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Flashcards in Chordates Deck (469)
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1

Chordate zoology is what type of biology

whole-organism biology (not just cell, function, form,.. everything)

2

organismal biology

research at the level of the whole organism, integrated over structure, function, ecology, and evolution

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organism structure

anatomy, morphology

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organism function

physiology, behaviour

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evolution

phylogeny

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functional morphology

focuses on the link between form (morphology) and performance

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ecological morphology

focuses on the link between performance and ecology (ecomorphs, ecomorphotypes)

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ecomorph

species with the same structural habitat/niche, similar in morphology and behavior, but not necessarily close phyletically

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ecomorphotype

Any morphological modification caused by, or related to, specific ecological conditions

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integrative biology

near synonym for organismal biology; brings different aspects of organisms and their environment together

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comparative biology

an area of research that attempts to explain biodiversity and its adaptive radiation in a phylogenetic (historical) framework (comparative method)
how phylogeny tests/explains hypotheses

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natural history

scientific study of the organism in its natural surroundings

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kinds of chordates

Tunicata
Cephalochordata
Vertebrata

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Tunicata includes

tunicates and sea squirts

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Tunicata was formerly called

Urochordata (also protochordates- not valid taxonomic name)

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Cephalochordata includes

lancelets (amphioxus)

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Numbers of chordate species

Tunicata - 2150
Cephalochorddata - 25
Vertebrata - 63 600
*numbers are always changing

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tunicates

free-living larva, sessile adult

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shared characteristics of chordates

notochord
dorsal hollow nerve cord
pharyngeal gill slits
endostyle
muscular postanal tail

20

notochord

incorporated in vertebral column in vertebrates
stiff, flexible rod, runs length of back, provides connections for body muscles, and support

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dorsal hollow nerve cord

spinal cord with brain at anterior end in vertebrates

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pharyngeal gill slits

slits in pharynx/throat region through which water passes and food particles are filtered out, involved in filter-feeding and gas exchange
retained in fish- gas exchange
tetrapods- gill slits disappear in adults
gill arches become jaws and other structures in vertebrates

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endostyle

ciliated groove before larynx
secretes mucus to trap food
homologous with thyroid gland in vertebrates

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muscular postanal tail

extension of the body that runs past the anal opening
only present in embryonic stage of humans

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paedomorphosis

retaining juvenile characteristics into adult hood

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sister group to vertebrates

urochordata (most current theory)
vertebrates and urochordates are sister group to cephalochordates

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pattern vs. process

phylogeny vs. scenario
current phylogenetic theory (pattern), process (scenario) yet to be determined

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myomeres

blocks of skeletal muscle tissue found commonly in chordates. commonly zig-zag, "W" or "V"-shaped muscle fibers

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possible first chordate

Pikaia

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aspects of morphology (anatomy)

comparative
functional
transitional