BIOL 329 Flashcards Preview

Biology > BIOL 329 > Flashcards

Flashcards in BIOL 329 Deck (665):
1

distinguishing a risso dolphin

scars, whiten with age, tall dark sickle-shaped (crescent moon) fin, rounded head

2

distinguishing grizzly bear from brown black bear

grizzlies have hump on back - enlargement of shoulder blade bones for larger muscles attachment - lots of digging, forehead to nose is more concave

3

distinguish sea otter

much bigger than river otter, flat tail, dense fur, swim in groups, front paw, back flippers, rarely come on land

4

number of tetrapod species

~32,000

5

tetrapods

Amphibia
Reptile
Aves
Mammalia

6

defining tetrapod feature

legs

7

defining lizard, bird, mammal feature

lungs

8

defining reptilia, aves feature

scales

9

defining aves feature

feathers, wings

10

defining mammal feature

hair, mammary glands

11

World Wildlife Fund classification of BC

globally outstanding ecoregion

12

BC size (geographically)

Bigger than any European country except Russia and any US state except Alaska

13

BC fauna diversity

More vertebrate species than any other province or territory in Canada

14

# BC amphibia species

~20
43 in Canada
~7000 worldwide

15

# BC reptile species

~20
51 in Canada
~9600 worldwide

16

# BC bird species

~530
615 in Canada
~10,000 worldwide

17

# BC mammals

~150
207 in Canada
~5500 worldwide

18

BC plants

3150 species
richest flora in Canada

19

why does BC have such rich flora/fauna

very diverse biogeoclimatic zones

20

levels of threat and extinction graph

years (increasing up y axis), vs. probability of extinction (0 -1 increasing down x axis)
safe line is straight with high slope, vulnerable has small curve and pretty high slope, endangered has big curve extending along x axis

21

levels of threat and extinction

safe: 0.1P in 100y
vulnerable: 0.2P in 20y
Endangered: 0.5P in 10y
Critically endangered: >0.5 in 10

22

mammals vs. reserve size graph

# of individuals vs. area
min. population size is a horizontal line
small herbivores, large herbivores, large carnivores are subsequent diagonal lines
where the lines cross is minimum area required to sustain animal population

23

minimum population size to survive

~2500

24

minimum reserve area for small herbivores

10km^2

25

minimum reserve area for large herbivores

~5000 km^2

26

minimum reserve area for large carnivores

>100,000 km^2 --- doesn't exist

27

species listing categories

extinct
extirpated
endangered
threatened
vulnerable

28

extinct species listing

species no longer exists on the planet

29

extinct examples (BC)

Steller's sea cow
Dawson Caribou (1915)

30

extirpated species listing

species no longer exists in the region but still exists in other geographical areas

31

extirpated examples (BC)

Pygmy Horned Lizard
Sea otter (has been reintroduced)

32

sea otter extirpation and relocation in BC

hunted to extinction for furs
relocated when US was doing weapons testing

33

Endangered species listing

facing imminent extirpation or extinction

34

BC endangered species

Tiger salamander
Keen's long-eared Myotis
North Pacific Right Whale

35

Threatened species listing

a species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed

36

BC threatened species

Vancouver Island Marmot

37

vulnerable species listing

a species that is particularly at risk because of low or declining population
have features that make them particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events

38

BC vulnerable species

coastal giant salamander
bighorn sheep
spotted owl

39

peripheral species

a species that barely extends into the are of political jurisdiction (what are our responsibilities in protecting these species? what if they are peripheral everywhere they live? who will protect them?)

40

peripheral species example

Northern Leopard frog

41

Alien species

a species that has been introduced by humans and are not part of our historic wildlife heritage
also exotic/introduced species

42

example BC alien species

rat
bullfrog
starling

43

red-listed species

extirpated, endangered, threatened species listings

44

blue-listed species

vulnerable species listings

45

VI wolves

hybridized with dogs
shows how small populations are at risk of hybridization - low mate selection

46

SARA

Species at Risk Act (2004)
prohibits killing, harming, harassing, capturing, or taking of species listed under SARA as threatened, endangered, or extirpated

47

red and blue species coincide with

geoclimatic zone habitat loss

48

number of endangered or threatened tetrapod species in BC

~195

49

yellow-listed species

"secure"

50

COSEWIC

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (national)

51

542 million years ago

end of the PreCambrian
Start of the Palaeozoic
Start of the Cambrian

52

250 million years ago

end of the Palaeozoic
Start of the Mesozoic
start of the Triassic period

53

65 million years ago

end of the Mesozoic (end of Cretaceous)
start of Cenozoic
start of Tertiary

54

Devonian

age of fish
transition to land
first tetrapods

55

major tetrapod diversification

mid paleozoic

56

largest extinction

P-T extinction (250mya)
more than 90% of species extinct, 60% of families
mammal-like groups get knocked back
reptiles undergo large diversification

57

continents 200mya

SA, Africa, India, antartica are together at the south pole - Gondwana

58

first reptiles

Carboniferous (~350mya)

59

continental changes

Pangaea supercontinent up to P-T boundary
Around Triassic period - Gondwana in S, Laurasia in N
Cretaceous - split into modern continents

60

separation of continents aids in

diversification (new niches?)

61

Amniotes

reptiles, birds, mammals
land sustainable egg

62

2 Amniote lineages

synapsida
diapsida

63

synapsids

mammals
1 hole at back of skull (plus eye hole like anapsid)

64

diapsids

reptiles, birds
"dual window" skull
skull fenestra, 2 holes on top of each other at back of skull

65

origin of tetrapods species

Tiktaalik
Acanthostega
Icthyostega

66

Tiktaalik

recent discovery (2004, Nunavut)
ventral ridge oblique - transverse
enlargement of muscle attachment points from shoulder - forearm and forearm - radius and ulna
still look quite aquatic, kind of alligator looking- long snout

67

Acanthostega

origin of digits
enlargement of hind limbs and pelvic girdle
interarticulation between vertebrae
still has pretty aquatic looking body - flat, side splayed limbs, flat shorter head

68

Ichthyostega

elongation of limb long bones
changes to shoulder girdle
looks like its off the ground a little more, a little less flat

69

why are tetrapods thought to have arisen in the early Devonian

from molecular data
times of high oxygen levels

70

developmental plasticity

genetic variability + phenotypic plasticity
different growth patterns dependent on outside factors

71

fish egg

simplest; nucleus + yolk granules; surrounded by membrane, requires aquatic habitat

72

amphibian egg

same as fish egg except that it also has a jelly coat made of gooey protein solution so that it can survive in wet environment

73

amniotic egg

much more complex; shell, albumin, chorion, allantois, yolk sac, amnion; does not require aquatic habitat

74

mammal egg

placenta = specialized amniotic egg; allantois and yolk sac become umbilical cord

75

chorion function

gas exchange

76

allantois function

storage for nitrogenous wastes and O2 transport

77

albumin

physical protection and reservoir of water and protein

78

amniote skin

usually waterproof with keratinized epidermis
scales, hair, feathers

79

amniote ventilation

costal ventilation- lungs/diaphragm (vs. amphibian skin breathing)

80

tetrapod heart evolution

amphibian - 3 chambered (2 atria, 1 ventricle)
some reptiles- partial septum in ventricle for some separation of oxy-deoxy
crocodile, bird, mammal- 4 chambered, oxy-deoxy are separated

81

why separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

more efficient
increased regulation of Tb

82

ectotherms

amphibians and most reptiles

83

ectotherm habitat

most prevalent in tropics with high evapotranspiration (Warm and wet)

84

ectotherm genome

more complex, need complex enzyme systems to function t different T's, highly variable Tb over time

85

ectotherm activity

generally inactive at night

86

endotherms

birds, mammals, some dinosaurs, some marine reptiles

87

mammal Tb

~37-40ºC

88

facilitate endothermy

feathers, hair, fat, cellular metabolism, counter-current heat exchange

89

why endothermy?

active at all latitudes, seasons, time of day
pathogen resistance
higher capacity for sustained activity
higher digestion rate
control incubation T
parental care

90

poikilothermy

A poikilotherm is an organism whose internal temperature varies considerably
ectothermy

91

homeothermy

the maintenance of a constant body temperature despite changes in the environmental temperature
endothermy

92

inertial homeothermy

large bodied ectotherms that warm-up and then 'hold it' to maintain their body temperature above ambient temperature

93

metabolic rate and body mass in tetrapods

tightly positively correlated
however, ectotherms are significantly lower in metabolic needs, and body size can be much smaller

94

body size in ecto and endotherms

majority of salamanders vs. mammals/birds are nearly entirely outside of each other's ranges- amphibians can't get as big, mammals can't get as small

95

why endotherms are generally bigger

smaller animals have higher SA:V - lose more heat
also better for endotherms to be rounded

