Ecology Part II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecology Part II Deck (541):
1

Major communities

Aquatic
Terrestrial

2

Aquatic communities

Marine
Freshwater

3

Marine communities

estuaries, intertidal, sub-tidal kelp beds, pelagic, deep sea, coral reefs

4

Terrestrial communities

tundra, temperate coniferous forests, temperate deciduous forests, grasslands, deserts, tropical forests

5

temperate coniferous forests

Boreal/Taiga

6

Estuaries are

partially enclosed body of water where freshwater flows into the ocean and mixes with salt water

7

Estuaries have

variable salinity, pH, sediments, nutrients, temperature
large # niches, biodiversity, productivity

8

important estuary ecology

major stopover for migratory birds throughout world
ex. fraser estuary

9

Different types of tides

MHWS, MHWN, MLWN, MLWS
Mean high/low water neap/spring

10

smaller high/low tides

neap tide

11

larger high/low tides

spring tides

12

Emersion curve

MHWS, MHWN, MLWN, MLWS (ft) vs. % exposure to air (0-100)
MLWS- pretty much 0%
curve tends towards 100 towards MHWS

13

Subtidal kelp bed ecology

high PP on planet
physical protection to shoreline communities
foraging/shelter for large # species

14

Types of benthic communities

Hot vents
Glass Sponge reefs
Deep water coral reefs (bioherms)

15

Arctic marine communities

frozen ocean surrounded by land
~4000m depth, ~3m ice
upper 15m low salinity
layering of Atl./Pac. water
high summer plankton, cod, seals

16

Antarctic communities

frozen continent surrounded by ocean
~98% ice up to 2km thick
mountainous- up4500m
low diversity- bacteria, lichen, penguins
ocean high PP and diversity

17

lake classifications

oligotrophic
dysotrophic
mesotrophic
eutrophic

18

oligotrophic

clear water - low productivity

19

dystrophic

stained lakes - low productivity

20

mesotrophic

intermediate productivity

21

eutrophic

high productivity

22

lake stratification

separation of lakes into three layers- Epilimnion, Metalimnion, Hypolimnion
due to density change with temperature

23

epilimnion

top of the lake

24

metalimnion

thermocline
middle layer- may change depth throughout the day

25

hypolimnion

bottom layer

26

dimictic lake

lake water turns over during the spring and the fall due to the higher density colder water and of 4ºC water, lower density of ice and warm water

27

Tundra characteristics

3-6mnths dark, north America, north Europe/Asia ice/snow/permafrost
surface soil .5m thaws in summer
3 strata

28

tundra strata

soild
ground
low shrubs

29

tundra ecology

cold-hardy plants
aquatic/terrestrial insects
shorebirds, waterfowl, seasonal
hare, fox, wolves, caribou, grizz, polar bear

30

Temperate coniferous forests found

central interior north america/europe/asia

31

temperate rainforests found

west coast NA

32

Temperate coniferous forest characteristics

conifers, limited shrubs, ferns, moss, limited diversity
trees- monopodial growth
4 strata
short summer, long cold winter

33

conifers

spruce, hemlock, fir, cedar, pine

34

monopodial growth

grow upward from a single point, single trunk or stem
to shed snow

35

temperate coniferous forest stratum

soil, ground, shrubs, trees

36

temperate coniferous forest ecology

slow decomposition (b/c of cold)
seasonal migrants
occasional hibernation/torpor (frozen)

37

temperate deciduous forest locations

below great lakes, WEurope - Italy, EChina- Japan

38

temperate deciduous forest characteristics

warm/wet summer, cold winter
5 strata

39

temperate deciduous forest stratum

upper canopy (large trees)
lower canopy (small trees)
shrub layer
ground layer (herbs, ferns, mosses)
soil (decomposer community)

40

temperate deciduous forest ecology

high species diversity
seasonal migrants

41

prairies located

near temperate deciduous forests
mid US, mid belt across Europe/Asia, SE SouthAmerica

42

Savannas located

southern tip of NA
belt down SA
Southern half of Africa
large parts of Australia

43

Grasslands

pairies
savannas

44

Grassland characteristics

3 strata
2m deep roots (** water is limiting resource)
high evaporation
long droughts
soil moisture protected by mulch

45

grassland stratum

soil
ground
sparse trees (**important for shade, trees limiting resource)

46

grassland ecology

large grazers (buffalo)
small burrowing mammals

47

desert/semi desert found

30º belt of Europe, top half of africa, small parts of America, interior of Australia

48

desert characteristics

low rain, high T
3 strata

49

desert stratum

soil
ground
cactus

50

desert ecology

annual plants (if rainfall), succulents, desert shrubs
small, burrowing, seed-eating mammals
lizards
**nocturnality VIP

51

succulents

more than normally thickened and fleshy plants, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions

52

tropical forest location

equator- top of SA, mid Africa, SE of china, top E of Australia

53

tropical forest stratum

SIX strata- ABCDEF
A- emergent trees >60m (discontinuous)
B- up to 20m (discon.)
C- lowest trees (contin.)
D- shrub layer (tall herbs/ferns)
E- ground layer, herbaceous plants, seedlings
F- root/soil layer (shallow, poorly developed)

54

tropical forests A and E strata

connected by vines (Lianas)

55

tropical forest ecology

many epiphytes
high species diversity (most taxonomic groups)
high biological turnover
high nutrient recycling

56

tropical rainforest characteristics

incredibly rich/diverse
emergent trees have specific/unique bird/insect/epiphite communities
sympodial growth

57

emergent trees

grow way above other trees with unique communities

58

sympodial growth

outward growth (upside down triangle)

59

Temperate rainforest characteristics

very similar to temperate forests with oceanic processes moderating, more diversity, stabilized

60

Lianas

parasitic- conveyor belt of nutrients from ground to top of trees

61

air cells from top to bottom of globe

polar-- ferrell-- hadley-- hadley-- ferrel-- polar

62

most important factors for predicting biodiversity

temperature, moisture

63

hight T, high-low moisture

Tropical rain forest-- tropical forest-- savanna-- desert

64

mid T, high/mid - low moisture

temperate rain forest-- temperate forest-- grassland-- desert

65

low moisture, med/low - low T

Taiga, Tundra
(tundra = low T, low moisture)

66

global trends in species abundance

taxonomic abundance and body size
aquatic vs. terrestrial
correlates of species richness-- latitude, depth and altitude

67

communities that grow back quickly

Taiga, grassland- N2 is in soil

68

communities that don't grow back quickly

savanna- N2 is above ground (trees)
tropical rainforest- latterating soil washes away in rain

69

poorly developed root system in tropical rainforest

soils are thin and nutrient depleted

70

scarify soil

lossened and broken up
needed for tropical rainforest regrowth

71

taiga clear cutting

20% reduction of growth after each clear cut
slow depletion of soil

72

subsidence zones

~30/60º - where air sinks in each cell, cold/dry air - deserts

73

vertebrate body mass

most abundantly small, <100g

74

most common body mass

.001 - .01 g (b/c of insects)

75

most abundant species

insects, viruses/bacteria, fungi, arachnids, protozoans, algae, plants
(smallest species)

76

earth areas

aquatic 71%
terrestrial 29%

77

earth aquatic/terrestrial species

aquatic- 2 million
terrestrial - 10 million

78

predicted terrestrial species based on terrestrial area

700,000
rapid cladogenesis on land?

