Chordates Part II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chordates Part II Deck (881):
1

aquatic mammals minimum body size

much larger than terrestrial
set by thermoregulatory demands of aquatic environment

2

larger mass animal bones

allometric growth
larger bones to support the weight, larger diameter, more robust

3

SA:V changes

as size increase, SA:V decreases
1unit cube = 6:1
2unit cube = 12:8 (1.5)
smaller ratio = lower rate of heat loss

4

sphere SA:V

SA = 4πr^2
V = (4/3)πr^3
smaller SA:V than cube of equal volume
minimize ratio for given volume

5

SA:V changes with shape

slender objects higher SA:V
ectotherms- lower MR, small, long, slender

6

consequences of size and shape variation

allometric relationships
eggs per female increase with body weight
influences survivorship and reproduction

7

evo devo

evolution and development

8

gene duplication

single genes
segment of chromosome
whole chromosome
whole genome

9

pseudogene

DNA sequences similar to normal genes but non-functional; as defunct relatives of functional genes

10

sub-functionalization

pairs of genes that originate from duplication, or paralogs, take on separate functions; ancestral gene-2 functions, new gene- 1 function

11

duplication events result in

pseudogenation
sub-functionalization
neo-functionalization

12

neofunctionalization

one gene copy, or paralog, takes on a totally new function after a gene duplication event; adaptive mutation process; one of the gene copies must mutate to develop a new function

13

functional divergence

genes, after gene duplication, shift in function from an ancestral function

14

gene duplications =

bursts of diversification

15

gene duplication, vertebrate evolution

3 episode widespread gene(ome) duplication
origin of verts, gnathostomes, teleosts

16

HOX clusters

4 in vertebrates
7-8 in teleost

17

snake venom toxins

co-opted from pancreatic origin
expanded by gene duplication
evolved under positive selection- neo-functionalization

18

Coqui development

no tadpole stage
rearrangment of development program
tail resorbed before hatching
adult characters (limbs) develop directly

19

frog with no direct development

tail growth before limb growth- gas exchange surface

20

classic neo-Darwinian 3-stage view of origin of species

mutation- new variant
selection- altered frequency/fixation ('new population')
reproductive isolation- new species

21

altered 4-stage evolved view of origin of species

mutation-- new gene
re-programming- new ontogeny/individual
selection-- new population
reproductive isolation-- new species

22

re-programming

developmental/embryonic/ontogenic reprogramming or repatterning

23

mechanisms of developmental reprogramming

changes in developmental programs at various stages of life
heterotopy
heterochrony
heterometry
heterotypy

24

heterotopy

∆ location of gene expression

25

heterochrony

∆ timing of ≥2 processes relative to each other
- onset, offset, rate of process
- must be allometric

26

heterometry

∆ amount of gene product

27

heterotypy

∆ kind of gene product

28

transformation grid

1 species = reference
reference points relocated in derived species to reconstruct transformed grid

29

heterochronic change

∆ rate of development to maturity
∆ time to maturity
∆ time of onset of development
alone or combined, same or different times

30

classic neotony

axolotl- retains larval features (gills, fins)

31

neotony

paedomorphosis, retention of ontogenetic features into adulthood

32

heterochronic process graphs

∆ timing of development
a- ancestral, d- descendant, k- rate of shape development, a- rate of onset of growth, ß- age when offset shape is attained

33

paedomorphosis- development is truncated

deceleration
hyomorphosis
postdisplacement

34

paedomorphosis, deceleration

neotony
(-k): smaller slope, lower shape change in same time of development

35

paedomorphosis, hypomorphosis

(negative offset, progenesis)
same slope, shorter time period = smaller change in shape

36

paedomorphosis, postdisplacement

(positive onset)
onset of growth is later, offset is same, smaller change in shape

37

peramorphosis- development is extended

acceleration
hypermorphosis
predisplacement

38

peramorphosis, acceleration

(+k), steeper slope, faster change in shape over same time period, larger change in shape overall

39

peramorphosis, hypermorphosis

(positive offset)
start time same, end time later, longer period of development = greater change in shape

40

peramorphosis, predisplacement

(negative onset)
start time is earlier, end time is same, longer period of development = greater change in shape

41

shorter development time to maturity

miniaturization
either ∆ time to maturity or ∆ time of onset

42

∆ time to maturity

progenesis

43

∆ rate of development to maturity

neoteny

44

facultative paedomorphosis

environmentally induced polymorphism, results in coexistence of mature, gilled, fully aquatic paedomorphic adults and transformed, terrestrial, metamorphic adults in same population
really phenotypic plasticity

45

peramorphosis

individuals of a species mature past adulthood and take on hitherto unseen traits. It is the reverse of paedomorphosis

46

paedotypy

'paedomorphosis' but within a population- sometimes the organisms exhibit the change sometimes they do not

47

paedomorphosis in relation to paedotypy

comparison between species
descendents exhibit the change, ancestors do not

48

local heterochrony

changes in specific parts of body (animals are mosaics of different characters)
local terms- paedotypic somatic develop., per atypic gonadal develop.

