dog - Grey wolf) - coyote
sister groups
red fox far separated

271

Canis lupus

Grey wolf
packs, territorial, numerous vocalizations, formerly one of worlds most widely distributed mammals

272

Grey wolf pack

mated pair, juveniles&yearlings

273

Grey wolf territorial

scent marking, fights, death, 1/3 of natural mortality

274

grey wolf reproductive

adults suppress reproductive attempts in family, 60 day incubation, 6 pups at birth, pups 400g, blind 10 days, suckling 3 weeks, remain in pack up to 4years, parents regurgitate food

275

coastal rainforest wolves

taller, dark (brown like deer, don't run in packs

276

Canis latrans

Coyote
explicitly NA, not on coast

277

BC Ursidae

Brown bear/Grizzly bear
Black bear

278

Ursidae phylogeny

{ [(brown- polar) -(asiatic black- american black) - sun bear - sloth bear ] - spectacled bear } Giant Panda

279

Ursidae sister group

Procyonidae (Raccoon, Lesser Panda)

280

Brown/Grizzly bear

Ursus arctos
summer-alpine
spring/summer-estuaries
autumn- salmon
predator - wolves
predatory, scavenger, omnivore

281

Black bear

Ursus americanus
majorly forest habitat
autumn-salmon
predator- grizzly, wolves
predatory, scavenger, omnivore

282

Ursidae distribution

Ursus arctos- across N hemisphere
Ursus americanus- only NA

283

black bear, winter

den in high elevation caves, low elevation large tress (avoid grizzly's), if no grizzly den anywhere (VI)

284

distinct grizzly group

ABC bear, off coast of Alaska, N of HG. On islands: Admiralty, Baronof, and Chichagof
unique genetic structure, relates them to brown & polar bear

285

polymorphic pelage/plumage

occurrence of 2 or more discontinuous colour morphs (genotypes) w/i a pop.
rarest cannot be maintained by mutation alone

286

polymorphic colouration does not apply to

ontogenetic variation (ex. deer, spots-brown)
seasonal variation (ex.arctic hare)

287

Considerations in polymorphic colouration

heritability
frequency of morphs
geographical distribution
sex-linked?
ecologically functional/nuetral
historical
genetic linkage/pleiotropy
advantages/disadvantages

288

reindeer polymorphism

lighter - more warble flies, decrease body mass
colour variation > in semi-domesticated, less impacted by parasitism (treatment)

289

white horses

high sensitivity to UV radiation, frequent skin cancer, predation risk
blood-sucking tabard flies less attracted to white horses (polarized light)
contrasting ecological pressure

290

spirit bear

Ursus americanus kermodei
Kermode bear
coastal black bears
known >100years

291

Kermode through time

1906- $30 for a head
1912- thought almost extinct, 25 specimens known, $250 reward for live specimen
1924- prize/tourist attraction in beacon hill park

292

frequency of white polymorphism

Gribbell - 25% (1/4)
Princess Royal - 10%
Mainland - less than 1%

293

black bear species inland

Ursus americanus americanus

294

kermode bear polymorph gene

same gene that produces white phases in mice, horses, etc. common gene mutation that knocks out melanin
mutation at melanocortin 1 receptor gene

295

colour combinations, kermode

every mother-cub colour combination found, random mating structure - no sexual colour preference

296

Kermode, glacial relict

colour beneficial during glaciation (as it is in polar bears), left over from then

297

Kermode, glacial relict, still beneficial?

not found in high latitudes
no benefit in this way

298

Dr. Blood :(

black bear has few natural enemies, largely a vegetarian, logging/land use are fine

299

neutral mutations

in isolated populations can remain by default/chance

300

Kermode, neutral mutation

there is new gene inputs (swim overs from mainland), phenotype % remains ~constant over 10,000yrs, neutral alleles almost always dropped in small populations (doesn't seem to be neutral)

301

neutral alleles, drosophola

low population = low heterozygosity = almost always single genotype

302

why chance mutations are higher in small population

inbreeding, bottlenecks, small number of breeders, disproportional contributions

303

over dominance in fitness

heterozygote > fitness than homozygote
hetero. often have better immunological
hetero. maintained b/c of beneficial condition