79

correlation of species richness by latitude

many species much more abundant near equator (corals, fish, copepods)

80

don't see large change in species abundance by latitude in

benthic species (nematodes)

81

richest vascular plant areas

brazil, columbia, (on/below equator)
china, mexico (above equator)

82

orchid species

>>> in tropics (up to 3000, compared to 40 in Canada)

83

tree species in NA

rely on isotherms
higher species = higher T and P

84

reliant on tree species diversity

high tree diversity = high insect diversity = large # amphibians

85

most bird rich communities

colombia, peru, brazil, indonesia, ecuador, venezuela

86

diversity decreases

~linearly with elevation (altitude)
plants, birds

87

species richness per ocean depth

intertidal richest
highest PP- arctic/antarctic
equator- high PP
algal bed/reefs, estuaries- smaller area-- very high productivity

88

why high PP in polar regions

continual turnover of water- almost always at max density

89

why equator high PP

meeting of nutrient laden gyre currents

90

largest biome on earth

deep sea

91

deep sea biodiversity

among the highest, macro/meiofauna
high evenness

92

meiofauna

small benthic invertebrates

93

deep sea communities with extreme physiochemical processes

biodiversity low
abundance, biomass high
dominated by few species

94

peak deep sea diversity

intermediate depths
2000-3000m

95

high benthic diversity not recognized until

1960's-- fine mesh (250-500µm)
100 species/.25m^2 found

96

how far have bacteria been found

deepest layer of oceanic crust
1391m
oil drilling can reach 9km

97

mean net PP

g/m^2 yr
algal bed, reefs- 2500
tropics- 2200
temperate forest- 1300
estuaries- 1500
very high but small areas

98

world net PP

10^6 tonnes / yr
tropics - 37.4
open ocean - 41.5
cont- 56, ocean - 48

99

world biomass

10^6 tonnes
tropics- 765
open ocean - 1
algal beds/reefs - 1.2
estuaries - 1.4
cont-550, ocean-10

100

biological deserts

NPP < 250
desert, open ocean
cultivated land (mostly growing grasses)

101

phytoplankton productivity

short generation time
small PP at a snapshot in time, very high over a yr

102

total bacteria biomass

~= all other PP biomass

103

ocean productivity

highest where large turnover (cold)

104

terrestrial productivity

highest where warm/wet (tropics)
changes based on season

105

climatic variations occur due to

uneven heating of earths surface during orbit (angle of inclination)

106

PET

potential evapotranspirational

107

PET is

the amount of water that COULD be evaporated and transpired IF there was sufficient water available

108

PET graph

tree species richness around globe vs. PET (mm/yr)
increases up and to right
cold+dry = very few species

109

why is there a large spread on the high PET end of PET graph

b/c PET represents amount of water that COULD be evaporated.. doesn't mean that much water is present..

110

vertebrates vs. PET

increase up and to the right like trees, fn of tree diversity and moisture and T

111

explanations for global species richness

PP
competition theory
predation theory
wind/animal pollinator theory
climate variability theory
spatial heterogeneity theory
environmental age theory
geological time and cladogenesis theory

112

competition theory results

temperate- r-select species- broad niches, low diversity
tropic- k-seleced species- narrow niches, higher diversity

113

predation theory

few predators/parasites= high herbivore density = low species richness
more predators = low herbivore density = high richness

114

predation theory results

temperate - few predators = lots of herbivores
tropics- many predators/parasites/specialists = low herbivore= more niche space

115

pollinator theory

more wind = less pollinators = low diversity

116

pollinator theory results

temperate = more wind = low diversity, flowers work harder for species of insects
tropics- more insects, flowers pollinated by specialists (one species- climate survivable by insects all yr)

117

climate variability theory

temperature similarity = more specialization
larger T range = lower # species

118

climate variability theory tropics

less variation = more opportunity for year round specialization

119

spatial heterogeneity theory

on a completely smooth sphere there is low niche opportunity, variations in surface create opportunity- mandelbrot series

120

insects vs. architectural rating (Opuntia)

leaves perpendicular = same area, photsynthesis, more insects (more niche space)

121

spatial heterogeneity theory results

temperate: few plants- few herbivores- few predators
tropic: many plants- many herbivore- many predators

122

bird species diversity

increase with plant species diversity, but more related to foliage height diversity (more niches)

123

example of tropics high specificity

up to 10 different mite niches on parrot/macaw feather

124

environmental age theory

assembly rules: deglaciation- plant regrow- insects regrow
recolonize quickest- wind dispersal seed plants
high insect abundance = plants been around a long time

125

low #'s of insects after long time

represent niche spaces of plants that have recently recolonized

126

geological time and cladogenesis theory

geographical isolation + natural selection + geological time = cladogenesis

127

example of geological time and cladogenesis theory

australia

128

length of time for origin of a new species

~1million years
potentially as short as 10,000 years

129

continental explanations for difference in species richness

PP, geological time

130

regional explanations for differences in species richness

PP, environmental age, spatial heterogeneity

131

Local community explanations for difference in species richness

competition, predation, spatial heterogeneity

132

number of species vs. area

mainland vs. island
island- greater slope (0.2-0.4)
(mainland ~0.1)
larger areas- island populations approach mainland
small areas- island populations << mainland

133

IBT

island biogeography

134

why lower # species on islands

dispersal barriers/distance from source
MVA/patch size
genetic diversity/homozygosity/extinction

135

lower number of species per island size

distance from sourceland

136

persistence of populations over 50 years based on original population size

>=100 -- ~100%
51-100 -- ~60%
<=50 -- 0%

137

persistence of populations 15 or less

50% by 30 years
20% by 40 years

138

ecological disharmony

non-representative proportions of some species
Skewed balance of taxa relative to mainland
Superabundance of some taxa
Absence of other taxa

139

why ecological disharmony

different resource use
less trophic levels- unbalanced
species have different dispersals
predators- higher extinction rate