49

why exhibit paedomorphosis

often determined by environment
saves energy of metamorphosis
early maturity
early reproductive output

50

amniote heart development

earlier development in all amniotes, not originally for endothermy, may be due to nature of egg-- yolk movement, gas exchange

51

Tarsier

largest eye:body mass of all mammals
smaller than diapsids at initial devel.- allometric heterochrony

52

diapsid

("two arches") amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls

53

bird heterochrony

birds are miniature dinosaurs- pedomorphosis?
front limb:back limb larger in birds
birds have longer front limb relative to back limb
positive allometry of front limb
skull shape consistent w/ juvenile dino.

54

bird relaxed selection of front limbs

allowed them to 'experiment' with limb length- feeding?
led to wing development- exaptation

55

bird skulls

suggest pedomorphosis
retain juvenile shape overall and in bill, unlike dinosaur, alligator

56

bird mosaicism

peramorphic- bill, front limbs
paedomorphic- skull, back limb

57

ratites

ostrich, paedomorphic wing, skull; peramorphic hind limb, more robust skull
mosaic

58

mosaic animals

can't say an animal is paedomorphic, must be more specific

59

giant anteater

very long snout, peramorphosis, allometric growth

60

bovid, kudu

very elaborate horns with large skull size
peramorphosis, allometric growth

61

peramorphosis in certopsian dinosaurs

bigger animal = larger differentiation from juvenile form

62

Hawaiin honeycreepers

peramorphosis in none, one, or both bills

63

human paedomorphosis

paedomorphic apes?
retention of younger developmental stages of apes

64

differential heterochrony between sexes

sexual dimorphism
blue boxfish: adult female is paedo. compared w/ male in body shape and color pattern
male anglerfish

65

salamander heterochrony

ovoviparous, viviparous
feeding much earlier in viviparous form

66

vivipary

development of the embryo inside the body of the mother
live birth

67

oviparous

animals that lay eggs, with little or no other development within the mother

68

ovoviparous

develop within eggs that remain within the mother's body up until they hatch or are about to hatch

69

developmental trajectory

gradual, slow ontogeny or steps may be condensed for quicker ontogeny into fewer steps, then if one step is skipped you see bigger changes

70

salamander foot

B. occidentalis toes stop growing early, growth curve levels off, toes never project far out of pad--- webbed foot, suction cup

71

timing of migration of neural crest cells

alters features, skin color
salamander- white = delayed crest cell migration- no color developed

72

color derivatives of neural crest cells

iridophores (blue?)
xanthophores (yellow)
erythrophores (orange)
melanocyte (black)

73

organ system

set of organs interacting to carry out major body functions

74

organ

body structure that integrates different tissues and carries out a specific function

75

vertebrate support/locomotion organ systems

skeleto-muscular system

76

vertebrate metabolism organ systems

respiratory system
digestive system
excretory system

77

vertebrae transport organ system

circulatory system

78

vertebrate reproduction organ system

reproductive system

79

vertebrate integration organ system

neuro-endocrine system (nervous system, endocrine glands)

80

vertebrate support and interaction organ

skin

81

homeostasis

maintaining stability, negative feedback

82

homeostasis feedback

environment ∆-- physiological ∆-- ∆ detected by neural receptors-- info. sent along sensory pathway-- integrator cells receive info. -- info. sent along motor pathway-- compensatory changes made by effector(s)-- conditions returned to desirable levels

83

temperature regulation feedback

∆ detected by skin, hypothalamus-- info. sent along afferent (sensory) pathway-- neutrons receive sensory info. (brain)-- info. sent along efferent (motor) pathway-- actions

84

overall feedback model

increase/decrease-- receptor (sensor)-- integrator-- effector(s)

85

nervous system main organs

brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sensory orans, coordinates homeostasis

86

nervous systems present

in all metazoans except sponges

87

endocrine system organs

pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, hormone-secreting glands

88

muscular system organs

skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle- thermoregulation

89

skeletal system organs

bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage

90

integumentary system organs

skin, sweat glands, hair, nails; skin largest organ, multiple functions

91

circulatory system organs

heart, blood vessels, blood; interacts w/ everything

92

lymphatic system

lymph nodes, lymph ducts, spleen, thymus

93

respiratory system organs

lungs, diaphragm, trachea, airways

94

digestive system organs

pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, rectum, anus

95

excretory system organs

kidneys, bladder, ureter, urethra

96

reproductive system organs

ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, sperm ducts, accessory glands, penis

