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Flashcards in 329 Biodiversity Final Deck (101):
1

Purple Martin Foundation mission statement

-restore and conserve Western Purple Martin populations along W Coast of NA
-return BC Purple Martins to natural nesting sites in open forest and near freshwater habitats
-eliminate need for human intervention for survival in BC

2

What do Purple Martins eat

Insects! fly up to high altitudes to catch large flying insects such as dragonflies, moths, beetles, & smaller insects. Dragonflies especially good for hungry nestlings

3

nootropic migration

A bird that spends the summer in its breeding range in Canada or the United States (the nearctic) but migrates to Mexico, Central America, South America or the Caribbean (the New World or neo-tropics) for its nonbreeding range in winter

4

Western Purple Martin northern limit of breeding range

north end of Georgia Basin, near Campbell River, VI

5

PM timing of migration

Adults arrive in BC early-mid April
Younger subadult birds arrive later in May and June

6

largest BC PM colony

Ladysmith Maritime Society marina in Ladysmith Harbour (67 nests, 2008)

7

PM colonies

mostly 5-30 nesting pairs in artificial housing and less than 10 pairs where they still occur in the wild in the western USA.

8

Where do PM's build colonies

cavities, traditionally woodpecker holes close to water
now, mainly human provided nest boxes- clustered together on marine pilings near/on water

9

Eastern vs. Western PM nesting

Eastern prefer condo-style or hanging gourds
W prefer individual boxes in loose clusters

10

How PM's are being tracked ("new")

miniature light-level geolocator data loggers recently developed by the British Antarctic Survey (www.birdtracker.co.uk)

11

how do miniature light-level geolocator data loggers work

record time and light intensity every 10 minutes, allows determination of bird’s position from day length and sunrise/ sunset times

12

precision of miniature light-level geolocator data loggers

(+/- ~300 km)
battery expectancy >1.5yrs

13

the PM study

put locators on 20 adults on Central VI, July-Aug 2009
worn until they returned in spring 2010

14

how are geolocators attached

attached with a tiny “backpack” harness around the legs, a design which neither harms the bird nor interferes with its movements

15

PM study, year 2

only recovered 1 locator
find migration = ~22,000 km long
applied 10 more locators

16

PM study, year 3

retrieved 4 locators
added 20 more locators

17

PM conservation goals

-sustain current highly successful volunteer nest-box-based recovery program
-increase abundance to min 800 nesting pairs by 2012
-re-introduce sig. proportion of population to original/equivalent nesting cavity situations in wild
-redevelop a sustainable wild-nesting population (as far as practical)

18

BC PM nest box program

1985- installation of nest boxes at Cowichan Bay, probably rescued from extirpation
increased slowly, nest boxes installed at more suitable marine locations
1989- 14 nesting pairs located at 3 nest box sites and 1 piling location on S VI
-2000 ~200 pairs at 16 colonies.

19

BC PM nest box program, 2000's

2002- Georgia Basin Ecological Assessment and Restoration Society (GBEARS) takes over and renames "BC Purple Martin Stewardship and Recovery Program"
2005-06, freshwater sites added

20

PM volunteers

now 145+ volunteers
First Nations, individuals, naturalist/conservation groups, corporations, federal, provincial, regional/municipal government departments, and universities

21

PM recovery and weather

warm = insects = success-- 2006, population tripled
cold wet = less insects = population slows or declines
2008- worst conditions, long cold spring, week of rain at end of July, lack of food = loss of ~100 adults and ~40% of nestlings, subsequent decline in breeding pairs the next year

22

moving PM's back to natural sites

Two freshwater sites were occupied in the Fraser Valley area for the first time in almost 40 years – one each in 2006 and 2007. There are currently 1500 nest boxes distributed among 70 marine and 20 freshwater locations.