304

over dominance in fitness also called

heterozygote advantage

305

If a polymorphism is controlled by heterozygote advantage would expect to see

excess of heterozygotes

306

Kermode and heterozygote advantage

cannot be the case b/c there is a deficiency of heterozygotes

307

Kermode bear, assortative mating

W*W, B*B
disproven by the cub combinations, would have lead to loss of uncommon morph

308

Mainland geneflow retaining white allele?

gene flow is extremely dominantly black allele, mainly is more than 90% B, would reduce white gene frequency

309

Multi-niche polymorphism

2+ morphs occupy different niche space
different phenotypes have greater fitness for different niche type

310

Multi-niche polymorphism, why?

Day/night?
behavioural interaction- dominant/submissive?
foraging technique?
salmon capture success?
trophic differences-stable isotope analysis?

311

Black bear diel activity pattern

lowest in the mid afternoon, can't see well at low light, mainly only coast black bears hunt nocturnally
polymorphs forage at same time of day

312

Black/white kermode behavioural interaction

in ~400 interactions found black bears dominate encounter in dark (small n), and no dominance in day, overall dominance was more related to body size than colour

313

black vs white foraging skill, kermode

white bear is a more stationary forager, stand and wait technique
black bear walks and runs
difference in foraging technique

314

black vs. white salmon capture efficiency

dark- black slight advantage
light- white significant advantage (stand, walk, AND run!) major daylight advantage

315

stable isotope analysis of kermode bear hair on Gribbell Isl

Spring, Summer ~same 15N
Fall- white much higher 15N

316

Why white bear has slightly higher 15N signature in spring/summer

feeding on barnacles

317

isotope analysis conclusion

WB salmon specialist
Fall- feed almost entirely on salmon

318

Isotope analysis, Princess Royal

WB/BB ~same 15N
more variation in individuals than on Gribbell

319

marine isotope signature

high 13carbon and 15nitrogen

320

white bear allele frequency

Gribbell 56%
PR 33%
Mainland 0-20%

321

white bear population estimate

Gribbell 8-15 (40-50bears)
PR 10-40 (200bears)

322

why WB allele higher on Gribbell

almost fully segregate niche space, higher proportion of white bears increases the populations speciality and take over niche

323

why WB allele lower on PR

larger niche space = more competition, constraints

324

evasiveness of salmon to simulated predator

dark - no difference
light - fewer salmon return than at night, ~2X as many return to white 'bear'

325

why are salmon less evasive to white bear

Snell's window, refraction

326

Snell's window

underwater viewer sees everything above surface through a cone of width of ~96º, area outside window either completely dark or a reflection of underwater objects

327

Gribble island salmon biomass

~300kg/yr (salmon ~2kg)
1 bear requires ~300-500 salmon

328

where there is grizzly bear

black bears don't eat salmon, white bear won't persist if grizzly invade their islands

329

polymorphism as 'super gene'

often groups of genes working together

330

Artiodactyla

even-toed ungulates
Elk, Mt goat, Bighorn, Deer, Moose, Caribou

331

BC Elk

2 species- Roosevelt, Rocky Mountain
formerly most widely distributed ungulate
population collapse from human predation

332

Roosevelt Elk

Mostly E side of province, some on N VI
now live in second growth, not original habitat
extinct across much of previous range

333

Mountain Goat

adapted for steep terrain, snow cover
2nd longest hair shaft length of ungulates
birth on steep cliffs
low predation
no colour phases

334

Mountain goat predation

golden eagle

335

Mountain goats travel to

salt licks, up to 9 visits/yr, up to 17km away
areas not included in protection zone, resource development difficulty

336

Bighorn Sheep

highly diverse habitat (slopes-deserts), mainly treeless areas, limited in BC, mostly SE corner of province

337

Resource separation by fire

burning modifies ecosystem- attracts ungulates- changes animal distribution
elk populations moving in to traditional range of other grazing species (Sheep)

338

Mule/Black-tailed deer distribution

most of BC except NW corner, high on islands

339

White-tailed deer distribution

only on E side of BC

340

Tell Mule/black-tailed and white-tailed apart

white-tail: tip of tail is white, white bum only visible if tail lifted, antler prongs come off of main beam
Mule deer: dark tipped tail, antlers fork