97

vertebrate coelom cavities

most have 2; pericardial (surrounding heart), pleura-peritoneal
mammals also have 2 pleural cavities (lungs)

98

coelom organs

organs are connected to cavity to be held in place
some organs outside of cavity (kidneys)

99

useless parts

vestigial, 'hold overs', ancestry

100

some human vestigial parts

third eyelid, darwin's point, wisdom teeth, erector pili, body hair, coccyx, neck rib, thirteenth rib, fifth toe, paranasal sinuses, vomeronasal organ, fellowmen reflex, extrinsic ear muscles, subclavius muscle, palmaris muscle, plantaris muscle, pyramidalis muscle, appendix, male nipples, male uterus

101

third eyelid

Nictitating membrane- protects eye and sweep out debris, snow blindness, in birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, tiny fold in inner corner of human eye

102

Darwin's point

small, folded point of skin at top of ear in modern humans, remnant of larger shape to focus distant sound

103

wisdom teeth

early humans chewed lots of plants- another row of molars useful, only ~5% of population has a healthy set of 3rd molars

104

erector pili

smooth muscle fibres allow animals (mammals) to puff up fur to insulate or intimidate
-humans- goosebumps
-dogs/cats- fur standing up

105

body hair

brows- keep sweat out of eyes
male facial hair- sexual selection
most human body hair has no function

106

coccyx

fused vertebrae all that is left of tail
tail lost before humans began walking upright

107

neck rib

set of cervical ribs, leftovers from age of reptiles?, appear in <1% of population, cause nerve/artery problems, also associated w/ childhood cancer?

108

thirteenth rib

8% of adults have 13, most of us have 12
left over from chimps, gorillas?

109

fifth toe

mainly for balance in humans, grasping clinging to branches in apes

110

paranasal sinuses

nasal sinuses of ancestors may have been lined w/ odour receptors-- heightened smell, aid survival
now- troublesome mucus-lined cavities, moistens air we breathe, makes head lighter

111

vomeronasal organ (VNO)

tiny pit on each side of nasal septum filled w/ nonfunctioning chemoreceptors
maybe once a pheromone detecting ability?

112

flehmen reflex

exposes VNO just behind front teeth (like horses)
expose to air, where pheromones are expected to be present

113

extrinsic ear muscles

trio of muscles, made it possible for pre hominids to move ears independently of heads
we still have them-- ppl can wiggle ears

114

subclavius muscle

under shoulder from 1st rib to collarbone, useful for walking on all four
people have 0-2

115

palmaris muscle

long, narrow, runs from elbow to wrist, missing in 11% of humans, may have been for hanging, climbing
used for reconstructive surgery

116

plantaris

often mistaken for a nerve
useful for primate grasping with feet
not present in 9% of humans

117

pyramidalis

tiny, triangular, pouch like muscle, attached to pubic bone- from pouched marsupials?
>20% of humans don't have

118

appendix

narrow, muscular tube, attached to large intestine for digesting cellulose when humans ate more plant matter, produces some white blood cells
>300,000 Americans/yr get it removed

119

male nipples

lactiferous ducts from well before testosterone causes sex differentiation in fetus
men have mammary tissue that can be stimulated to produce milk

120

male uterus

remnant of undeveloped female reproductive organ
hangs off male prostate gland

121

integument skin

injury, microbial, predator protection
regulation of water
regulation of Tb
social interactions
excretion/elimination of waste
respiratory gas exchange
muscle attachment
sensory
wrapping- shape and support

122

integument water regulation

water can pass both ways but amount that can pass varies in different animals- amphibians drink through skin

123

integument Tb regulation

hair, feathers, blood supply in skin, coloring

124

integument social interactions

color, size of feathers, chemical attractants from glands

125

skin characteristics

heaviest organ in body
most functions
remarkable repair functions
interface w/ environment, serious damage = serious problems

126

integument made up of

dermis and epidermis

127

dermis

lower layer
thick, protective functions
consists of layers

128

dermis made up of

stratum spongiosum
stratum compactum
hypodermis
exoskeleton
dermal plates/scales
bone dentin(e), enamel
chromatophores

129

stratum spongiosum

most of blood vessels that feed other layers of skin

130

stratum compactum

more compact layer below spongiosum

131

hypodermis

covering of muscles, fat deposits, muscles that allow skin to move relative to rest of body

132

dermis characteristics

collagenous and elastic fibres, fibroblasts, bones, scales, nerve fibres, blood vessels, smooth muscle, mesodermal

133

exoskeleton

reptiles, turtles, crocodiles

134

enamel

hydroxyapatite
less fibrous, harder (than bone or dentin)

