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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (485)
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1

ecology come from the word

Oikos- house, place to live
Ernst Haeckel 1869

2

Ecology interval/range

Organsims-Earth (biosphere)
Behavioural ecology-- population ecology-- community ecology-- deep ecology

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Subsection of ecological genetics

genetic variability
natural selection
evolution

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ecological genetics

study of genetic/phenotypic variability in natural populations, relationship to ecological processes

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If all individuals in a population are homozygous

monomorphic

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If any individual in a population has a heterozygous locus

polymorphic

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Average percent of loci in a population that are polymorphic

5-15%

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genes/individual

~20,000

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Genetic variability

percentage of heterozygous loci : population size
increased genetic variability with increased population size

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Natural selection in moth species

evolved to mostly black because lichens were less common on trees after industrial revolution

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Natural selection of sea snails living on kelp

Yellow snails have advantage over predator below kelp
brown has advantage over predator above kelp
due to light source

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evolution of spirit bears

white bears have advantage over darker coloured bears when fishing

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zygosity in populations <100

nearly monomorphic

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monomorphic populations

increases susceptibility to disease
decrease adaptability to environmental change

15

Initial genetic variation vs. generations

N = 20, genetic variation = 0 after 200 generations
N=100, variation down to 0.2 ~300 generations
N=1000 small decrease in variation over 500 generations

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reduced number of individuals in population

increased inbreeding-- increased homozygosity-- increased juvenile mortality

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MVP

minimum viable population

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minimum viable population

smallest possible size at which a biological population can exist without facing extinction
90% of genetic variability after 200 years

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MVA

minimum viable area

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minimum viable area

minimum land area required to maintain genetic variability after 200 years

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MVP then and now

used to think ~500 was viable
now know it must be ~2500-4000

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most common park size

~20-50km^2

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immigration in regards to genetic variability

even a small amount of migration per generation allows persistence of genetic variability

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no immigrants per generation

<60% genetic variability left after 100 generations

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1 immigrant per generation

~90% genetic variability left after 100 generations

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natural selection 2.0

non-random and differential reproduction of genotypes resulting in preservation of favourable variants

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adaptation

physiological, morphological, or behavioural modification that enhances survival and reproductive success of an organism

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evolution

serial change over time
descent with modification

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Anagenesis

gradual change over time
changing adaptations over time
does not lead to species diversity

30

Cladogenesis

branching of lineages and formation of new species
usually occurs with geographical or genetic isolation