341

Moose distribution

right across circumboreal
never coastal in the past, moving in now, likely due to prey

342

In Europe Moose are

Elk

343

Woodland Caribou

Rangifer tarandus
same species as reindeer in Europe
a little farther N in range than Moose
keystone species

344

Reduction in Caribou population

~70% reduction in high-quality habitat, not only cause of decline, multifactorial

345

Criminal Code of Canada, Animal Cruelty

Every one commits an offence who willfully causes or, being the owner, willfully permits to be caused unnecessary pain, suffering, or injury to an animal or a bird

346

Criminal Code of Canada, Animal Cruelty punishment

indictable offence, liable to imprisonment of 5 years, or fine of up to $10,000

347

Maintaining Ethical Standards during Conservation Crises

first example of scientists using criminal code to evaluate scientific work (and put their necks on the line), journal of wolf cull study (CJZ) would not publish

348

cost of removing BC wolves

180 wolves - $2 million (helicopter cost)

349

VI Marmot past distribution

only alpine, males travel all the way down and up to other side for reproduction, dangerous travelling through forest, high predation, low survival

350

VI Marmot population

last ~40 years- population plummeted
deforestation allows corridors for predators

351

VI Marmot reintroduction

Artificial reproduction in Toronto Zoo, reintroduce on VI, very successful
2003- 70 adults, 1 litter born in wild

352

VI marmot status

critically endangered

353

BC Marmots

hoary, olympic, VI
distinct skulls, unknown if they can interbreed

354

BC Marmot phylogeny

flaviventris (yellow-bellied) is outgroup, olympus sister group to vancouverensis

355

BC Bat species

16 species

356

White-nose syndrome

major bat die off in E NA
expanding Westerly
not yet in BC

357

Keen's Myotis

little brown bat, red-listed, unusual, poorly known, distinct, no breeding colonies known until found among heated rocks

358

Oscines orca found

all oceans, most common within 200km of shoreline

359

Orca size

f- 8m
m- 10m

360

orca pod

family stays together, form a pod of different matrilines, related pods form a clan with similar vocal dialect

361

matriline

line of descent from female ancestor to descendant (of either sex) in which the individuals in all intervening generations are mothers – in other words, a "mother line"

362

ID'ing orca

Dorsal fin, saddle patch distinctive among individuals, determine demography from photo

363

demography

science of populations to understand population dynamics investigate: birth, migration, and aging

364

Study Orca demography, M. Bigg

construct life table w/ decades of photos, first use of procedure, found ages 2-3X greater than though

365

implications of Orca demography study

assumed ages/generation times used to determine quota of IWC, resulted in curtailment of Russian orca harvest in antarctica

366

IWC

International Whaling Commission

367

HWR

height to width ratio of dorsal fin
proxy for age

368

Orca ages

peak 20-30years
data up to ~90years
past thought peak 10yrs, max 30yrs

369

orca genetic diversity

low, suspected pleistocene bottleneck 170,000ybp, diversification prior to last glacial advance 30,000ybp, common ancestor 700,000ya

370

most genetically distinct orca

transient, separated first

371

resident orca prey

fish eaters, specialists for Chinook, survival highly correlated w/ chinook survival, limiting factor of population dynamics (even though they consume other fish)
limited in ability to adapt

372

orca travel distance

~100km/day while in one area
~160km/day when travelling, ~5,500 km/month

373

length of VI

Length: 460km (3 days by whale)
Width: 100km
coastline length: 3,400km (20 days by whale)

374

BC forestry economics

$6.6 billion/yr direct revenue
ministry- 15.6billion/yr
2.5% of gov't revenue
6.3% of BC jobs
18,000 direct jobs

375

BC ecotourism economics

$13.8 billion/yr
132,000 direct jobs

376

forests succesions

bare ground-- primary succession-- pioneer seral stage-- seral stages-- secondary succession-- climax

377

forestry and successions

takes climax forest, sends it back in seral stages

378

Forestry vs. ecotourism argument, Ogota Japan

16 resident whales
whale watching $3mil/y
life span 30 yrs
$60mill in 20yrs
whaling $4.3mill for 16
15:1 in favour of whale watching