96

minimum bird/mammal size

~2-3g
(salamanders ~0.1g)

97

biomass conversion efficiency (equation)

(energy converted/energy assimilated) x 100

98

biomass conversion efficiencies in tetrapods

ectotherms ~50% (6-98)
endotherms ~1.5% (0.5-3.0)

99

plesiomorphic

ancestral, primitive

100

endotherm biomass conversion efficiency

1.5% -- >95% of everything we consume goes to heat -- only beneficial in cold climate or nighttime foraging otherwise at a disadvantage compared to ectotherms

101

anapsid jaw bones

basal, no fenestra, very limited muscle attachment and jaw movement

102

synapsid

simple fenestra system, little more muscle attachment and jaw movement

103

diapsid

tuatara, t-rex, 2 fenestra, tremendous horizontal jaw movement control

104

tetrapod limb transitions

amphibians/many lizards- legs horizontal/lateral/splayed to side, body on ground, inefficient model
derived reptiles- limbs vertical/ventral/underneath body, allow bones of pelvic girdle to support body and legs to be used for forward motion

105

therapsids

gave rise to mammals
somewhere around the P-T boundary

106

advanced mammal diversification

around the Cretaceous - Tertiary

107

Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction (K-T)

over a million years of continuous volcanism (deccan trap)
then a meteorite struck
~20% of families
dinosaurs
65Ma

108

rise of the fish occurs when what is happening

global T's are plummeting (end Devonian)

109

P-T extinction occurs when what is happening

global T's are rising majorly
Oxygen levels re dropping (down to ~12% of todays)
siberian traps (volcanism)
abrupt ocean acidification (massive CO2 injection to atmos.)
widespread wildfires
low O2 advantageous for endotherms

110

amphibians common starting in

paleozoic

111

amphibians diversify in

Permian

112

ancient amphibians

some similarity to modern salamander, lizards, snakes
mainly aquatic juveniles, terrestrial adults
all fossils have spool-shaped vertebra, solid skull

113

amphibian evolutionary record shows

numerous reverse evolutions back to aquatic habitat for adults
repeated loss of 'tetrapod' limbs for burrowing and full aquatic life

114

amphibian fossil record completion

gap after permian until jurassic
3 groups of modern amphibians occur from Permian

115

all modern amphibians, 3 living groups

lissamphibia: anurans, urodela, caecilians

116

anurans

"no-tail"
frogs

117

Urodela

"tailed"
salamander

118

Caecilian

"blind", legless, burrowing, tropical
limbless, serpentine amphibians

119

meaning of amphibian

amphi - biphasic life cycle (aquatic-terrestrial)
most species dependent on temporary or permanent aquatic habatats

120

BC Amphibians

11 species
2 invasives

121

origin of extant amphibians

Late Carboniferous, around 315 Mya

122

divergence between frogs and salamanders

Early Permian, around 290 Mya

123

length of typical frog life cycle

3 years
first egg cleavage 3-12hours
embryo has tail bud 4 days
hatches 6 days
tadpole feeding on larvae 7 days
limbs, lungs 75+ days
tail shortens, functional lungs 90+ days
juvenile for 1-2 years
sexually mature 3 years

124

metamorphisis triggered by

thyroxine (pituitary gland)

125

additional effects during metamorphosis

tail muscles, gill arches, gills and operculum are reabsorbed and reincorporated in to other muscles
lung/eye/brain development
inner ear for hearing

126

why do frogs have specialized hearing for very low sounds

because they live close to the ground

127

why do frogs eyes bulge

enlarge buccal cavity - increase 'mouth' volume so they can fit more in

128

predation by snakes during frog metamorphosis

tadpoles 33%
transforming tadpoles 67%
transforming adults 90% (moving closer to shore?)
fully metamorphosed adults 45%

129

tadpole gas exchange

gills and skin
highly permeable skin densely covered in mucous glands

130

adult frog gas exchange

gills, lungs, cutaneous respiration, depending on extent of metamorphosis
terrestrial, arid, highly active species use primarily lungs

131

tadpole/frog mucous glands secrete

mucopolysaccharides (maintain mostness, permeability)

132

If tadpole/frog does not maintain moisture/mucous

overheat

133

amphibian drinking

ABSORB through 'pelvic patch' (highly vascularized skin patch)
urea in skin facilitates water absorption from moist surface

134

amphibian over-hydration

can easily over-hydrate and die
may have to lift themselves off the ground on to all 4 limbs to dehydrate

135

how to amphibians occupy dry habitat

behavioural adaptations: nocturnal, remain underground in dry season, forage only on rainy days, rest under leaves, ru mucopolysaccharides all over skin

136

frog defense

camouflage, aposematic
mucous
parotid glands

137

Aposematic coloration

warning signs, frogs with warning colours have particularly bad toxins in their skin (poison dart frogs), some frogs mimic these colours

138

Frog mucous as defense

antibiotic and reduce handling success of predators

139

Parotid glands

poison glands
repository for waste/toxins/junk - sometimes these compounds come from their diet and are stored there

140

compounds found in parotid glands

hemolytic proteins
epibatidine (neurotransmitter blocker)
tetrodotoxin (lethal)
neurotoxins

141

neurotoxins in poison dart frogs

alkaloids acquired from eating ants
ants obtain from fungus and vegetation

142

amphibian skin secretions as medicine

toxins, antimicrobial peptides, opioids, steroids, alkaloids
these compounds show cytotoxic, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral activities (including anti-HIV). and easily obtainable

143

TTX

tetrodotoxin, only in amphibians, anti predator defense, unknown origin

144

frog foraging

tadpoles - herbivory
adults - carnivore
some carnivorous tadpoles

145

frog foraging, eyes

binocular vision for active capture or prey, including insects in flight

146

frog foraging, mouth

specialized tongue protrusion, folds out, releases from back
large mouth for swallowing large prey
reduced intestine

147

fossil of species similar to frog compared to present

modern- much less vertebrae, elongated pelvic girdle, longer hind limbs and toes

148

why the changes in present frog form

jumping (more muscle attachment)

149

when frogs jump their limbs

are all extended to increase lift

150

using limb length we can tell

life history, predict habitat

151

long forelimb, short hindlimb

walker-hopper

152

short forelimb, short hindlimb

walker-hopper-burrower (fat)

153

long forelimb, long hindlimb

jumper, walker-jumper

154

short forelimb, long hindlimb

swimmer, hopper

155

global amphibian species

7022
2500 declining
1800 threatened
168 extinct
under the most threat of all tetrapods on the planet

156

BC Anurans (11species +2 alien)

rocky mountain tailed frog, coastal tailed frog, pacific treefrog, boreal chorus frog, red-legged frog, bullfrog, green frog, columbian spotted frog, northern leopard frog, oregon spotted frog, wood frog, western toad, great basin spadefoot toad

157

Western Toad scientific name

Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas

158

Western toad distribution

sea level - 2200 m (Mt. top)
wet forest - grassland
majority of BC except NE corner
terrestrial adult (adapted to dry, prefer moist), aquatic reproduction
very large distribution - opportunistic

159

Western toad oddities

primarily nocturnal (at low elevation)
~silent during reproduction
often walk, not hop
winter hibernation nov-april, 1m depth
can't breathe under water

160

Western toad reproduction

black pearl egg strands
hatch within several weeks
tadpoles develop over summer
metamorphose late summer

161

Western toad listing

formerly widespread, major population reduction from raccoon predation (alien)
endangered in S US
IUCN red-listed

162

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature

163

Western Toad longevity

up to 10 years

164

core habitat

necessary habitat for survival

165

hibernacula

place of refuge for hibernation
often communal (68% of western toads)

166

Why western toad may not be adequately protected

protection traditionally at "vegetated buffers" (riparian zone) but 80-90% of hibernacula were beyond buffer zone

167

Western toad migration

migrate to communal breeding site April-July
150-2000m
90,000 body lengths!

168

Columbia Spotted Frog scientific name

Rana luteiventris

169

columbia spotted frog distribution

900-2200m
core habitat = constant water body
diverse habitat (wet forest, sage bushland, alpine tundra)
most of BC, not NE corner or West coast

170

columbia spotted frog oddities

overwinter at bottom of water bodies that don't freeze
tadpole can last >1yr
opportunistic feeder
majority of time in water

171

columbia spotted frog feeding

aquatic/terrestrial inverts. (snails, insects, crustaceans, spiders)
20 orders of inverts., 20% beetles, 20% ants/wasps, 10% flies

172

columbia spotted frog breeding

migrate between water bodies for breeding
egg masses laid in shallow water
tadpole can be >1yr
mature in 2-3yrs
longevity up to 10yrs

173

Oregon spotted frog

sub population w/ slightly different call - diversified group? do not interbreed

174

spectral habitat evaluation

spectral distribution can make habitat quantifiable - how much grass is there? tree canopy? dry, yellow, grass?

