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Flashcards in Chemical Oceanography Deck (85)
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1

P:N:C:O2

1:16:106:153

2

Nitrate

NO3 ^-

3

Phosphate

PO4 ^ 3-

4

ocean circulation

~1000yrs

5

least reactive major ion

Cl-

6

main barrier to ocean mixing

density difference (hence 2 box model)

7

Ammonia

NH4+

8

Average mix layer

~70m

9

Anoxic waters have

higher burial (recall fish farming)

10

Largest inputs and outputs

mixing and particle flux >> river input, burial

11

(–) AOU

supersaturation

12

Nitrite

NO2-

13

In a CaCO3 dominant system

surface has decreased Alk,
decreased [CO3 2-]
pH lower
fCO2 higher
atm CO2 higher

14

NH4 comes from

respiration product

15

what happens to NH4 in surface

converted to NO2, NO3 (only in aerobic/oxic zone)

16

local surface max in NH4

lag in the conversion from
respiration –– NH4+ –– NO2- –– NO3-

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Nitrification

NH4 + O2 –– NO2- –– NO3-

18

Nitrogen Fixation

N2 ––– NH4+
N2 gas from the atmosphere
requires high Fe

19

expected NH4+ profile

low [ ] in surface water - possible small max from respiration
major increase is after o-a boundary

20

expected NO3- profile

[low/0] right at surface (productivity)
increases throughout surface layer, fairly high max ~1000m (respiration)
anoxic - decreases back to 0 toward o-a boundary
open ocean - remains ~ stable with depth

21

Expected NO2- profile

similar to NO3- but much smaller peak
small peak in oxygen layer from nitrification processes

22

high N2

denitrification

23

Conservative ions

only affected by evaporation and precipitation
no big fluctuations with depth
[ion] : seawater S remains ~constant
Mg, Na, Ca, Cl-

24

Gases

affected by T, S, P, f, reactivity
increase with depth (lower T), except O2

25

Bioactive elements

affected by primary production, respiration, remineralization
P, N, Fe, O2

26

Trace metals

Very low concentrations
Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd

27

Oxygen profile without biology

controlled by T like other gases
increase with depth

28

Oxygen along thermohaline

depleted
successive losses from respiration

29

AOU

[O2]equil – [O2]meas
Apparent Oxygen Utilization
amount respired
oxygen deficit due to respiration
~ opposite to oxygen curve

30

typical O2 profile

minimum above 1000m (respiration)
increase after 1000m (horizontal advection from O2 rich high latitude (cold) waters)