23

reasons for bird surveys

simply wanting to know # of species
baseline information for poorly known species/area
land development assessment designation (legal protection)
set priorities to focus conservation efforts
determine habitat associations

24

why monitor

estimate population trends over time
set conservation priorities
research tool
early pointers for underlying causes of trends
underlying demographic mechanisms
determining success of conservation actions

25

conservation actions

acquisition of land to protect species
adoption of new management practices
species recovery programs
government environment policies

26

very important for monitoring

consistency of method is crucial

27

most common deforestation causes

agriculture, unsustainable forest management, mining, infrastructure projects, increased fire incidence/intensity

28

indirect effects on deforestation

road building, opening up passages, 'death by a thousand cuts'

29

deforestation, Conversion of forests

removing natural forests to meet other land needs, such as pulp/palm/soy plantations, agriculture, pasture for cattle settlements and mining, settlements, roads and infrastructure

30

deforestation, Forest fires

millions of ha/yr
worse where fires have been suppressed for years (unnatural accumulation makes fire burn more intensely)

31

deforestation, Illegal and unsustainable logging

occurs in all types of forests across all continents
Illegally harvested wood finds its way into major consumption markets-- depresses world timber prices by between 7% and 16%

32

deforestation, Fuelwood harvesting

Over-harvesting for domestic use or for commercial trade in charcoal significantly damages forests.

33

deforestation, Mining

often accompanied by major infrastructure construction, such as roads, railway lines and power stations, putting further pressure on forests and freshwater ecosystems

34

deforestation, climate change

Forest loss is both cause and effect of CC
agriculture, forestry, land-use ~1/4 GHG emissions

35

leading cause of deforestation

agriculture: oil palm, soy, rubber, coffee, tea, and rice among many other crops -- also leads to soil erosion

36

population index

suitable for determining changes in population size, not exact size - directly related to the unknown population size (ex. if pop. 2X so does index), easier to obtain than pop. size

37

population size

if you need to know the exact size than a count is needed, not an index, more labour/resource intensive, and never completely accurate either. a good index is preferable over a poor count

38

true census

attempting to count all birds, pairs, or nests within survey boundary

39

rare, restricted range bird count

often best to do a true census, sampling might record too few birds for a reliable estimate

40

high clumped/conspicuous birds

count most of population at limited number of sites

41

extremely large numbers of birds

within site sampling

42

common/widespread birds

survey representative section of areas

43

robust study types

random
random stratified
regular sampling (systematic)

44

generic or single species surveys

mapping and transects.

45

line transect variation

record exact distance from line (variable distance)
record within bands from line (fixed distance)

46

transect adaptability

marine/freshwater/terrestrial
survey individual species/groups
efficient in quantity/unit effort

47

transects can be used to

examine bird-habitat relationship
derive relative/absolute abundance measurement

48

transect issues

recommended walking speed
counting instruction
full distance estimation

49

full distance estimation

estimating distances from the centre of the point or from the line to all birds heard/seen, or to use estimation w/i bands
-if bands, distances must be predefined

50

distance estimate, line transect

perpendicular to the transect line (not from observer)

51

estimating distance

by eye
marker posts/coloured tape
visually mark position of bird and measure distance when perp. to where bird was
plotted on high quality maps
use a sighting compass

52

tools for estimating distance

rangefinder- laser/radar
sighting compass- determine precise angular measurement to bird (then use trig)

53

using sighting compass

distance from observer to bird
then perpendicular distance is d cos

54

determining line transects

regular/systematic- series of line oriented along long axis of study area
random- starting point and direction selected randomly

55

minimum transect recommendations

two visits to a plot each season (max 4)
minimum 2 distance bands (0-25m, >25m)
if multiple observers- assign separate tasks, monitor differences

56

point transect

stop at predefined spots, allow settle time, record all birds for predetermined time (2-20min)

57

bluebird populations

1950's - population declined
1990's - extirpated

58

why bluebird loss

loss of cavities (snags)
competition with invasives (starlings, house sparrow)
habitat destruction

59

how to re-establish blue birds

2012- establish aviaries in garry oak ecosystem for 1-3weeks to acclimate, set them free and hope they establish in nest boxes near the aviary

60

cost of re-establishing blue birds

$5000/pair

61

bring back the bluebird goals

reestablish breeding population
replace lost nest cavities
release birds from a healthy population (translocation from washington)
release 90 birds by 2016

62

bluebird habitat

open parklands
garry oak meadows
open fields
especially: short grass, scattered trees, fence lines to perch on

63

why North American Red Crossbill excites birders so much

nomadic - don't see often

64

red crossbill habitat

cool evergreen forest, Canada-Alaska through Cascades, Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mt's. wander to find conifer seeds

65

Red Crossbill characteristics

small, stocky finches
cross tipped bill
hatch w/ uncross bill
crosses at 4-6 wks

66

why crossbills wander

cone-bearing trees are unreliable - big cone crop one year and the next year nothing