140

ex. ecological disharmony

amphibian niche space overtaken by other organisms (ex. birds) b/c they can't swim throughs salt water

141

plant colonization graph

# plant species vs. yr
wind dispersal seeds steeper sloped colonization rate
water dispersal

142

successive extinctions/colonizations

decrease in number species
leads to species turnover

143

MacArthur and Wilsons equilibrium model

rate vs. # species present
immigration- decreasing
extinction- increasing
where lines cross- equilibrium
t(0) = large event (volcano)

144

why immigration curve starts so high in MacArthur/Wilson model

new area = large niche space = colonization by many species

145

when immigration curve = 0 in MacArthur/Wilson model

immigration is still occurring but colonization is not successful

146

high extinctions

small population size
resource depletion
small island
inbreeding

147

small island =

smaller population = higher extinction

148

near island =

high colonization rate

149

far, small island

equilibrium shifts left (lower species #)

150

at equilibrium (MacArthur/Wilson model)

actual species composition is in continuous state of change (continual extinctions/colonizations)

151

MacArthur/Wilson model can predict

numbers of species but not species composition

152

major issue with the loss of brazil rainforest

can't be recolonized-- no more source area, Brazil WAS the source area

153

MacArthur-Wilson experimental equilibrium theory test (1978)

defaunated mangrove islands at different distances to sourceland, took species counts over time

154

experimental equilibrium theory test results

species built up quickest in closest island
not same species as originally present (at first)
later- same species assemblage as original

155

conclusions from experimental equilibrium theory test

can't predict species assemblage
CAN predict species assemblage GIVEN enough time

156

why- give enough time- do you wind up with the same species assemblage

tolerance- only certain species can live together under certain conditions- think niche dimensions

157

modifications to equilibrium theory

target effect
rescue effect
tripartite theory

158

target effect

larger islands have higher immigration rate than expected

159

rescue effect

close islands have higher immigration rate-- reduces chances of extinction

160

Tripartite theory

3D graph of immigration vs. extinction vs. speciation
area/extinction on same axis
isolation/immigration on same axis
speciation is a function of multiple factors

161

stability of island community structure

large island
high resistance to change
high resilience (ability to return to predisturbed state)

162

stability theories

stability vs. # species
diversity-stability hypothesis
rivet hypothesis
redundancy hypothesis

163

diversity-stability hypothesis

Charles Elton
function is linear increasing
loss of one species affects stability

164

rivet hypothesis

Paule, Anne Erhlich
fn nearly logarithmic, increasing
one-few species losses don't effect stability (plane rivet analogy)

165

redundancy hypothesis

Passenger hypothesis
Brian Walker
reaches asymptote early
species = passengers
species are not equal in stability importance
many species can be lost w/o effecting

166

stability crash in redundancy theory

only if loss of keystone/dominant species (like throwing the pilot off the plane)

167

world population 2013

7.1 billion

168

top populated countries

china 1.3 billion
india 1.1 bill
US 300 mill

169

most densely populated countries

bangladesh 1,002ppl/km^2
Japan 337ppl/km^2
india 328 ppl/km^2

170

global population growth rate

~1.1% -- 75million ppl/yr
130M births, 55M deaths

171

largest annual growth rate is in

africa

172

lowest annual growth rate is in

Russia, Greenland, Canada

173

human population growth

exponential
~4 generations ago-- lots of births-- high Ro

174

how do we decide if the world is overpopulated

starvation
disease
conflict

175

starvation

>30% undernourished
increased world hunger
increased malnourished areas

176

most undernourished countries

congo
burundi
haiti
sierra leone
ethiopia
angola
zambia
zimbabwe

177

Disease- child mortality rates

down from 11.9 mil (1990) to 6.9mil (2011)

178

conflict

new war every 2yrs
~378,000 deaths/yr

179

common causes of war

resource constraints and conflict
ethnocentrism

180

Impact (I)

= PAT
P - population size
A - per-capita consumption
T - environmental damage in order to supply each unit of consumption

181

Highest GNP

NA, Australia, western Europe

182

habitats lost

forests, grasslands, estuaries, coral reefs

183

Deforestation

clear cutting
variable retention
selective cutting

184

clear cutting

remove all trees in patches
12ha - 2000ha
80 yr rotation
most invasive/widespread/profit margin/common

185

variable retention

leave representative old growth in each cut block
10-30% retention

186

WFP

world food programme

187

selective cutting

removal of single trees by helicopter
least invasive
makes small-gaps in canopy- seedlings develop
similar to natural disturbance
cost-prohibitive

188

problems with variable retention

small patches are subject to windfall- counter productive

189

madagascar

almost completely deforested
lateritic soil runs off into ocean
only place lemurs live

190

lateritic soil

soils leached of Si after deforestation
concentrated in Fe, Ni, Al, Mn

191

causes of deforestation in Brazilian Amazon

Cattle 65-70%
Agriculture 30-35%
Logging 2-3%

192

Brazil cattle herding

largest cattle herd in world
export to 170 countries
3X in past year

193

how do they clear cut in Brazil

slash and burn- have to burn to release nutrients

194

Had highest diversity of every taxonomic group on planet

Ecuador (no other source land)

195

countries with highest deforestation rates

Brazil- 3.5mil Ha/yr
Indonesia- 1.5 mil Ha/yr

196

largest changes in deforestation rates from 1990-2005

Peru- 200%
Viet Nam,Nigeria- 120%
Madagascar- 40% LESS
French Guiana, Brunei- ~10% LESS

197

Coastal temperate rainforest characteristics

ancient trees (1000y old, 4m)
4 strata, structurally complex
species restricted to old growth
species rich
greatest biomass/ha of all ecosystems

198

coastal temperate rainforests are most productive where

on salmon rivers-- nutrient transfer

199

coastal temperate rainforest seral stage recovery after clear cutting

1000yr

200

how much of worlds temperate rainforests have been cut

55%

201

how much of Washington's, Organs, Californias ancient rainforests are gone

95%

202

BC has how much of worlds remaining coastal temperate rainforests?