175

spectral habitat evaluation output

hyperspectral cube
each pixel contains 'pages' of every different wavelength

176

hyperspectral data collection

fly over with imaging spectrometer - emit dispersed spectrum, light passes through focusing lenses and collimating slit to diffraction grating, produce data cube

177

wood frog scientific name

Rana sylvatica

178

wood frog distribution

most of BC, not W coast or S end - well adapted to cold (N BC)
most of Canada
largely terrestrial, close to water (marshes, riparian, wet grass)

179

wood frog oddities

short tadpole stage
winter in root spaces
freeze solid

180

wood frog breeding

tadpole - several months
adult in 2 yrs
max life 3-4 years

181

wood frog freezing

genes in muscle metabolic pathway shut down
liver tissue remain active
up-regulate ribosomal protein
increase urea level to increase plasma osmolality (H2O leaves cell into interstitial space)
reduce ice crystal development - dehydration

182

Coastal tailed frog scientific name

Ascaphus truei

183

Coastal tailed frog distribution

only slim band on W coast, not the islands
clear, cold, very fast streams

184

coastal tailed frog oddities

no vocal sac
no eardrum
more vertebra than other frogs
closely related to 'living fossil'
tadpoles up to 4years
can't flip tongue
tail only in males
one of longest living
females store sperm

185

coastal tailed frog breeding

tail is copulatory organ - only NA frog w/ internal fertilization
f/m stores sperm from late summer -overwinter, allows fertilization in spring
eggs attached to downstream side of rock
tadpoles stay in stream up to 4 years before metamorph

186

why coastal tail frog has no eardrum

no vocalization, don't need it - probably partly because of extremely fast flowing water habitat

187

coastal tail frog life span

15-20 years, highly unusual
one of longest living frogs

188

coastal tail frog closest relation

ancient NZ frog (Leiopelmatidae) which is indistinguishable from 150mya - considered 'living fossil'

189

coastal tail frog diet

tadpole- algae, inverts
adults - insects, snails
adults must jump on prey - no tongue flip

190

high vocalization

requires higher O2 than high levels of locomotion
O2 doubles with doubling of call length
major physiological cost to calling

191

why spend energy for vocalization

longer calls made when other males are calling nearby
females prefer longer calls

192

pacific tree frog scientific name

Pseudacris (Hyla) regilla

193

largest family of amphibians

Hylidae

194

pacific tree frog habitat/distribution

S BC, including V. Isl, down to CA
on ground, among shrubs, gross, close to water
sea level to >3000m

195

pacific tree frog breeding

use ephemeral ponds
breed Jan - Aug
eggs attach to vegetation
eggs hatch in 3 weeks
tadpoles metamorph. in 2 months

196

ephemeral

short lasting, not constant, transient

197

pacific treefrog oddities

tremendous dexterity
can't live in lakes - susceptible to predation by fish
camouflage/bright pigment
introduced on H.G.
active day & night

198

BC anurans

Western Toad
Columbia Spotted Frog
Wood Frog
Coastal Tailed frog
Pacific Treefrog
Boreal Chorus frog
Red-legged frog
Great Basin Spadefoot toad
leopard frog
american bullfrog
green frog

199

Boreal Chorus frog scientific name

Pseudacris maculata

200

Boreal Chorus frog distribution

NE corner of BC, Middle - East side of NA (north = cold)
adults fully terrestrial, near water

201

boreal chorus frog reproduction

tadpole metamorphose in 2 months
adults live 2 years

202

boreal chorus frog oddity

smallest BC frog
freezes in winter
highly vocal

203

boreal chorus frog cold adaptation

freezes overwinter in dry habitat- sugar in cells, intercellular spaces freeze
can't freeze as cold as others
resume activity upon thawing in spring

204

Red-legged frog scientific name

Rana aurora

205

red-legged frog distribution

NW corner - only sunshine coast, VI
wet coastal forest, adults terrestrial

206

red-legged frog breeding

shaded streams/ponds Jan-March
adult males make breeding calls underwater
tadpoles 4-5months before metamorph.

207

great basin spadefoot toad distribution

small patch in S BC ~mid
dry forest/sagebrush flat

208

great basin spadefoot breeding

april-july, following heavy rains
utilize springs/slow-moving water, temporary pools- takes advantage of moisture when available - breeds immediately - ephemeral reproduction

209

great basin spadefoot oddities

ephemeral, immediate reproduction
digs burrows with spade foot
primarily nocturnal
adults hibernate or aestivate for up to 8months (winter or dry times)

210

aestivation

similar to hibernation, inactivity and lowered metabolic rate, entered in response to high T and arid conditions

211

leopard frog scientific name

Rana pipiens

212

leopard frog distribution

one of most widely distributed in NA
possible on VI?
not in rest of BC
mid- southern ends of E Canada
damp meadows

213

leopard frog oddities

opportunistic feeders (anything moving)
overwinter @ bottom of ponds/rivers that don't freeze
major continent wide collapses

214

leopard frog collaps

since 1960's
multifactorial: roadkill, herbicides, toxins, habitat, dams, fungus, alien predaters

215

American Bullfrog scientific name

Rana catesbeiana (alien)

216

American bullfrog distribution

very SW tip of mainland, and SE coast of VI
LITTLE bit in S: ON, QC, maritimes
historically one of most abundant/widespread in NA
recently introduce in W NA, Europe, SA, Australia

217

American bullfrog breeding

reproduce in vegetation-clogged ponds

218

American bullfrog feeding

tadpole - herbivorous
adults - opportunistic - sunsets, fish, snakes, ducklings, other frogs - up to 0.75kg

219

American bullfrog invasive

displaced other frogs from lower mainland and E VI
spreads chytrid fungus

220

american bullfrog oddities

can jump 2m
much deeper call (big size)
not very susceptible to chytrid fungus'
adults extremely opportunistic

221

chytrid fungus

Batrachochyrium dendrobatidis
causes fungal skin infection
lethal to other amphibians

222

Green (bronze) frog scientific name

Rana clamitans alien

223

green frog distribution

very very SW tip of mainland, very very SE tip of VI
SE end of Canada - huge distribution jump (introduced)
primarily aquatic, permanent water bodies, do not migrate

224

green frog wintering

ponds or underground

225

green frog breeding

tadpoles active throughout year

226

Anura sister species

Urodela

227

Urodela

salamanders

228

Anura, Urodela origin (time period)

Permian
~300 may

229

salamander life cycle

similar to frog but more complex
complex and variable mating
egg mass laid in water
aquatic larva (external gills)
terrestrial adult OR
gilled adult (neoteny/paedmorphosis)

230

some salamander life cycle oddities

spermatophore and internal fertilization in derived groups
european salamander - live birth
paedomorphosis

231

most terrestrial salamander

European Plethodon - lost lungs, use cutaneous respiration, no aquatic larval stage

232

salamander size

usually 5-10cm
up to 100cm

233

BC salamanders

Northwestern (Coast, Mts, GD)
Long-toed (Coast, Mts, GD, interior)
Tiger (Southern interior)
Coastal Giant (georgia depression)
Wandering (coast, Mts)
Coeur d'Alene (S Interior, Mts)
Western Redback (Coast, Mts, Georgia depression, S Interior)
Ensatina (Coast, Mts, GD)
Roughskin Newt (Coast, Mts, GD)

234

Long-toad salamander scientific name

Ambystoma macrodactylum

235

long-toad salamander distribution

most of BC, not Northern edge
sea level - 2800m
diversity of habitats - con. forest, mts, sagebrush- close to water
2nd most divers salamander in NA

236

long-toed salamander breeding

in small ponds
male drops spermatophore
f/m picks up with cloaca
eggs/larvae develop 4months
carnivorous larvae, ~1yr
metamoph. in autumn, leave ponds

237

long-toed salamander odditites

overwinter on land, beneath frost line
adults produce toxins in tail
usually nocturnal

238

long-toed salamander feeding

insects, zooplankton, small fish, worms, tadpoles

239

northwestern salamander scientific name

Ambystoma gracile

240

northwestern salamander distribution

East coast BC down to CA
all of VI
moist coastal forests, grasslands

241

NW salamander breeding

larvae hatch 2-4 weeks (16mm)
metamorph. 1-2 years (80mm)

242

NW salamander oddities

neotenic adults common
different life histories at elevations
terrestrial mainly fossorial except during rain

243

NW salamander elevation vs. development

high elevation - population completely neotenic
low elevation and S populations - have non-gilled terrestrial adults

244

fossorial

adapted to digging and life underground such as the badger

245

rough skinned newt scientific name

Taricha granulosa

246

lateral line

system of sense organs found in fish, salamanders, used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water

247

Rough skinned newt distribution

W coast BC, down to CA, all of VI, same as NW salamander
moist forests, under logs