67

irruption

mass movement of birds, may turn up in unexpected places outside ordinary range

68

types of red crossbills

up to 9 known, all different bill sizes and shapes and different body sizes depending on kind of conifer seeds they eat - may be evolving in to new species

69

Crossbill evolutionary arms race

Rocky Mt's -squirrels take lodgepole cones-- trees evolve to produce short, wide cones with thick scales at base
S Idaho- no squirrels-- longer, thinner cones, thick scales at tips-

70

South Hills Idaho Crossbills

bigger bills than other crossbills, more steady populations (more food supply w/o squirrels)

71

coevolution

changes in at least two species' genetic compositions reciprocally affect each other's evolution

72

most steeply declining species

those associated with mature forests (Pine Siskin, Red Crossbill, Cassin's Finch, Purple Finch, Pine Grosbeak), vulnerable to loss of mature forest from logging and pine beetle

73

increasing west coast species

waterfowl (Canada Goose, Hooded Merganser, Ring-necked Duck)

74

widening and fencing riparian zones

reduce cattle grazing-- allows plants to propogate-- allows endangered species to persist (Yellow-breasted Chat)

75

salt

many species of finches are attracted to salts. salt-foraging well documented on highways, coastal mudflats, marsh shores. 1941- at least 1000 killed in one incident.

76

drone study

204 bird approaches in 8 days with small quadricopter, approached flamingos, greenshanks, mallards

77

drone study results

80% of cases, could fly to within 4m without modifying behaviour
approach speed, drone colour, repeated approaches no significant impact
approach angle did have significant impact

78

drone study approach angle

approaching vertically (90º) disturbed behaviour - may be associated w/ predator attack

79

drone recommendations

lunch >100m from birds
do not approach vertically
adjust approaching distance/species

80

what is a pitfall trap

hole in ground with cup/bucket in it, typically covered to protect from predation and hypothermia, drainage holes for rain, bedding

81

drift fence

guard rails, direct animals into pitfalls

82

what should be recorded when looking at live trap capture

species ID, age, sex, reproductive status, morphometric measurements, capture station number, biological data

83

what is the purpose of pre-baiting a study site

increases capture (trap-ability); traps baited and left open ≥2weeks

84

most efficient method of inventorying small mammal population

trapping

85

types of small mammal trapping

live trapping
pitfall trapping
snap trapping

86

snap trapping

kill trapping
can provide data for diet or reproduction
very limited as an inventory method
doesn't capture species/ages equally
disrupts social structure, age structure, behaviour, reproduction, immigration

87

morphometric measurements

total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, weight

88

marking animals caught in live traps

ear tages
black permanent ink (ventral surface)
hair dye

89

VI marmot habitat

S & W sub-alpine and alpine meadows (≥ 1000 meters), where trees dont take root-- meadows are 1st to become clear of snow, produce early grasses/sedges the marmots rely on after hibernation, deep soils for digging hibernacula, boulders for sunning and scouting

90

increased marmot breeding success

"dispersal"- leave natal colony to find a mate at a colony nearby or attract a mate dispersing from another colony. both m/f disperse at ~2yrs, ~5-20km

91

marmot meta population

dispersal creates many mini populations, creates a community of colonies, travelling creates new colonies and helps declining ones, safeguards against total population collapse

92

when marmots came to VI

not known, but most likely during a glaciation, >9000yrs, glaciation ended, island isolated, evolved in to distinct species

93

marmot history

1990's had declined 2/3
1998 70 remained in one small area, well on their way to extinction
2003

94

marmot mortality

80% from predation -wolves, cougars, eagles

95

VI Marmot status

Endangered under the federal Species At Risk Act (SARA) and by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Species (COSEWIC). Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

96

logging and Marmota

habitat changes affect predator/prey relationships

97

clade

group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

98

vicariance

process by which the geographical range of an individual taxon, or a whole biota, is split into discontinuous parts by the formation of a physical or biotic barrier to gene flow or dispersal.

99

allopatric speciation

occurs when biological populations of the same species become vicariant, or isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange

100

allopatric speciation of Sorex (water shrews)

best guess- separated by the mountain range. possibly at last glacial extent, land was essentially higher and they could mix/disperse easier, now are isolated

101

molecular biology- identifying species

removes personal opinion, doesn't rely on sometimes unclear physical features