379

Forestry vs. ecotourism argument, South Africa

wildlife tourism $6bil/y
trophy huntin $2.1 mil/yr
3000:1 in favour of wildlife viewing

380

Forestry vs. ecotourism argument, Palau

100 sharks
scuba $18mil/yr
fishing for fin/meat $10,000/y
1800:1 for tourism

381

Forestry vs. ecotourism argument, BC bear hunt

Total GDP contribution Bear viewing $9.5mil
Bear hunting $669,000
15:1 in favour of tourism

382

BC bear population estimate

2004 - 17,000
2008- 16,000
2012- 15,000

383

GBR

great bear rainforest

384

MRL

maximum recorded longevity (captivity)

385

small song bird MRL

less than 2yr in wild but 20yr in captivity

386

large song bird MRL

10yr in wild, 28 in captivity

387

gulls, ravens MRL

~60-70yr (captivity)

388

owl, parrot MRL

100yr (captivity)

389

max age of birds

~2X greater in captivity than wild

390

probability of yearly mortality, adult bird

~50%

391

Senescence

loss of DNA repair, accumulation of mutations, build up anti-oxidant enzymes, increased free radicals, loss of homeostasis, altered gene expression

392

mammal MRL

mouse - 4yr
toad - 20yr
cat 20-40yr
dog 10-30yr
horse 50-60yr
elephant 80-90yr
humpback whale ~50yr
tortoise - potentially over 100

393

log max longevity vs. log body mass

log longevity linearly increasing with log body mass
large animals live longer

394

log max longevity vs. log body mass, bird, mammal

bird higher and steeper sloped
birds ~1.7X MRL of mammals of equal mass
yet bird BMR 3X mammals

395

why large spread in MRL

function of extrinsic processes
high probability of mortality in first years = early reproduction, r-selection, make offspring at expense of maintaining body

396

If species has high probability of evading predators in early life

natural selection favour development of defences and subsequently improved physiological repair abilities; long-lasting immune system, anti-aging/anti-radical defence

397

example of high probability of evading predators

spikes, hard shell, flight, apex predator, large

398

animals with high mortality in early life

small, soft body

399

biomechanics for longer life

superoxide-mutase (anti-oxidant enzyme)
tissue tolerance to chemical stress
cellular longevity

400

naked mole rat

subterranean, extraordinarily long lived, size of mouse, greater than 30yr, longest living rodent, negligible senescence, no age related mortality rate, resistant to cancer, live in full darkness w/ a queen, low O2, high CO2, poikilothermy, hairless

401

Proteus

human fish, olm
blind salamander, limestone caves, no pigment, no eyes, no predators, extreme lifespan over 100yrs

402

Caenorhabditis elegans, spaceflight

suppressed aging, inactivated genes that extended on ground lifespans, aging slowed through neuronal and endocrine response to space enviro. cues

403

down regulating genes that control these peptides led to longer lifespan, elagans, earthworm

acetylcholine receptor
acetylcholine transporter
choline acetyltransferase
rhodopsin-like receptor
glutamate-gated chloride channel
potassium channel
insulin-like peptide

404

Estimating age in long-lived tetrapods

yearly growth rings
photo-id or mark/release
fatty acid ratio
racemization
epigenetic marker

405

yearly growth rings in tetrapods

teeth, eye lens, ear bones, ear plugs

406

chiral molecules

molecules existing in two forms, mirror images, rotate polarized light left or right, occur in equal proportion in meteorites
Ratio of D/L =1

407

biological tissue chiral molecules

use only left (levorotatory) amino acids (L-amino) D/L = 0
right (dextrorotatory) glucose (D-glucose) D/L =1

408

L/D enantiomers

completely different function/response

409

racemization

one enantiomer such as L-amino acid, converts to the other enantiomer. The compound alternates between each form while the ratio approaches 1:1, (racemic mixture)

410

racemization in animal

L-amino acid incorporated into bone-- racemization-- accumulate D-enantiomer until racemic mix reached. can be used for dating

411

racemization of living narwhale

L-aspartic acid to D-aspartic acid in nucleus of eye lense

412

DNA methylation

epigenetic mechanism used by cells to control gene expression; signaling tool that can fix genes in the “off” position

413

DNA methylation aging

predicts age from skin samples, can be applied to non model wild organisms

414

Nunatak

glacial island
exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within (or at the edge of) an ice field or glacier.