248

rough skinned newt breeding

in spring, shallow water, larvae in autumn, adults move to forest, return in 2 years
male drop sperm packet, female collects

249

rough skinned newt oddities

live for up to 12 years
carnivorous larval and adult
most toxic of BC salamanders
only salamander active in day

250

rough skinned newt feeding

insects, slugs, earthworms, other amphibians

251

rough skinned newt toxin

tetrodotoxin -damage Na channels in cell, causes paralysis and death
displays by flipping head&tail
3% of skin can kill adult human
garter snakes (major predator) resistant to toxin

252

Western Redback Salamander scientific name

Plethodon vehiculum

253

western redneck salamander distribution

SW BC down to Oregon, all of VI
Douglas fir
one of few to utilize young forests (2nd growth)
mostly associated with rocky habitat
underneath bark, stones, debris, decaying wood

254

western redneck salamander breedings

eggs- individual, clumps, parental care

255

wandering salamander scientific name

Andes vagrans

256

wandering salamander distribution

VI, isolated habitat SW Oregon (imported?)
old-growth
fully terrestrial, somewhat arboreal
under decaying wood

257

wandering salamander breeding

8-17 eggs singly on roof or side of log cavity or under bark, suspended separately on mucus stalks
females guard eggs
eggs hatch fall-early winter

258

wandering salamander oddities

alien from cali oak bark imports ~1850s
previously misclassified as Cloudy salamander
specialist

259

coastal giant salamander scientific name

Dicamptodon tenebrosus

260

coastal giant salamander distribution

very tiny distribution S mainland, W coast US to CA
coastal forest near fast mt stream
sea level - 2000m

261

coastal giant salamander breeding

larval stages remain in stream >1yr
adult stage moves to terrestrial habitat
long lived ~25yrs
some stay in stream and retain gills (neoteny)

262

coastal giant salamander oddities

neotenic adult 2X size of terrestrial (30cm vs. 15cm)
one of largest in NA
long lived

263

largest infection disease threat to amphibian biodiversity

Bd
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
few geographic-host limitations = widespread
decline and extinction>200 species worldwide

264

killing populations?

many factors. contaminants everywhere. systems weakened, pathogens gaining foothold.

265

second Chytridiomycota pathogen

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans causing lethal skin infections in salamanders

266

pregnancy leading to Bd outbreak?

Xenopus used for pregnancy testing (1930s), populations escaped, coexists with and harbours Bd

267

agricultural and amphibian populations

habitat loss, pesticide exposure, runoff
runoff: increased ammonia, phosphate, oxygen demand
may cause lower reproductive success, reduce population viability

268

first blow to salamanders

increased UV -unshelled eggs, permeable skin - very sensitive to UV
climate change, O3 depletion, acidification-- modify organic carbon-- increase UV penetration

269

species response to human alteration

invasive species favoured by human alteration of habitat

270

difficult to find species detection

amplify DNA in water samples

271

# BC Reptiles

10 species

272

amniote groups

synapsids - mammals
diapsids (reptiles) - testudines, lepidosaurs, archosaurs

273

Vision- light comes in to

cornea -- pupil

274

light is focused

at the back of the eye, fovea

275

slice of retina

rods and cones at back of eye
photon has to 'get through' to them

276

rods and cones

light-sensitive modified nerve cells
contain opsins
attached to retina

277

cones

day light, iodopsin

278

rods

night light, not good resolution, rhodopsin

279

rhodopsin

low light
~10^-4 - 10^-1 light intensity
~new-full moon light
rods
scoptic vision
dominate retina in all species

280

iodospin

'high' light
~10^-1 - 10^4 light intensity
candles - dawn - bright day
cones (only active in day)
photopic vision
prevalent only in fovea in diurnal species

281

fovea

solid cones, where photons are focused (rest of retina MOSTLY rods)

282

scoptic vision

seeing in dark

283

colour detection

detected by 3 types of cones equated to energy levels, not detected by opsins

284

monochromatic

1 rod pigment
1 cone pigment

285

dichromatic

2 cone pigments

286

trichromatic

3 cone pigments

287

tetrachromatic

4 cone pigments

288

enhanced reptile/bird colour vision

red, orange, and yellow oil droplets randomly distributed at entrance of cones
some reptiles, most birds

289

oil droplets in colour vision

narrow by-pass filters, shift light hitting the pigments
wide series of combinations btw pigments and oil drops
resolve more subtle differences in colour

290

blue cones max λ

430 nm

291

rods max λ

495 nm

292

green cones max λ

530nm

293

red cones max λ

560nm

294

more opsin =

more shades of colour

295

most birds and turtles have how many opsins

4-5
some fish have 12!

296

why need better vision?

shadows of predators, ripeness of berries, prey/predators that blend in

297

deep water animal colour vision

usually monochromatic

298

reptile egg development

gender dependent on incubation T
different patterns

299

sex determination patterns

I - decreased % males with increased T
II - highest % males at intermediate T's

300

why/how sex determination works (reptiles)

f/m may choose microhabitat w/ better success rate for that sex. ex. outside T = Tmale development, then choose microhabitat that preferentially causes m development

301

differences in microhabitats, T

a matter of 3m difference in breeding grounds can cause the difference in m/f
ex lizard. 100%f at 23-29º, 0% at >29º

302

Turtles (testudines) all have

testa (shell, ribcage)
keratinous sheath on jaws (rather than teeth)
ectothermy (leatherback has partial endothermy)
anapsid skull (limited jaw movement)
scotopic (night vision)

303

tortoises

terrestrial testudines

304

terrapins

swamp testudines

305

turtles

mainly underwater testudines

306

tortoise, terrapin, turtle

not a taxonomic division, descriptive terms

307

testudines sizes

up to 2.5m
great leatherback - 900kg

308

testudines geological age

origin- late Carboniferous
first fossils- Permian (terrestrial)

309

turtle breeding

5-100 eggs in excavated pits on beach or forest
~50 day incubation
no parental care
sex determination based on T
live up to ~177yrs (Darwin)

310

r-strategist

emphasis on high growth rate, typically exploit less-crowded niches, produce many offspring, each of which has relatively low probability of surviving (bacteria, insects, rodents)

311

k-strategist

large body size, long life expectancy, and the production of fewer offspring, which often require extensive parental care until they mature

312

extinct lepidosaurs

plesiosaurs
ichthyosaurs

313

plesiosaur/pliosaur features

apex marine predator of mesozoic (2nd half)
up to 20m long
taxonomically diverse
viviparous
extinct at KT

314

plesiosaur fossils

common on VI and HG
ogopogo?
cadborosaurus?

315

viviparous

live birth

316

oviparous

egg-laying

317

ovoviviparous

internal fertilization, live birth, no placental connection, unborn young are nourished by egg yolk

318

Ichthyosaurs

first half mesozoic
resemble dolphins
average 2-10m, up to 21m
viviparous - tail-first birth
very large eye sockets
likely endotherm

319

why large eye sockets?

low light, nocturnal, great depth
high speed

320

why large eye sockets for high speeds?

take advantage of bioluminescence?
large bone around eye would protect against high swim speed

321

squamata

sister taxa to sphenodonts (tuatara)
lizards and snakes

322

squamata geo age

modern families from the Jurassic

323

squamata jaw

unique joint where lower jaw attacks to skull -- increased jaw closing strength

324

squamata fossil forms

Mosasaurs (look like Pliosaur)

325

Mosasaur

cretaceous marine predator
10m long
shallow water
eel-like movement not dolphin-like
likely oviparous

326

number of modern lizards

4000 species globally

327

lizards are

mostly tropical
all ectotherms
mostly small,

328

large lizards

~3m
tend to be herbivorous (iguana)

329

lizard habitats

diverse- desert, swamp, pond, alpine, fossorial, arboreal, marine

330

fossorial lizard

legless lizards

331

arboreal lizards

chameleons, anoles, iguana

332

legless lizards evolved

independently, numerous times
highly convergent w/ snakes
tube within tube structure- bi-directional movement underground, atypical

333

snakes developed

early Mesozoic

334

snake reorganization

got rid of bilateral symmetry
reorganized internal anatomy to accommodate long narrow trunk

335

snake organs

single functional lung
paired organs positioned in a line rather than side by side (ex kidney)

336

snake # species and size

2900 species
2cm (thread snake) - 10m (anaconda)

337

spurs

snake limb traces
present in less derived groups
burrowing snakes, boas, use for reproduction (clasping)

338

snake jaw

unhinges for large prey soncumption

339

snake breeding

70% oviparous
rest ovoviviparous
parental care rare- absent

340

snake special features

modified skull
organ reorganization
ectothermic
pit organs (heat sensing)
forked tongue (chemosensory direction)

341

snake tongue kind of analogous to..