1/4

203

Gribbell island story

30% white bears-- clear cut watershed (1980s)-- loss of salmon (4000--300kg/yr)-- 80% reduction in major protein source for bear

204

Haida Gwaii deforestation

156,000 ha logged
70% of old growth gone

205

Prairie/Grassland human use

large increase in crop land and pasture land

206

Coral Reef characeristics

richest marine ecosystem
highest species diversity of vert. on planet

207

problems with coral reefs (the numbers)

75% globally degraded and in decline (over 30-40yrs)
80% reduction in Caribbean coral diversity
50% reduction in corals of Great Barrier Reef

208

why theres problems with coral reefs

warming of oceans, cyclones, ocean acidification, coliform bacteria, artisanal fishing, commercial fishing, aquaria trade

209

atmospheric habitat modification

CO2, water vapour, black carbon, CH4, nitrous oxide, NF3, CFCs, SO2, radioactivity

210

atmospheric molecules that increase global warming

CO2, H2O, black C, CH4, NO, NF3, CFCs

211

atmospheric molecule that reduced global warming

SO2-- increases smog though

212

habitat loss- estuaries

very uncommon, very important
major cities
no comparable habitats for displaced species

213

sunlight comes in as

shortwave radiation (leaves as long wave)

214

Antarctic ice core oxygen isotopes

16O evaporates preferentially, snow is enriched in 18O
correlation between 18O/16O and T

215

[CO2] sep 2014

395ppm

216

when did CO2 go above 400pm

april 2013
Mauna Loa, Hawaii

217

fossil fuels from

300mya (Paleozoic)

218

Carbon isotopes

12C:13C -- 99%:1%
14C unstable
living plants absorb all 3
14C 'dissapears'

219

14C

1/2 life - 5730 yrs
decays to 14N
coal/oil do not contain 14C

220

Suess effect

burning fossil fuels releases CO2 w/o 14C-- can measure

221

funders behind climate change denial effort

Koch brothers (Koch industries- petroleum, chemicals, oil)
dark money
ExxonMobil

222

contributions to global warming

H2O 36-72%
CO2 9-26%
CH4 4-9%
O3 3-7%

223

since 1890 the Arctic T has risen

1.9ºC - almost an entire degree from BC

224

BC

formed through incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, emitted in anthropogenic/naturally occurring soot
absorbs heat, reduces albedo

225

dominant absorber of visible solar radiation in the atmosphere

BC

226

BC most concentrated in

tropics- highest solar irradiance

227

highest methane concentration

arctic

228

N2O from

cultivated soils
transportation

229

NF3

industrial gas- semiconductor manufacturing
GWP relative to CO2- 17200

230

GWP

global warming potential
11% atmospheric increase /yr

231

ozone formation

stratosphere- 20km
UVC + O2 = O + O
O2 + O = O3

232

UV wavelengths

UVC <290nm - ionizing radiation
UVB 290-320nm
UVA 320-400nm

233

atmospheric ozone absorption

99% of UVC
50% of UVB

234

CFC

chlorofluorocarbon - freon
solvent, refrigerant, aerosol
rises high in atmos

235

problem with CFC

UV knocks off one Cl
Cl steals O from O3
Free O collides with ClO and steals O.. Cl free to break apart another O3

236

ozone hole forms

every Sep. on Antarctic stratospheric clouds

237

ozone hole max

2007 - 27million km^2

238

ramification of antarctic ozone hole

southern semi westerly wind intensification-- large-scale changes in ventilation of southern oceans
'sun burn' in whales

239

when does ozone depletion occur

local winter-spring

240

Environment Canada cut ozone science

in the year that saw the first ozone hole in the northern hemisphere

241

CO2 summary

397ppm
50% global warming
fossil fuels, deforestation

242

CH4 summary

1.72ppmb (B)
19% global warming
rice paddies, landfills, burning, coal mining, gas exploitation, animals, sewage

243

N2O summary

310ppb
4% global warming
cultivation, fossil fuel

244

CFC summary

.28-.48ppb
15% global warming
aerosols, foam, insulator

245

overall greenhouse gases

75% anthropogenic
25% natural

246

ecologic consequences of global warming

loss of ice cover
extremes in weather system
coral reef bleaching

247

responding most rapidly to global warming

Arctic- amplification of global warming

248

global biodiversity low

during 'greenhouse' phases

249

highest SO2 emissions

Europe - ~1980
Asia - now

250

SO2

volcanoes, fossil fuels burning
acid rain

251

acid rain

pH 3.2 (100X more acidic than normal rain (5.8))
fish eggs don't survive
forest/crop damage

252

acid rain equation

SO2/NOx + H2O -- H2SO4/HNO3
25% HNO3
75% H2SO4

253

WHO set healthy level of Air Quality Index

25µg

254

Beijing air quality index

300 - bad
500 - hazardous
spring 2012 - 700!

255

Radioactivity

nuclear power
Ur, Pu
450 plants in world
high efficiency, require little fuel, few greenhouse gases, can have high environment/human damage

256

countries with most nuclear reactors

US - 100
France - 60
Japan - 50

257

background radioactivity

0.034 MilliRoentgen /hr
fukushima leak - workers - 2.5mR/hr

258

Chernobyl

Russia, April 25, 1986
as of 2004- >2.3million ppl hospitalized
nearly 1mill around the world died

259

birth defects in Belarus since Chernobyl

up to 83%
cleft palate, downs, deformities

260

Ukraine children

6000 heart deffects/yr
200% increase in birth defects
>1million children live in contaminated zones

261

Death valley

70km2 nobody will every be able to live there again

262

ocean acidification affects

primary productivity
dominant species
lowers biomass
ability to form shells
Fe availability

263

what is ocean acidification

ocean is saturated with CaCO3
increasing atoms. CO2 reduces ocean pH and [HCO3]
happening within decades

264

Exxon Valdez

March 24, 1989, Alaska
250,000 barrels of oil
10million gallons

265

deaths from exxon valdez

250,000 seabirds
2800 sea otters
300 harbour seal
250 bald eagles
22 whales

266

sediment runoff

greatly affects corrals by blocking sunlight

267

marine mammals

Biomagnification
highly contaminated with pollutants
PCB, PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
cancers, sterility

268

POP

persistent organic pollutant

269

bears that consume salmon

accumulate DDT, chlordanes, BDE-47

270

probability of occurrence of solvents in groundwater

associated with dissolved oxygen content of groundwater, urban land use, population density, hydraulic properties of aquifer

271

problems with groundwater contamination

health effects:
Mutagen
Carginogen
Teratogen

272

mutagen

causes mutation to DNA

273

carcinogen

causes cancer

274

teratogen

causes birth defects

275

arsenic causes

preservative in wood -90%
fossil fuel combustion, industrial, pesticides, natural deposits

276

problems with arsenic

carcinogen, teratogen >300µg/L
standard level - 10µg/L

277

DDT biomagnification in birds

10mill X increase in birds compared to in water
kidney failure-- affects shell gland- causes birds to not be able to lay eggs with shells

278

Hungary disaster

october 2010
burst of retaining wall of reservoirs-- million m^3 of toxic waste released
killed all aquatic life

279

Diclofenac

anti-inflammatory given to indian cattle-- vultures eat dead cattle-- dehydrated/kidney failure-- vultures die-- major increase in rabid dogs

280

neonicotinoids

most widely used insecticide
highly soluble
persist for long periods
leach into ground/water
delayed toxic to insects-- declines in bird populations

281

whaling

1880-1970 >90% depletion of whales
blue, fin, sei, bowhead, right, sperm, gray, humpback

282

BC whaling

1908-1967
5610 humbacks taken
6060 sperm
3779 sei
1378 blue
7520 fin

283

IWC

international whaling commission

284

what countries are NOT members of IWC?