415

Ice sheets ~180,000ya

Laurentide
Cordilleran

416

Beringia

northern glaciation refugia

417

past glaciation/refugia theory

18,000ya northern&southern refugee, 13-10000ya cordilleran ice sheet melts and colonization occurs from S

418

implication of past glaciation theory

all species (plant/animals) in BC have colonized in last 10,000yrs, mostly from S

419

relictual species

remnant ecosystems, species persisting through glaciation

420

evidence for relictual species

disjunct distribution
unique species/subspecies

421

relictual species, unique species

VI marmot, Nebria, dawson's caribou, stickleback, unique black bear subspecies

422

BC black bear phylogeny

2 deeply separated lineages, continental and coastal

423

endemism

species being unique to a defined geographic location

424

haplotype

a set of DNA variations/ polymorphisms, that tend to be inherited together: combination of alleles or set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on same chromosome

425

BC wolves

coastal (sea wolves) differ from continental

426

other animals with distinct coastal/continental subspecies

Marten, short-tailed weasel, dawson's caribou (extinct 1915), marmot, brown bear

427

coastal/continental lineages suggest

some type of coastal refugia, otherwise would expect one lineage after glacial (everything would have been wiped out)

428

relic grizzlies

restricted to 3 small islands, dwarfed size, closest relative to polar bear, "ABC" bear

429

landbird relics

estimated divergence dates 20-120,000ybp, suggest HG area was forested refugium in late Pleistocene

430

port Eliza cave evidence

laminated clays, diverse vertebrate fauna, aging shows brief ice cover (15.5-14ka), sea level close to cave, salmon runs, cool, open parkland, cool temperatures

431

K1 cave, Queen Charlottes

skeletons dated to 14,000ya, very close to glacial max, must have been an open space for large animals

432

sea level, 14000ya

150m below present
dates artifacts = humans by 10,000ya, migration route, most likely refugia

433

Exotic tetrapods in BC

Green frog, bull frog, european grey partridge, californai quail, domestic pigeon, european starling, house sparrow, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey, virginia opossum, european rabbit,e astern cottontail rabbit, eastern Gray squirrel, rats, house mouse, amerindians, europeans

434

Aliens, Green frog

from NE US, introduced before 1940

435

Alines, bull frog

probably from Washington, non intentional, huge impact, high predatory and competitive pressure, carrier of Chytrid fungus

436

european grey partridge

introduced in 1870 for hunting, now widespread

437

California Quail

introduced 1860, common on VI

438

Domestic pigeon

from Europe to E Canada 1600, now widespread in urban

439

European Starling

from Europe 1910, BC in 1947, widespread in urban

440

house sparrow

from Europe 1850, BC 1890, widespread rural and urban

441

ring-necked pheasant

from asia, 1890, widespread

442

wild turkey

from US, 1960s, locally abundant

443

equilibrium niche space

none empty. if non-natives invade, it is at the expense of others

444

European rabbit

released, 1910

445

Eastern cottontail

natural from washington

446

eastern gray squirrel

introduced to stanley park 1915

447

rats

from europe on ships 1800-1900 (woodrat is native)

448

house mouse

from europe, 1800

449

Amerindians

12,000yrs marginal impacts apart from sea otter extirpation

450

europeans

'introduced' 1775, greatest impact of all species

451

impacts of exotics

new parasites, greatest density in disturbed habitat, major impacts in natural land adjacent to disturbed habitat

452

disturbed habitats

urban, roadside, rural properties, agriculture, predator-free zone

453

Introduced Canada geese

intentionally cross-bred in 60's to establish breeding population for harvest, spread exotic grasses (feces), decline native plant species abundance

454

Scott islands

largest aggregation of breeding seabirds in E Pacific ocean south of Alaska

455

changes to scott islands, aliens

large decline in seabird population due to american mink, raccoon (European rabbit also present but not found to have effect)

456

Cassin's Auklet, scott islands

Triangle island, Sartine island, bulk of worlds breeding population of Cassins auklet, selects grass-covered habitat, vegetation changes on these islands reduces reproductive success

457

Haida Gwaii, native vs alien plant species

native ~500
exotic ~140
143/657 = 22%

458

Haida Gwaii, native/nonnative mammals

native 12
introduced 14
14/26 = 54%

459

introduced mammals, haida gwaii

norway rat, raccoon, mink, muskrat, beaver, red squirrel, sitka deer, elk, feral cat, pheasant, tree frog, red-legged frog

460

non-native feedback

introduced plants bring in alien insects bring in higher trophic level aliens...