birds having more opsins
more of a sensing organ = more detection in that sense

342

snake habitats

fossorial, ground, arboreal, aquatic

343

most poisonous snake on the planet

Taipan
Australia
3m
neurotoxin, blood clotting
100% lethal bite w/o antivenom

344

snake cultural legacies

Rod of Asclepius, Son of Apollo, hospital-like building w/ snakes, shedding = healing

345

fear of snakes

Ophidiophobia

346

snake shedding

4-6 times / yr
parasite/wound removal

347

BC reptile distribution

mid- south BC
mid BC ~1-2 species
mid-South 3-4 species
middle S interior - 7-10

348

BC turtles

leatherback sea turtle
green sea turtle
olive ridley sea turtle
pacific pond turtle
western painted turtle
red-eared slider

349

leatherback sea turtle scientific name

Dermochelys coriacea

350

leatherback info.

widest global distribution of all reptiles
12,000km migration/yr
dive 1200m
feed on jellies
nest in FA, costa rica, Mexico, malaysia

351

green sea turtle scientific name

Chelonia mydas

352

green sea turtle info

wide distribution, mostly tropic
infrequent in BC, 2 recently in Pac Rim
young eat inverts.
adults eat eel/turtle grass
intolerant of T

353

Olive Ridley Sea turtle (pacific ridley) info

circum- subtropic
long migrations
historically most abundant sea turtle
1 washed up in Pac Rim in 2011

354

Pacific Pond Turtle scientific name

Actinemys marmorata

355

Pacific pond turtle info

historically in BC near US border
1866- present in majority of S lakes and ponds
last seen - 1959
extirpated in Canada
prefer logs, rocks, small ponds

356

Western painted turtle scientific name

Chrysemys picta bellii

357

Western painted turtle info.

S BC - Ontario and S
primarily carnivorous (beetles, etc)
only native turtle left in BC
hibernate in ponds/lakes under ice

358

red-eared slider scientific name

Trachemys scripta elegans

359

red-eared slider info.

alien
native to S US
longevity to 50 years

360

BC lizards

northern alligator lizard
pigmy short-horned lizard
western skink
european wall lizard

361

Northern alligator lizard scientific name

Elgeria coerulea

362

northern alligator lizard info.

sea level- 3000m
hemlock, douglas fir forests
sunning on rocks
feed on large insects, spiders, millipedes
internal fertilization, birth of young

363

pigmy short-horned lizard scientific name

Phrynosoma douglasii

364

pigmy short-horned lizard info.

3 BC records, last in 1960
grassy, sagebrush, dry forest
major diet - ants
squirt blood from ocular sinus
inflate body and gape

365

western skink scientific name

Eumeces skiltonianus

366

Western skink info.

dry habitat-grass, sagebrush, dry forest
hibernate in communal den
diet of ground inverts.
defense - autotomy, self-inflicted or predator

367

autotomy

self-amputation

368

european wall lizard scientific name

Podarcis muralis

369

european wall lizard info.

city of Victoria, 1970 (private zoo), NE US, europe, asia
oviparous - eggs laid under logs
same microhabitat as alligator lizard
can partially freeze ~5min

370

BC Snakes

western terrestrial garter
northwester garter
common garter
rubber boa
sharp-tailed snake
northern pacific rattlesnake
western yellow-bellied racer
great basin gopher snake
desert night snake

371

western terrestrial garter snake

Thamnophis elegans
mildly venomous
can constrict rodent prey

372

Common garter snake

Thamnophis sirtalis
most widespread snake in NA
most northerly distribution

373

garter snakes

wide range of habitats (riparian, meadows, mt. slopes, S facing slopes)
overwinter in large groups in hibernacula
eat any live prey it can swallow
internal fertilization
live-bearing, 5-10 young
opportunistic foragers

374

garter snake hibernacula

underground cavities that do not freeze

375

rubber boa

Carina bottae
same family as true boa's
kill by constriction
up to 80cm
thick body
long-lived, 30yrs
wide diet (bats, eggs, chicks, rabbits, mice, squirrels, snakes, lizards, frogs)

376

sharp-tailed snake

Contra tenuis
S VI - California
Douglas fir and Arbutus forests
nocturnal
communal egg-laying
feed on small slugs

377

northern pacific rattlesnake

Crotalus oreganus
only venomous BC snake
crepuscular
vertical pupils
rattle
each most = new tip to rattle
live bearers
multi species hibernacula

378

crepuscular

active primarily during twilight

379

northern pacific rattlesnake venom

hemotoxin

380

western yellow-bellied racer

Colluber constrictor
widespread in W NA
hot, dry river valleys
fast, large eyes, oviparous

381

great basin gopher snake

Pituophis catenine deserticola
widespread in W NA in dry, moist habitat

382

desert night snake

S BC - Mexico
dry habitat
diet - amphibian, reptile

383

Pacific Gopher Snake

extirpated in BC
widespread in W US (Or - Ca)

384

Archosaurs

birds, dinosaurs, crocodiles

385

Archosaur appearance

first in Triassic or Permian
diversified in Mesozoic

386

ancient archosaur characters

bipedalism prevalent in stem
teeth in sockets
fenestra anterior to eye and on lower jaw
2 major lineages in early Mesozoic
early fossils -terrestrial
some aquatics
similar size/mass to T. rex

387

2 major archosaur lineages

crocodiles
pterosaurs, dinosaurs, birds

388

period of greatest crocodile diversity

Mesozoic

389

current archosaur distribution

tropical
ectothermic

390

Gharial

fish eating croc.
specialist
long narrow jaw - moves quick

391

croc vs. alligator

croc V-head
alligator U-head
croc lower jaw teeth visible w/ mouth closed
alligator lower jaw teeth into upper jaw sockets

392

alligator diet

fish, snakes, birds, small/large mammals
simple parental care

393

archosaur endothermy/ectothermy

crocodilian ancestors endothermic, invasion back to aquatic reverted back to ectothermy
retain 4-chamber heart (rare in ecto's)
pulmonary bypass shunt

394

Pterosaurs

'winged-lizard'
origin and extinction - mesozoic
sparrow size - 15m wing
leather wing membrane - gliding
no keel- modest flight muscle
hollow bones (like birds)
advanced flight maneuverability

395

2 dinosaur groups, major diversification

bird-like pelvis (did not give rise to birds)
lizard-like pelvis

396

bird-like pelvis group

beaked
herbivorous
herding

397

lizard-like pelvis group

toothed
predatory
solitary/packs

398

in the mesozoic, large crocs

kept dino diversity 'in-check'
(10-15m)
dino's didn't diversify until crocs slowed down

399

weird that pterosaur could take off from ground?

no sternum- limited muscles
bone wings - not cartilage

400

early radiation of dinosaurs

3 major lineages known from Triassic when contents were joined into Pangaea, climates were hot and arid

401

3 major dino. lineages

theropods
sauropodomorphs
omithischians

402

history of thermoregulation in dinosaurs 1900-1970s

ectothermic
big crocodiles
too costly given mass
community pred-prey ratios similar to ectotherms
growth rings in teeth

403

who proposed endothermy in dinosaurs and why

Ostrom - bipedal, fast, predatory
opens debate
re-opens argument for link between dinosaurs and birds

404

endothermic arguments (dinosaurs)

leg bone x-section same as mammals
rapid growth rate like mammals
growth rings occur in endo.'s too (polar bear)

405

oxygen isotopes (dinosaurs)

Delta O-18 values indicate that dinosaurs maintained rather constant Tb in the range of endotherms

406

dinosaur oxygen isotope work suggests

high metabolic rates amongst widely different taxonomic groups, endothermy may be a synapomorphy of dinosaurs, or acquired convergently

407

synapomorphy

shared derived character or trait state that distinguishes a clade from other organisms

408

feathers in dinosaurs?

pennaceous and filamentous, possibly more diverse than modern ones, some features and morphotype lost in feather evolution

409

pennaceous feather

type of feather present in most modern birds and some species of dinosaurs,has a stalk or quill, basal part, calamus, embedded in skin

410

china deposits

so detailed and fine, lots of new evidence- feathers, colour

411

fossil feathers preserve

morphology of color-imparting melanosomes. allow reconstruction of colour patterns.