Canada, Norway, Iceland
japan whales 'for science'

285

bluefin tuna

can get $700,000
population is collapsing

286

based on trophic levels and biomass of PP... fish (4th trophic level) biomass

expected - 605x10^9kg/y
Acutal - 240x10^9kg/yr

287

how much of prey should each predator species take

3%
3% of actual fish biomass is 7.2x10^9 kg/yr

288

how much fish biomass we are actually taking

~80x10^9 kg/yr

289

commercial fishing %exploitation rate of prey

40! should be 3..

290

fishing down marine food webs

we started by capturing large prey-- population collapse-- over time, left with small species

291

East coast fish biomass

1900 >11tonnes/km^2
2000 <3tonnes /km^2
5-10% of what there was 100 yrs ago

292

problem with legal trade

how can we set allowable catches without knowing population sizes

293

grizzly bear extent

historical- western half of NA
current- N and W Canada

294

species importet in Britain over 7 months of 1976 that shouldn't be legally traded

leopard 661
jaguar 279
polar bear 101

295

legal trade of primates

35,000
2002-- 40,000

296

legal trade of parrots

>450,000
2012-- 320,000

297

coral reef fish are caught

with cyanide bombs
350 million in 4 years

298

dolphins are hunted

to be used as shark bait (meat stays on hook well)

299

why aren't tropical nature preserves very good

poachers still go in
'empty forests'- most-all species >2kg pretty much extirpated
loss of symbionts- can't conserve biodiversity

300

Japan 2004 commercial hunt

444 striped dolphins
197 bottlenose dolphins
102 pantropical spotted dolphins
293 rissos dolphins
117 pilot whales
12 false killer whales

301

BC black bear hunt

10,000 /yr (legally)
6000 illegally

302

canada seal hunt

100-400,000 /yr
~30million revenue

303

major exporters of wildlife trade

argentina, australia, bolivia, brazil, canada, china, columbia, congo, honduras, india, indonesia, nepal, philippines, sout korea, taiwan, thailand, US

304

major importers of wildlife trade

UK, US, united arab emirates, european union, canada, china, honking, japan, korea, singapore, taiwan, yemen

305

NA songbird decline

began to manifest in 1980s
more in long distance migrators
more prevelant NE NA

306

bird mortalities

feral cats >>1billion/yr
windows 1billion/yr
high tension wires 200mill/yr
pesticides 100mill/yr

307

large sea bird kill

attracted to lights on boats at night
5-10 die/night/boat

308

introduction of exotic species

causes major habitat alteration and decline of native species

309

non-native species example

pigs, goats for human consumption-- rats at same time-- major decline of native birds-- mongoose introduced to control rats-- major predation of native species

310

why do pigs and goats outcompete other species

because they eat everything, take over

311

problem with mongoose introduction

rats love native birds.. so do mongoose.. not a way to control rats

312

exotic species have greater reproductive output

due to their alteration of the habitat

313

problem with raising cattle

very uniform genetically- one pathogen easily passed-- farmed cattle are vaccinated-- pass virus to native species

314

charles elton

the ecology of invasions by animals and plants

315

countries with high % alien flora

New Zealand 46.7%
South Georgia 67.5%
Campbell Island 38.8%
Canada 21.8%

316

feral

an animal living in the wild but descended from domesticated individuals

317

domestic cat impact

1.4-3.7 billion mammals/yr
greatest source of anthropogenic mortality for US birds and mammals

318

domestic cats in australia

every day in Australia 75million animals fall prey to ~15million feral cats

319

Rinderpest

ungulate disease (morbiliviruses- measles, distemper..)
contaminated food
1990s 90% mortality in Kenya
saved domestics w/ vaccinations

320

threats to endangered wildlife from domestic animals

canine distemper, rabies, mange, feline infectious peritonitis

321

>95% bat mortality

white-nose syndrome
fungal growth

322

massive amphibian mortality around the globe

Chitrid amphibian disease

323

hawaiian bird mortality

avian malaria
every species of bird below 1500m? extinct-- higher than that no mosquitos-- could persist

324

average species persistance

1million years

325

how many of the species that have lived over that last 550 million years are extinct

99%

326

characteristic of natural extinction of a species

replaced by a different species (similar niche)- no overall trophic change in community

327

determines whether species are prone to extinction

rarity
dispersal ability
degree of specialization
population variability
trophic status
reproductive ability

328

rarity

rare species- small disturbance causes extinction
common- small disturbance has minor effect (less prone to extinction)

329

dispersal ability

poor dispersal-- habitat destroyed- not able to reach new fragment
good dispersal-- habitat destroyed- can reach new fragment

330

degree of specialization

high = more prone to extinction
low specialization = less prone to extinction

331

example of high specialization

panda bear, spotted owl

332

example of low specialization

capuchin monkey, great horned owl

333

population variability

high variability- sudden pop decline can lead to extinction
low variability- pop size relatively constant, extinction unlikely

334

trophic status

high trophic status- top carnivores are few, prone to extinction
low trophic status- abundant, less prone to extinction

335

numbers in trophic levels

plants- thousands
herbivores- hundrands
carnivores- tens

336

reproductive ability

low reproductive ability- more prone to extinction ex. blue whale

337

countries with most endangered mammals

Madagascar (53), Indonesia (49), Brazil (40)

338

countries with most endangered birds

indonesia (135), brazil (123), china (83)

339

countries with most endangered fish

USA (164), mexico (98), indonesia (29)

340

highest % threat to all species

habitat loss (85-90%)
exotic species (~50%)

341

large marsupial extinction in Australia ~10,000ya

when humans colonized

342

north american mammal extinction

when humans spread to NA

343

examples of extinct mammals since 1600

stellers seacow
thylacine
falkland isl wolf
sloth lemur
janaese sealion
dwarf hippo

344

bird extinctions since 1600

great auk, dodo, passenger, pigeon, eskimo curlew, carolina parakeet, hawaiian honeycreeper (51 species extinct, 40 endangered)

345

Philippine extinctions

10 endemic bird species, 9 extinct in last 50yrs (deforestation)