461

rats and seabirds, Queen Charlottes

seabird colony decline, predation from rats invade burrow-nests, especially ancient Murrelet, present on 18islands, Norway rat replaced black rat on Langara

462

Nestucca oil spill

December 23, 1988
Greys harbour washington, barge cable broke, tug backs into and punctures barge, release 231,000 gallons fuel oil, oil covers 100km WAS, over 200km VI, 56,000 bird deaths known, $5million fine

463

warfarin

sweet-clover, oral anticoagulant, inhibits Vit K formation, hemorrhaging, highly toxic, major global pesticide, odourless, tasteless, 100% mortality, slow death multiple days, internal bleeding and trauma, LD50 1mg/kg/day

464

second-generation super-warfarin

brodifacoum
LD50 0.3mg/kg/day
human death with less than 1% sugarcane mass
long lasting, 6months
worldwide rodenticide

465

eradicating rats, langara island, 1995

bate station: pipe with internal shelf, bated with brodifacoum, every 75-100m in concentric circles
funds: Nestucca oil spill settlement
technique: NZ study
duration: 2years
success, 10's of thousands of rats killed, seabirds back on the rise

466

adverse effect of eradicating rats on Langara

common raven greater than 50% mortality, risks of secondary poisoning, 15% of bald eagles blood tests showed detectable residue but no adverse affects found

467

racoon

formerly absent on HG, mainland and VI
introduced 1940
no predators
significant ooivore of ground nesters
more opportunistic than rats, very successful, swimmers- difficult to remove

468

Sitka deer, HG

1878- 8 introduce
1911- 28 released
1925- 3 released
2005- 150,000
low predation, no predator, no competitor
exponential population growth

469

Deer-vegetation interaction

browse line = height of animal, yearly growth very small below browse line, can't get large, bush like shape on bottom

470

dendrochronology

tree-ring dating

471

Moresby Island dendrochronology

ring width shows large convergence after 1990

472

tree defence

anti-browsers, monoterpene, volatile, physiologically costly, unnecessary without predator, attract wasps (predator of insects)

473

monoterpenes and browsing

lower in heavily browsed trees
(bitter)

474

deer and understory invertebrates

deer-free -- 20yrs of deer -- 50years of deer
significant decrease in abundance and species numbers of inverts (because of decreased vegetation diversity)

475

deer and pollinators

deer-free--20yr--50yr
sig. decrease, no bumblebee on islands with deer greater than 50yr!

476

expected insects and pollinators on islands without deer

would expect highest numbers and diversity because they are the islands closest to the source land

477

deer and parasitoid insects

same pattern.. low plants, low insects with lots of deer (same pattern with songbirds as well)

478

deer impact pathway aboveground

deer browsing- change veg. - reduce understory abundance/diversity- fewer herbivores, pollinators - fewer predators, parasites

479

deer impact pathway on ground

browsing- change veg. - reduce litter and dry soil - fewer detritivorous inverts. - fewer predators

480

Songbirds use of shrubs

fruits
nectar
nest sites
insects

481

deer and songbirds

abundance in areas with deer more than 50yrs had 55-70% lower songbirds, deer overabundance may explain part of current continental-scale decrease in songbird populations

482

Louise Island

kill deer and monitor island, microsatellite marker genetics determine source population, find ~1/generation (2yrs) were migrating (swimming) from source land, eradication would have to be an ongoing event

483

Red squirrel introduction

for helping pick highly prized sitka spruce cones, when no cones left for squirrels they become ooivores and can sniff out the nest

484

avian dispersal of exotic shrubs

fruit, feces, higher palatability = higher dispersal, protection from humans insufficient to prevent exotic species establishment and loss of native biodiversity