412

molecular data fossilization

some intact soft tissue- osteocytes with nuclei -- DNA
may resolve relationships in evolutionary tree

413

K-T extinction

65mya
plate tectonics - loss of shelf habitat
global T reduction
Deccan flats
magnetic reversals
loss of atmospheric O2
meteorites

414

deccan flats

2my of vulcanism (65-63mya)

415

K-T meteorite

10km diameter
iridium layer
global fires
opaque atmosphere (5-10yr nuclear winter)
global collapse of marine/terrestrial pp
massive CO2 increase

416

changes in magnetic field =

changes in insolation and [O2]

417

pCO2 reconstruction from leaves

higher CO2 = smaller stomata
found K-T pCO2 levels 350-500ppmv, marked increase to at least 2,300ppmv within 10,000 years of KTB (boundary)

418

Birds - geological time

mid jurassic

419

Theropods

Maniraptor
appear to be origin of birds
light skull, pointed, large eye sockets, pleuorcoels, multiple cervical vertebrae, caudal tail shortens

420

teeth changes throughout bird evolution

teeth become less serrated then teeth lost completely

421

pleurocoels

respiratory vascularization
possible air-sac system like birds
lungs go into bones

422

Maniraptor larger eye sockets

probably fast moving

423

maniraptor increased cervical vertebrae

quick neck snatch
S-shaped neck

424

gradual transition to birds

maniraptor - dromeosaur - archaeopteryx

425

dromeosaur

running lizard
~2m
sickle claw
semi-arboreal
couldn't fly
grasping arms
swivel wrist joint
cursorial terrestrial predator

426

archaeopteryx

'first wing'
size of raven, heavily feathered
asymmetric wing/tail feathers
longer arms
reduced tail
terrestrial w/ flapping flight

427

cursorial

adapted to run

428

enantiornithes

improved low speed flight
increased skeletal fusion
deeper sternum
alula
shorter tail

429

ichthyornithiformes

essentially modern flight
shorter back/tail
deeper sternum and keel
more compact back and hip

430

evolution of limbs (birds)

limbs become hollow in dromeosaur
forelimbs become longer relative to hindlimbs
fusion of wrist bones
fusion of hindlimb bones
early theropods couldn't rotate shoulder cuff- important in flight

431

wrist bone fusion

allow wrist to rotate for prey manipulation

432

scapula/clavical evolution, birds

scapula reduced
clavicle modified to v-shaped bone in front of sternum (wishbone) -- develops keel

433

bird evolution- hindlimb fusion

fibula reduced to narrow splinter

434

bird evolution- foot metatarsals

elongated and fused

435

dromeosaur feathers

placement similar to modern bird
some down-like, some hair-like
vaned feathers on tail- heat retention, display

436

feathers developed asymmetrically for

flight and drag reduction
no birds have symmetric wings- aerodynamics

437

proposals for evolution of flight

running jump
gliding from trees
running/climbing

438

running/climbing flight

run up tree trunk, flap poorly developed wings-- generate lift and forward momentum, claws can grip trunk

439

rachis

central shaft of feather

440

calamus

base of the feather, expanded, hollow, tubular (quill), inserts into a follicle in the skin

441

bird vs. human leg

birds walk on toes, metatarsals are upright, then ankle bend
bird leg bends 3 times (2 joints) compared to humans

442

Archaeopteryx growth rate

very slow like small dinosaurs >>1y to adult size
late cretaceous - modern birds grow within 1 yr

443

theropod eggs

non-avian (crocodile): round-elliptical, large clutches (up to 60)
maniraptor/modern birds: tapered, small clutch (

444

diversity changes in bird evolution

late jurassic only Archaeopteryx persists
lower K- diversification again- major group = Enantiornithes

445

enantiornithe

'opposite bird'
sparrow-goose sized
progressive tooth and vertebral reduction
atypical scapula
coracoid joint reversed to that of modern bird (concave)
atypical foot bone fusion
no tail fan

446

why eggs are tapered

possibly anti-rolling, thermoregulatory, body cavity limitations, increased length of embryo

447

second major group of birds

Neornithes
mid Cretaceous
develop into modern birds

448

Ichthyornis ("fish" - "eating")

gull sized
feathered
toothed jaw
sternum, keel
gull-tern - like behaviour

449

Neornithes birds

Ichthyornis
Hesperornis

450

Hesperornis

aquatic
feathered
toothed
vestigial wings
lateral hindlimb
lobed feet like grebe, not webbed
no land walking

451

classification of modern birds

neornithes
palaeognaths
neognaths
neoaves

452

Palaeognaths

tinamous
ratites
ancestor group to neoaves and neognaths

453

ratites

ostrich, rheas, emu, kiwis, cassowary
all flightless

454

tianamous

bright, colourful, shiny eggs
most ancient of modern groups
live on continents that made up Gondwana

455

paleognaths, neognaths, neoaves differentiated

before KTB

456

Neognaths

Galliformes
sister group to neoaves
turkey, waterfowl

457

continents that made up gondwana

Antarctica, South America, Africa- Madagascar, India, Australia-New Guinea and New Zealand

458

neoaves

biggest group in phylogeny (vastly)
sister group to neognaths
landlords, shorebirds, aquatic, hummingbirds, swifts

459

stork vs flamingo

stork - neoaves, closely related to loon, albatross, penguin
flamingo - neognaths, closely related to grebe, pigeon

460

flight biomechanics

size constraints:
ostrich 150kg
elephantbird 450kg
both flightless
largest flying - giant condor 20kg

461

elephantbird

~300yrs
extinct from humans taking eggs

462

symmetrical tracts where feathers grow

pterylae

463

bare skin between feather tracts

apteria (may contain down)

464

parts of a feather

rachis- middle, main axis
vane- ?
calamus- end
barb- comes out from rachis
hamuli - come out from barbs

465

wing features

shaft, notch, primaries, secondaries, axiliaries

466

some feather types

body contour
bristle
semiplume
filoplume

467

bristle

near eyes and bill

468

semiplume

insulation

469

filoplume

sensory

470

Primaries

attached to 'hand'
fundamental in lift and propulsion/thrust
long and tapered

471

feather symmetry

asymmetric

472

why prene

reconnect the barbs (like velcro) that come loose during flight- essential for flight efficiency

473

tree nesting birds have a lot of what

semiplume: max volume for floating down from tree before able to fly

474

numbers of primaries

passerines 10
grebes, storks, flamingos 12
ostrich 16

475

passerines

more than half of all bird species. unique toe arrangement-three pointing forward, one back- perching. known as perching birds or, songbirds

476

secondaries

lifet
attached to ulna
broader
blunt end

477

some secondary numbers

hummingbird 6
albatross 40

478

'arm' bone proportions

proportions change in bird size/type, fluttering vs. soaring
hummingbird hand>>ulna, humerus
albatross ulna/humerus>hand

479

almost no-flight feathers

tertials (humerus)

480

increase flying speed

increased amplitude (not frequency)
inversely associated with relative wing lenth

481

'thumb'

alula
shorter than rest of 1º's
very important at slow speeds
like airplane 'flap'

482

# primaries compared to phylogenetic tree

lowest in passerines (10) 'top' of phylogenetic tree
most (16) in ostrich, 'bottom' of tree- furthest outgroup

483

how to increase flying height

increase angle of attack or bend wing

484

airfoil

shape that causes aerodynamic forces when moved through fluid

485

aerodynamic forces

the component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag.

486

indentations at end of 1º's

(notches) decrease drag

487

lift

air under wing is constant (~flat)
air over wing is - pressure b/c it has to move faster to go as far over the convex surface

488

v formation

birds behind can take advantage of up-wash

489

up-wash

the upward flow of air directly ahead of the leading edge of a moving airfoil

490

climb angle

angle of attack

491

climb angle increased

by alula- produce vortices that improve tighter flow to upper wing surface at low speed. allows increase of 5-10º

492

aspect ratio =

(wingspan)^2 / area of wing

493

wing loading =

mass of bird / area of wing

494

longer wings

reduce area of vortices relative to lift area

495

tapered wings

reduce area of vortices at expense of lift area

496

high aspect ratio

high lift : low drag
ex. shearwater
can go up fast but maybe not soar

497

low aspect ratio example

grouse

498

birds in high aspect - high loading grid corner

small, thin wings
diving birds
gannets, snipe, grebe, murres, sea duck, swan, duck, quail, puffin, pigeons, oyster-catcher

499

birds in high loading - low aspect grid corner

small, broad wings
poor fliers
petrels, grouse, woodpeckers, doves, tinamous, pheasants, peacock, turkey

500

birds in low loading - low aspect grid corner

large, broad wings
thermal soarers
larks, crows, cranes, eagles, owls, hawks, starling, herons, storks, vultures, condors

501

birds in low loading - high aspect grid corner

large, thin wings
Aerial predators and marine soarers
kites, harriers, cuckoos, falcons, pelicans, storm-petrels, plovers, avocets, swallows, terns, swift, skimmers, albatrosses

502

tail feathers

retrices
primarily for braking, steering, lift
often 6, up to 12 (grouse), absent in some (grebes)

503

tail feathers connected

central pair to pygostyle w/ ligament (for rotation)
remaining pairs in rectricial bulbs beside pygostyle

504

pygostyle

final few caudal vertebrae are fused into a single ossification, supporting the tail feathers and musculature