346

hawaiian plants

1126 species, 90 extinct

347

extinction based on island size in 100 years

25km^2 -- 10%
1km^2 -- 50%

348

delayed biodiversity loss

extinction debt/extinction half life

349

origination should

follow extinction

350

natural extinction occurs

because one species is outcompeted by a new one
(NOT what is happening now- extinction >> origination)

351

normal extinction rate

few species/ year
now: 3000/year
evolving- <1/yr

352

History of Conservation 1600-1900

european hunting preserves for monarchies
some of only natural forest in europe
ex. black forest, germany

353

Henry David Thoreau

1840-1865 American naturalist/philosopher
progressive thinking for his time and ours, recluse
"The Maine Woods" - every creature is better alive than dead

354

Alfred Wallace

1863, British Naturalist/collector
codiscoverer of natural selection, recluse, no destruction around-prophetic

355

Established Parks

Yosemite Valley, 1864 (Cali, Abraham Lincoln)
Yellowstone, 1872
Concept of biosphere, 1875
Banff, 1885
Jasper, 1907
Mount McKinley, 1917
Serengeti Park, 1951

356

World conservation Union

IUCN, 1948
International Union for the Protection of Nature, 181 countries

357

Aldo Leopold

Sand County Almanac, Sketches Here and There, 1948
One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds

358

Rachel Carson

1962, Silent Spring

359

IBP

International Biological Program, 1964-1974

360

The Population Bomb

Paul Ehrlich, 1968
human pop growing exponentially, growing/finding resources increasing linearly.. will lead to a crash

361

UNFPA

1969 United Nations Population Fund
first effort to give women control over reproduction

362

First Earth Day

1970

363

first Landsat satellite

1972, global coverage of land use and PP

364

CITES

1975, convention on international trade in endangered species
175 countries, 5000 animal species, 28000 plants, 3 classifications

365

CITES classification

Appendix 1: threatened with extinction. Permits required
Appendix 2: not threatened but vulnerable. no permits required

366

examples of species in appendix 1

tiger, leopard, jaguar, cheetah, chimp, gorilla, red panda, asiatic elephant

367

example of species in appendix 2

great white shark, african grey parrot, green iguana, bilge mahogany

368

The Diversity of Life

E.O. Wilson, 1992

369

Ecological footprint

Rees, UBC, 1992

370

Human welfare vs. ecological footprint

increased standard of living (human development index) = increased ecological footprint

371

earths biocapacity

2.1 ha/person
many countries well above that
canada ~7, US ~9
Reimchen 8.8

372

problem with ecological footprint model

does not consider # offspring - largest cause of overuse of world supplies

373

projected population in 2100

at 2011 growth rate 18.5 bill
2 child families 8.7 bill
1 child families 1.4bil

374

Kyoto Protocol

1997
ratified by 189 countries in 2009
intl treaty, binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce emissions

375

Protected area defined by IUCN

an area of land or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources and managed through legal or other effective means

376

6 IUCN categories

I Strict nature reserve/wildnerness area
II National and Provincial Parks
III National Monument
IV Habitat/species management area
V Protected landscape/seascape
VI Managed resource protected area

377

IUCN category I

1a. strict nature reserve: managed mainly for science (ecological reserve)
1b. wilderness area: managed mainly for wilderness protection

378

IUCN category II

national/provincial parks: managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation (very local, ex.Taj Mahal)

379

IUCN category III

national monument: managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features (world heritage sites)

380

IUCN category IV

Habitat/species management area: managed mainly for conservation through management intervention (introduced species removal)

381

IUCN category V

Protected landscape/seascape: managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation (Orca Pass International Stewardship Area)

382

IUCN category VI

Managed resource protected area: managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystem (Crown land)

383

WDPA

world database on protected areas, conservation decision making

384

total area protected

cumulative total area protected ~18mill km
cumulative terrestrial- 14mill
marine 4mill

385

global protection by IUCN category

Ia. 5.5%
Ib. 5.4%
II. 23.5%
III. 1.5%
IV. 16.1%
V. 5.6%
VI. 23.3%
no category 19%

386

global trends in protected lands

N=169, MOST <10%

387

countries with greatest % protected area

Seychelles 94% (404km^2) Slovakia 72% (14,000km^2)
Greenland 45% (2.2mil km^2)

388

protected areas in BC

>1000

389

Major IUCN concerns

Paper Parks
Design Shortcomings
Internal threats
External threats
Trans international boundary effects
financing protected areas

390

Paper Parks

park names exist on maps but with no implementation

391

Design Shortcomings
a.

a. position of parks are chosen based on min political and industrial opposition and are ineffective to preserve biodiversity
many of world parks in deserts, ice caps, tundra mts (lowest diversity)

392

Design Shortcomings
b.

b. size of parks are too small to preserve biodiversity due to fragmentation effect (small pop., increased extinction rate)
MVP, MVA

393

MVP

maintain 90% genetic variability after 200yrs

394

MVA

maintain genetic variability after 200 yrs

395

fraction of initial genetic variation left after 500 generations

N=1000, 0.9
N=300, 0.5
N=100, 0.1
N=20, 0 (after 200 generations)

396

inbreeding in animals can increase

susceptibility to pathogens

397

10% probability of extinction in 100 years

safe

398

vulnerable

20% probability of extinction in 20 years

399

endangered

50% probability of extinction in 10 years

400

critically endangered

>50% probability of extinction in 10 years

401

most common park size

<10km^2

402

MVA for pop 2500

small herb. 10km^2
large herb. few 1000km^2
large carn. >100,000km^2

403

Khutzeymateen Grizz sanctuary

450km^2
can't persist in <50,000 km^2

404

combined Jasper, Banff, Glacier, Yoho, Waterton

20,000 km^2

405

Take away message from MVP population size vs. Persistence, years

Major IUCN concerns- design shortcomings- **Size of parks are too small to preserve biodiversity due to fragmentation effect**

406

Major IUCN concerns, Internal threats to protected areas

infringement, poaching, fires, disease, groundwater reduction, invasive species, highways

407

Yellowstone poaching

5000 violations/yr documented
~1:20 detection rate

408

why rhinos are targeted

mythical chinese medicine- poached in south africa for chinese market (~1-200 left)

409

bent line in MVP vs. persistence graph

>90% survival, non-linear equation- more factors/constraints involved

410

Park size needed is a function of

body size

411

Banff correcting highway deaths

adding fences, underpasses, overpasses
from 81-2001 4051 large mammals were killed on highways

412

Major IUCN concerns, External threats

outside the influence of management or control
headwater effects, dams, acid rain, ozone hole, climate change, biocides, pathogens

413

example of external threats (IUCN concerns)

brucellosis- domestic cattle vaccinated, bison not

414

IUCN trans international boundary effects

migration corridors
trans international boundary- migratory paths disrupted by protective area boundaries