505

long tail feathers =

sharp turns
brilliant display

506

epigamic

sexual display
attracting the opposite sex, as the colors of certain birds

507

molting

replacement of feathers (modified scales)
usually 1/yr after reproduction

508

does molting result in loss of flight

feathers typically lost in stages, bilaterally symmetrical, so typically no loss of flight. some species have 4-5wk flightless stage (Canada Goose)

509

which feathers are lost

oldest first
replaces w/ pin feathers-- develop to full size

510

Canada goose melting adaptation

absorbs flight muscles and reconstitutes them as leg muscles to move terrestrial

511

bird mass distribution

shifted posteriorly

512

bird anterior bones

(skull, vertebra, wings) all pneumatic, lighter than mammalian

513

bird leg bones

stronger and heavier than mammals

514

bird total mass : body size

similar to mammal

515

pneumatic bones ancestral or derived

ancestral, present in flightless archosaurs

516

which birds have less pneumatic bones

diving birds - need to be heavier

517

a heavy bird with small wings

penguin, divers

518

bird pelvis

fused to thoracic vertebra and sacrum to produce synsacrum for hind limb attachment

519

bird muscles

flight muscles = 30% of total mass
leg muscles = 2% of total mass
light and dark

520

relative muscle proportions

vary according to niche (aerial-running-diving) and molt cycle

521

dark muscle

high myoglobin content - aerobic metabolism

522

light muscle

no myoglobin - short duration flight muscles - anaerobic

523

flying - downstroke

pectoralis pull tight, pulling wing bone down

524

flying - upstroke

supracoracoideus pulls tendon that loops around foramen triosseum, pulling wing bone up

525

wing muscles

pectoralis is on outside
supracoracoideus is on inside (touching/attached to sternum, scapula)

526

pectorals mass : supracoracoideus mass

rapid take-off or hovering
3:1
horizontal fliers, gliders
20 : 1

527

bird internal adaptations to flight

4 chambered heart
250-1200 heart rate
~40ºC Tb
drop 5-10ºC at night
2 lung, 9 air sacs

528

Bird ventilation

lungs not vascularized (no gas exchange)
air sacs expand on upstroke-
inhale passively
air sacs 'squished' on downstroke - exhale actively

529

what happens when air sacs are 'squished'

shunt is closed, air is forced into parabronchi for gas exchange

530

why do all birds lay eggs with no variation (ovoviviparity, viviparity, etc)

too much weight if young developed internally

531

bird egg laying

1 egg/day
single oviduct

532

bird urinary bladder

secret uric acid rather than urea
dont dilute w/ water, more water limited

533

bird degestion

rapid, regurgitate pellets of undigested material, increased flight efficiency

534

bird digestive tract

esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, pylorus

535

crop

storage area, milk production (squamosal cells)

536

proventriculus

glandular stomach, highly extendable in piscivores and frugivore

537

gizzard

highly muscular, small stones for food grinding

538

bird diet diversity

frugivory, granivory, herbivory, insectivory, piscivory, herbivory, omnivory, carnivory, etc.

539

bird food requirements

much more than us, higher energy requirements, some eat more than body mass each day

540

human food requirements

~1-2% of body weight

541

food requirements per body mass

higher in smaller body masses
large birds (goose)- 10% body weight
small (wren)- 200% body weight
~2x in pre-fledged age
~400% increase during provisioning of young

542

some daily food consumption : body mass (g) examples

goldcrest 7.0 : 5.7
wren 9.5 : 8.9
blue tit 13.5 : 11.5
skylark 224.8 : 37.2
wood pigeon 999.8 : 490.0

543

impacts on nutritional requirement

body size
what is being eaten - how digestible is it? (ex. leaves)

544

minimal gross energy requirement of 4.5kg eagle for 90day winter period at 5ºC

13 salmon, 20 rabbits, 32 ducks

545

why do desert birds have lower energy requirements?

less energy needed to produce body heat

546

why is there a need to reduce energy demands?

12g chickadee would use all fat reserves in 1 BC night and starve by morning if Tb held constant (40ºC)

547

methods for reducing energy demand

Turpor- drop Tb ~10ºC overnight, reduces SMR by ~30%

548

SMR

standard metabolic rate

549

problem with deep turpor

STILL use up 75% of fat reserve, need to re-establish fat reserve every day (early), morning storms = high mortality

550

to combat fat loss, reduce Tb more?

the more Tb is dropped, the harder it is to get back in the morning

551

large birds and turpor

large birds don't, they can survive a few days without eating
the largest bird that enters deep torpor is common poorwill (80g)

552

hummingbird turpor

varying states throughout day and night. fn of ambient T, foraging success, predator risk. increased torpor = prolonged incubation, increased mortalitly

553

reductions in daily foraging of hummingbird

12% reduction = 2 hours torpor at night
20% reduction = 3.5 hours torpor at night

554

bird eye

immobile in most species
nictmttating membrane
different fields of vision
tetrachromatic

555

nictititating membrane

lubrication, protection

556

bird eye - field of vision

lateral (eyes on side of head)- improved resolution, perception, look out 1 at a time
binocular (forward, eyes on front of face) - depth/distance perception

557

visual sensitivity proportional to

density of photoreceptors in retina

558

bird visual acuity examples

songbird: 2X humans
raptor: 5-10X humans

559

size of proportional to

body mass
also larger in nocturnal species and raptors

560

bird, tetrachromatism

4 cone pigments (iodopsin) + rod pigment (rhodopsin, 503nm) + 1-6 different coloured oil drops

561

diurnal bird eye

mainly cones, some rods

562

nocturnal birds

mainly rods, some cones

563

bird retina

2 regions - red field on dorsal quadrant, yellow field is the rest. relative proportion of red, orange, yellow oil droplets make up red/yellow regions

564

pigeon eye

additional micro-oil droplets in cones of red region

565

bird eye, oil droplets

shift light spectra, combinations of photopigments + oil drops = highly sophisticated colour vision, sensitive to polarized light

566

vole detection by kestrel

kestrel utilize UV detection with additional opsin (370nm). Urine fluorescent, UV absorbance reradiates photons of longer wavelengths.

567

even cooler about vole urine

fungal endophyte of grass-- enhance UV visibility of urine-- increase conspicuousness of vole. grazing on endophyte-infected grass = death!

568

what does ontogenetic iris colour change tell

sometimes age
ex. sharp-shinned hawk yellow -- red

569

what does iris colour tell us

well there appears to be commonality in birds of the same habitat

570

bird hearing

usually lower than humans
no external ear/pinnae
single bone
cochlea differences
sensitivity inverse to body size

571

bird, no external ear

sound goes down auditory canal to tympanic membrane

572

bird, single ear bone

columella or stapes
vibrations transmitted through bone in middle ear to inner membrane in cochlea

573

cochlea

inner ear

574

inner ear membrane

oval window

575

cochlea second membrane

round window - allows pressure vibrations to be dissipated (20X amplification)

576

bird, inner ear

uncoiled cochlea, hearing, balance, length varies among species (longer in predators)

577

bird, ear sensitivity

20Hz - 20kHz
average 1-8kHz
inversely related to body size
slightly less sensitive than human at average frequency
much less sensitive than human at low (5kHz) frequencies

578

inner ear anatomy can tell what about life history

cochlear size can tell hearing frequency range, vocal complexity, large group sociality

579

high hearing sensitivity examples

low: budgerigar (40Hz), rock dove (50Hz), eagle owl (60Hz), great horned owl (60Hz)
high: tawny owl (21kHz), long-eared owl (18kHz), european robin (21kHz)

580

bird, ear sensitivity

high sensitivity in mid ranges (1-8kHz, ~20dB), less E requirement than good hearing at all ranges
sensitivity ranges may shift

581

shifts in hearing sensitivity range, birds

may increase acuity in winter when food abundance is low, camouflage is low (leaves fallen), for early mating, to be able to communicate amongst species with lower predation risk

582

owl hearing

round face
asymmetric ears
bristles down middle of face

583

owl hearing, round face

sense shape, focus sound to ears, amplify

584

owl hearing, asymmetric ears

can ID vertical plane sounds
right ear: higher, angled differently, more sensitive to sound above horizontal
left ear: more sensitive to sound below horizontal (prey below them)
rotates head until stimulation is symmetrical

585

owl hearing, bristles down middle of face

stereo sound

586

hearing sensitivity of nestlings

columella not present at hatching- chicks can't hear, at 8 days can't hear lower than diesel truck, ~1wk before leaving nest can hear very similar to adult birds, hearing full developed by time vocal learning begins

587

bird foot structures

walking
hopping
perching
climbing
surface paddling, diving

588

bird foot, hopping

feet together, arboreal birds (mostly passerines that can't walk), starling, crows

589

bird foot, walking/running

cursorial birds (running)
2-3 toed, facing forward, no back toe

590

bird foot, perching

most arboreal species (songbird, eagle, hawk), anisodactyly

591

anisodactyly

3 toes forward, one backward and opposable- back toe is toe #1 = thumb

592

unique perching bird foot

king fisher- syndactyly, back toe farther back, front toes longer

593

bird foot, climbers

zygodacytly- 2 toes forward, 2 back
nuthatches, creepers, woodpeckers, parrots, owls

594

bird foot, surface paddling, diving

webs or lobes
semipalmate, totipalmate, palmate, lobate
plover, cormorant, ducks, loons, gulls, grebe

595

palmate

webbing between front toes- toes 2, 3, and 4

596

totipalmate

webbing between all 4 toes, toe 1 is to the side not back

597

semipalmate

only a little webbing between 1, 2, and 3

598

perching bird leg

pretty much only see up to heel, fibula and femur against body, in perching position body mass causes achilles tendon to clamp foot shut

599

why a bill?

greater diversity possible than toothed jaws

600

what is a bill?

bony interior covered with an outer non-rigid keratin plate (rhamphotheca) that covers mandible, maxillae, premaxillae.