415

example of IUCN trans international boundary effects

Mexico-US fence blocks antelope migration- they have to climb under the fence :(

416

Y2Y

yellowstone to yukon
idea to join all parks to allow dispersal/migration

417

IUCN financing

currently 7billion/yr
required 40billion/yr

418

Migratory Bird Treaty Act

1918, first statute to protect seabirds, recognized their importance in the nutrient cycle

419

new regulation for Antarctica birds

bird colonies should be overflown below 2000ft- spooks them--- crush their eggs (looks like a large predator)

420

Downside to initiation of IWC

for decades hundreds of thousands of whales were killed (b/c they wouldn't be able to soon)

421

no-fishing zones

1970-1980, intl implementation of marine areas protected from commercial extraction of fish

422

no-take zones

MPA- marine protected area
'parks' in ocean

423

benefits of no-take zone

increased abundance of fish
increased presence of larger fish with exponential increase in reproductive output
increased species diversity
recovery of competitors, biodiversity, ecosystem processes

424

no-take zone opposition

major by commercial/rec fisheries, government
say that MPAs not necessary- no strong evidence that reduction in fish extraction would benefit other wildlife

425

Canadian Fisheries Act

No one shall hunt or kill fish or marine animals of any kind, other than porpoises, whales, walruses, sea lions, and hair by means of rockets, explosive materials, explosive projectile..
OTHER THAN?

426

redefine MPA

IUCN 1988, any area of the intertidal or subtitle terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment

427

recognized importance of no-fish zones

because fish populations rebounded during WWI

428

why SUCH a large population increase (exponential) if no fishing

b/c fish can reproduce later-- higher amounts

429

proportion of global ocean area protected

Category I: 0.05%
Category II: 0.08%
2010: total 1.17%

430

PIPA

Phoenix Islands Protected Area- 400 thous. km^2, one of the largest protected areas, MPA zone (can still fish), SW or Hawaii

431

Gwaii Haanas

queen charlotte islands of BC
93% fishing as normal

432

number MPAs in 2010

6800- very fragmented, marine animals migrate! not very protective

433

where are there not no-take zones

in the highest productivity areas of the ocean- would conflict with commercial fishing

434

meta analysis of MVP

4169 individuals

435

songbird diversity

lower population = lower genetic variability = more similar songs
songs can predict fragmentation

436

Approaches to Conservation Ecology

Studies of fragmented areas
Critical habitat approach
Identifying biodiversity hotspots
identifying endemic species
park design

437

nesting trees

snags- owls need old, dead trees to reproduce
dead tree protected by law- left up when clear cutting

438

Critical habitat approach

forest age structure
nesting trees
nutrient pulses

439

biodiversity hot spots

localized areas of high species diversity
localized areas of high density of individuals within a species
face exceptional threats of destruction

440

examples of biodiversity hot spots

Ascension island
snake river
Triangle island
Monarch butterfly migration

441

how much of hotspots have protection

<10%
median 8.4%

442

Triangle island

Northern tip of Van Isl
huge [seabirds]- surrounding sea very rich (guano)- no predators to eat bird eggs

443

Ascension island

essential for sea turtle reproduction

444

snake river

very high # predatory birds nesting

445

Earths plant species (diversity hot spots)

1/5 of plant species confined to 0.5% of Earths land surface
in habitats threatened with imminent destruction

446

Yasuni national park

Ecuador, biological hot spot- highest bird/orca/insect diversity.. have oil

447

endemic species

unique to an area
all countries, all ecosystems

448

endemic species most common

on islands furthest from continents
Haida Gwaii, Hawaii, Galapagos, Madagascar

449

our endemic species

VI marmot

450

map of evolutionary uniqueness

degree of difference- genetic divergence, vertebrates, highest- Australia, Madagascar
medium- South America, South Africa
'low'- North America, Europe, Asia

451

degree of difference is used to

identify endemic species

452

corals found to be how old

4,265years
based on radiocarbon dating

453

Approaches to conservation ecology- park design

design best possible park, 10,000km^2?
connect exsiting parks, minimize edge effect, examine grids of species, roads, cities, max benefit, min cost, ownership

454

SLOSS

park design
single large or several small?

455

factors involved in park design

SLOSS, shape, position, corridor

456

benefits of SL or SS (park design)

SS- capture more of the high quality habitat/diversity
SL- MVA

457

shape (park design)

circular- less edge effect
longer- may be good for corridor, riparian, migration route

458

Position (park design)

close together (triangle)- greater opportunity for dispersal, bad- pathogen spread
line of areas- corridor, migration

459

most parks SLOSS?

multiple small areas- lead to lower genetic diversity- not MVA

460

distribution of living things depends on

niche differences
spatial/temporal constraint

461

Restoration ecology

reconstruction of degraded habitats to pre disturbance state
reintroduction of recently extinct populations
removal of exotic species
Augmentation of ecosystem processes
Sustainable development

462

ER

ecosystem restoration- process of assisting with the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed

463

Yellowstone reintroduction

wolves extinct from hunting, agriculture, loss of habitat- loss of riparian zone due to large # elk

464

reintroduction of wolves led to

decrease elk, increase riparian, berries, grizzlies, coyotes, birds, small mammals, shrubbery

465

cascading effects

trophic downgrading, top-down forcing
system changes at herbivore e and plant trophic levels due to loss of large carnivores

466

top-down forcing even affects

disease, wildfire, carbon sequestration, invasive species, biogeochemical cycles

467

Galapagos rail

bird, vulnerable to invasive mammals
predation by pigs, habitat degradation by goats

468

removal of pigs/goats on rail

increased pop density by over an order of magnitude in ~20yrs

469

South Georgia rats

rats taken over- cull them with poison pellets- will kill birds, reindeer

470

Reindeer are found

naturally only in Northern hemisphere

471

South Georgia reindeer

introduced in 20th century, over 3000, no natural predators, damage natural habitat, endangering native sea birds-- cull

472

Red/Arctic foxes

native to Alaska, introduced to islands, loss of breeding/nesting for seabirds, shorebirds, waterfowl- cull -- island restoration saved endangered Aleutian cackling Canada goose

473

Scotch broom

introduced 1850, rapid spread, bank stabilizer-deep roots, rapid growth, strong competitor with natives- light, moisture, nutrients
no natural predator

474

HBB

himalayan blackberry- invades riparian areas, forests, oak woodlands, meadows, roadside, clear cuts, open areas..
out competes natives, limit movement of animals

475

augmentation of ecosystem processes

ID sources of biodiversity loss to allow supplement of limited resources and critical species interactions that facilitate recovery