601

bill types

generalist, insect catching, grain eating, coniferous-seed eating, nectar feeding, fruit eating, chiseling, dip netting, surface skimming, scything, probing, filter feeding, aerial fishing, pursuit fishing, scavenging, raptorial

602

fossil bird bill

many had teeth, aquatic birds kept teeth more than terrestrial, modern birds still have capacity to form teeth

603

foraging strategies

aerial piracy, aerial pursuit, dipping, skimming, pattering, hydroplaning, surface filtering, scavenging, surface seizing, surface plunging, deep plunging, pursuit diving: feet, pursuit diving: wings, bottom feeding

604

birds that surface feed from floating, hovering, or flight

petrels, albatross, shearwater, gull, eagle, osprey. high metabolic requirements. slow growth rate, reproduce every 2 years, long incubation

605

surface feeding: floating, hovering, flight

hover at surface and capture small fish, zooplankton, jellyfish, small squid. feed night and day, rarely settle on water

606

surface feeding most common

at zones of convergence, often 100's of kms from land

607

surface feeding bird incubation

65 days
longest incubation of any bird
all egg T to drop to ambient

608

bird foraging: diving from surface and underwater pursuit

foot or wing propulsion, weak aerial fliers, exploit niche space unavailable to surface feeders/plungers

609

birds that forage from surface diving/underwater pursuit

cormorant, loon, grebe, mergansers, auklets, murrelets, puffing, murres, penguins

610

surface diving depth examples

cormorant, loon 70m
penguin >500m

611

bird foraging: deep plunge diving from flight

from horizontal flight- angle wings and plunge vertically, depth determined by momentum and mass. special breast air sac cushions impact

612

deep plunge diving birds

mostly gannets, shearwater, pelicans

613

depth of deep plunging divers

gannet - 10m
max depth a fn of mass

614

scything

pick up think biofilm across sand

615

filter feeding birds have

keratinous extensions on bill (like baleen whale)

616

petrel feeding strategy

very expensive. feed basically 24hrs. small, fly far. egg slows down incubation if parent is not sitting on it- so it doesn't starve to death while parent is away foraging for long period. very rare to have long incubation in small birds.

617

why don't we have deep divers?

high PP, reduced clarity

618

bird foraging: skimming

small fish, zooplankton
ex. black skimmer (CA)
long bill, bottom longer

619

bird foraging: piracy and scavenging

gulls, eagles, pomarine jaeger, frigate
often convex bill

620

brid foraging: probing, biofilm feeding

long bills
different lengths = differential niche space exploitation
tidal/mud flats

621

bird plumage: reasons

display/signaling
hunting camouflage
defense camouflage
thermoregulatory
non-functional
historical

622

vertebrate species #'s globally

amphibians 7000
reptiles 9600
birds 10,000
mammals 5500
fish 30,000

623

tetrapod species # canada

amphibians 43
reptiles 51
birds 615
mammals 207

624

tetrapod species # BC

amphibians ~20
reptiles ~20
birds ~530
mammals ~150

625

why are marine birds highly convergent in colour

hunting strategy

626

think about when determining plumage colour

why? how can we test? if historical, why historical? what does predator/prey see? what is background? what is the females perspective? what is life history? microhabitat? compare colour amongst single species.

627

example of sexual dimorphism not related to sexual signaling

snowy owl - male white b/c hunts, female darker b/c sits on eggs

628

example of bird colour differences due to microhabitat

bufflehead- hang out at slightly different distances from shore- different reflections from above

629

why so many marine birds white

hunting camouflage- against bright sky looking up

630

why are there black gulls then?

different foraging time (night)? where do they live (tropics, thermoregulatory)?

631

why are swans white? (not fishers)

white birds tend to have thicker feathers. higher albedo, less absorbed insolation.

632

thin & black feathers and white & thick feathers both = heat. why 2 solutions to the same problem?

exploit more niche space? nesting site: white birds tend to roost at night in open spaces (loose more heat), dark birds in protected areas (loose less heat)

633

lake colours

oceanic/clear mt lake - blue
interior, high phyto lake - green
dystrophic - red/brown, tea

634

dystrophic

having brown acidic water, low in O2, supports little life- high levels of dissolved humus

635

pursuit arc

the area ahead of the predator that contains prey species at risk

636

narrow pursuit arc

bigger birds, swim fast in straight line

637

wide pursuit arc

smaller birds, swim slower, back and forth across area

638

white belly/neck birds in blue water

lessens contrast/dark shadow
the 1 photon that reflects off of water reduces the shadow of the animal (from the fishes perspective)

639

red belly/neck bird in dystrophic water

in dominantly red environment light is red-shifted- red belly removes shadow same way it works in blue water/white bird

640

so why are there variations in how much red (or other colours) are present- all the way up neck, across belly, etc.

swimming speed, pursuit arc
smaller bird- larger pursuit arc- most fish in front of and to the side of predator are 'at-risk-', therefore they must be camouflaged from all fish not just the ones directly in front of them

641

loon feeding

all piscivorous

642

loon fossil

previously THOUGHT to be one of oldest groups of living bird- similar to late Mesozoic Hesperornis. First unambiguous fossils in early Eocene.

643

loon body

feet far back on body
high wing-loading
2 juvenile molts

644

loon high wing loading

sometimes can't take off w/o wind

645

loons in phylogenetic tree

~middle
sister group to pelicans, herons, storks, penguins, albatross, shearwater, petrel

646

phylogenetic tree groups top to bottom

landbirds
shorebirds (s.g. w/ landbirds)
aquatic
hummingbirds, swifts
turkeys, waterfowl (sister group to all above)
flightless (sister group to all others)

647

BC loons

yellow-billed loon
common loon
pacific loon
red-throated loon

648

arctic loon

previous classification- now split in to pacific loon and black-throated diver

649

common loon distribution

breeding - most of Canada except VERY N and S Alberta/Sask
wintering- all along coasts of NA

650

pacific loon distribution

breeding- only northern NA (Alaska, territories, very N'n tip of man, que, ont)
wintering- only W coast of NA

651

yellow-billed loon disturbution

breeding- extreme N (TOP of alaska, E side of territories), pretty much exactly where common loon is NOT
wintering- W coast of Canada, alaska

652

red-throated loon distribution

breeding- N coast of NA, and W coast of Canada, very peripheral
wintering- W coast of NA, E coast of US

653

which 2 loons will you never find together

common and yellow-billed

654

red-throated loon distribution oddities

restricted to

655

Common Loons reproduce where

in freshwater lakes May-Sep
highly territorial- 1 pair per small lake, 1 pair per bay in large lake
occupy territory 1-2yrs before nesting

656

common loon lake choice

>0.5 km^2
don't like small lakes because they have such high wing loading- need the space to take off

657

common loon longevity

~60 years despite high fatality fights

658

why do common loons occupy territory so long before nesting

breeding is expensive, want to get it right. even mock nest construction

659

common loon breeding

longterm pair bonds
mate on or adjacent to nest site
2 eggs laid within several days of mating
24hr/day incubation for 28-39 days (both sexes)

660

common loon morphism/chromatism

monochromatism
dimorphic- m 5% larger

661

common loon chicks

ride on adult backs
provisioned by both parents

662

common loon, nest risk

right at edge of lake- flooding will remove nest (b/c they suck at walking on land)
ooivores (crows, ravens, raccoons)
fledging at 70-80 days
remain with parents until ~winter

663

common loon, chick provisions

whole fish
10-16 weeks
no regurgitation

664

common loon and pebbles

digestion, reduce buoyancy for diving
sometimes mistake gun shells as pebbles- lead poisoning

665

common loon, foraging

up to 80m
average dive: 30-60s, up to 4minutes
small fish swallow underwater
large fish brought to surface
eat large diversity of fish
biomagnify contaminants (Hg)