476

loss of songbirds, communication towers

avian fatalities can be reduced by 50-70% by light changes (communication towers)

477

long os songbirds, windows

reduce collision: curtains, blinds, remove window plants, screens, non-reflective, one-way coating, angled down
doesn't work: hawk decals, a few decals, owl figurine

478

mesopredator

middle trophic level predators such as raccoons, skunks, snakes, coyote

479

mesopredator cascade effect

affect distribution and abundance of smaller carnivores and prey
ex. coyote--cat--bird

480

belowground biodiversity

contribute to aboveground biodiversity, structure/function of ecosystem, ecologic/evolutionary response of ecosystem to environment change

481

sustainable development

longterm persistence of human society and environmental processes through intelligent ecological management- Y2Y, ecobridges

482

Pleistocene rewilding

reintroducing lost North American megafauna to restore natural ecosystems

483

massive rafaunation

replacing local rather than global extinctions- benefit conservation without risk of unpredictable interactions

484

pleistocene rewinding has been called

frankenstein ecosystem

485

sustainable development - zoos

>1000 public zoos, conservation potential,

486

WAZA

world association of zoos and aquariums
member of IUCN, CITES
recognize evidence-based conservation, integrated species conservation, horizon scans, promotes use of red list

487

sustainable development, smithsonian, captive breeding

'insurance policy', conserving species that may not survive in the wild
conservation education, research, zoos

488

species saved by captive breeding

guam rails, black footed ferrets, california condors, przewalskis horses, horned oryx, partula snails, spixs macaws

489

captive breeding goals

maintain healthy age structure
ensure reproduction successful
protect against disease
avoid inbreeding
maybe reintroduce back to wild

490

captive breeding of vertebrates

recovery in 17 of 68 species whose threat levels were reduced

491

VI marmot

1/5 endemic species to canada
critically endangered, high elevation alpine meadows
2003- only 30 left

492

carbon credits

credit of currency for reducing greenhouse gas output
1 credit for 1 ton reduction CO2

493

kyoto signed by

170 countries
not those with largest greenhouse gas output (US, China, India, Brazil, Canada withdrew)

494

can fund reduction in greenhouse emissions by

clean energy projects- wind farms

495

world electricity

Coal 45%
natural gas 20%
nuclear 20%
hydro 8%
other 5%

496

'other' world electricity

wind 2.9% (of total)
biomass 1.5%
geothermal 0.4%
solar 0.04%

497

hydroelectricity

geographically limited, high ecological impact, low cost

498

nuclear power

unlimited potential
fission/fusion
high risk- weapons, ecological, health

499

photovoltaics

high potential, low risk, high cost

500

PV growth

govt buyback of solar power at 3X retail price over 20yr contract

501

OPA

ontario power authority- standard offer program, buys solar power at 0.42$ per kWh and sells back for current rate (0.055/kWh)
0.11$ for other power (wind, biomass, hydro)

502

possible fixes for global warming

carbon credits
hydroelectric
nuclear power
photovoltaics
solar-hydrogen econonmy
wind
new technofixes

503

how does photovoltaic work

dissociates water to H2 + O2
stores the potential until night
night- H,O recombined using fuel cell, PV cell rests
fuel cells byproduct (H2O) recycled to be split again during the day

504

spain windpoer

2009- 50% of country powered by wind
2013- produced more electricity than any other source

505

windpower problems

bats- fly into b/c of low pressure
birds- fly into
can be fixed with lights, sensors, only running when really windy (7km/h)

506

new technofixes

iron fertilization of ocean- carbon sequestration

507

Fe fertilization

Fe severely limited in ocean
seeding ocean with Fe
causes PP bloom-- deaths sink carbon

508

problem with Fe fertilization

it also sinks the Fe.. continually seeding would be needed

509

nutrient cycling between marine and terrestrial ecosystem

downloading
uploading

510

downloading

rivers discharge sediment, trace elements, dissolved organic matter, nitrogen, phosphates

511

downloading leads to

increased PP in estuaries and adjacent marine waters

512

after salmon spawn

carcasses in estuaries-- release nutrients (P,N)-- increased growth of ulva-- increased growth of copepods-- increased # spawning salmon survive-- increased # of salmon return next time

513

riparian zone

forest habitat adjacent to stream that is influenced by stream parameters (hydrology, nutrients)

514

chum salmon carcasses transferred to riparian zone

8 bears brought 3072 in one year
males- 2032
females- 1040
65% of salmon in stream

515

uploading

terrestrial ecosystems affected by marine
rain, tides, sea birds, commercial fishing
bears bringing salmon into riparian

516

salmon move to open ocean because

less predators

517

species dependent on salmon

>150

518

why do bears not ~affect salmon reproduction

hate salmon testes- 70% of the time took spawned-out salmon

519

how to tell male spawned out?

lose ~5% of testes by volume- measure of how many times they spawned

520

importance of salmon in bear diet

70% of yearly protein

521

limiting resource for vegetation in coastal forest

nitrogen

522

salmon nitrogen

3% of total mass is N
contribute 120kg N/ha to riparian zone

523

N stable isotopes

14N- 99.3% of total N
15N

524

N standard

15N/14N of atmospheric N2

525

nitrogen isotope ratios in species

trees -4
deer -2
wolves 0
phytoplankton 3
zooplankton 7
salmon 12
bear 15

526

15N enrichment per trophic level

3ppt

527

15N study looked at

130 watershed coastal BC
50,000 plants
20,000 insects
density of carcasses
density of predators/scavengers
samples of feathers/hair

528

riparian salmon affect on birds

insects eat salmon-- burrow for 6months--1000s hatch when birds migrate-- influence migratory patterns

529

nitrogen rich/poor soil indicator

high nutrient indicator plant species- high coverage below falls
low nutrient indicator species- high coverage above falls (no salmon)

530

N in riparian plants

80% derived from salmon nutrients

531

how to tell if salmon presence affects plant growth

take ancient tree cores, hard to detect N (1200C:1N)
appears coupled

532

N in atmosphere

78%

533

larger tree growth

appears to lag ~3yrs

534

other evidence of higher nutrient levels below falls

Winter Wren 50% more dense below falls (large salmon diet)
Insect biomass
Wolves, Bears

535

Bear hair segments

tip- spring diet
mid- summer diet
root - fall diet

536

importance of salmon and bears

40X more bears on salmon watersheds
95% of autumn protein
30-80% yearly protein

537

dual isotope model

D15N vs. D13C

538

how much salmon bears transfer

each bear- 700 salmon/ 6 weeks

539

# salmon carcasses per year

1000/km/year
2.4 million kg

540

dominant species

salmon

541

keystone species

bears