135

fossil agnathans

ostracoderms
elaborate bony armour

136

derivatives of primitive dermal bone

lamellar bone
spongy bone
dentin
enamel

137

denticle

dentin + enamel

138

placoid shark scale

lamellar bone + dentin + enamel

139

kinds of bone

dermal/membane bone
endochondral bone

140

dermal bone

formed in membranes
intramembranous ossification
exoskeleton, dematocranium

141

endochondral bone

formed in cartilage
endochondral ossification
endoskeleton

142

chromatophores

dermis produced color, stellate, cells and pigment granules within move around
melanophores
liphophores
iridophores

143

stellate

neurons with several dendrites radiating from the cell body giving them a star shape

144

melanophores

contain melanin (dark pigment)

145

excess melanin

melanistic = black

146

lack of melanin

albinistic - very conspicuous, low survival

147

liphophores

contain corotanoids
xanthophores (yellow), erythrophores (red)

148

fossil dermis findings

skin pigments in extinct animals, convergence of melanism

149

ToF-SIMS to detect melanin

time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry
composition & spatial distribution of surface molecules, including comparisons w/ spectra of melanin

150

SEM to detect melanin

scanning electron microscopy
presence of ovoid bodies consistent w/ melanophores

151

EDX to detect melanin

energy-dispersive x-ray microanlysis
carbon associated w/ skin and not adjacent sediment

152

evidence of melanism in 3 extinct animals

3 marine reptiles, each lineage secondarily aquatic
Ichtyopterygia, Mosasauroidea (Squamata), Eosphargis (Testudines, turtle?)

153

melanin function

thermoregulations- especially in turtle?
crypsis- ichthyosaur lacks countershading (deep diving habit, background matching in low light)

154

iridophores

contain crystal plates made of guanine- reflect light, influence perceived color

155

cyanophore

blue pigment, very rare, only known in a few species of fish

156

color changing

position of chromatophore
∆ distribution of pigment granules w/i chromatophore
seasonal moult

157

shifts in relative position of chromatophores

chromatophores- ameoboid
ex. if yellow pigments move onto of black pigments

158

distribution of pigment granules within chromatophore

densely packed or dispersed- density of color

159

seasonal moult

of plumage (birds) or pelage (mammals)
color in epidermal structures can be 'dropped'

160

chameleons color changing

interactions- agressive, courting
antipredator response
dominant individual use color as social signal

161

sexual dichromatism

sexual dimorphism
greater in breeding season than rest of year- spend energy to enhance breeding color

162

seasonal color change

camouflage, varies geographically, may be shown some places and not others, background matching, moult btw color change

163

seasonal color change examples

Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus)
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta)

164

ontogenetic color change

color change through life, younger animals generally more vulnerable

165

ontogenetic change examples

mule deer- baby spotted, camouflage when laying down
Racer- snake, adults plain blue/grey, blotches on young

166

structural color

physical properties of body colouring
especially dramatic in birds
feathers refract light in various ways- differences in angle we look at it

167

blue amphibians

rare, usually not due to pigment, light is scattered by iridophores

168

chromatophore layers

filtering layer (xanthophore), scattering layer (iridophore), absorbing layer (melanophore)
short λ (blue-green) largely absorbed by filter.
med λ (yellow-green) pass through filter.- scattered by scattering layer- back through filter
long λ (red-orange) - pass through filtering and scattering, absorbed by absorbing layer

169

parts of epidermis

stratum corneum
stratum germinativum
derivatives

170

stratum corneum

outer layer, shed old cells in flakes or one piece

171

stratum germinativum

below corneum, source of new cells which move up to outer layer

172

epidermis derivatives

various function glands
keratinized structures (nails, claws, hooves, scales/scutes, hair, feathers, horns, antlers, foot pads, beaks)

173

glands

are IN dermis
BUT epidermal in origin

174

hair

dips down into dermis BUT epidermal derivative

175

keratin/lipids

barriers to water loss and UV
amounts of keratin are variable among taxa

176

mucus glands

moisture, gas exchange, cooling

177

granular glands

produce defence toxins

178

epidermal glands

mucous, poison, scent, sweat, sebaeous, mammary, uropygial

179

sebaceous gland

base of hair, lubricant for skin

180

uropygial glands

base of tail in birds, preening feathers, produces oil

181

mammarly glands

nipple- many ducts
teat- single duct

182

fish scales

bony scales, dermal, permanent, not shed, only lost through injury, persist throughout life, new growth every year

183

reptile scale

horny scales, epidermal, shed, called scutes

184

claw, beak, horn structure

central bony core, covered by vascularized dermis, outer epithelial layer

185

hair

keratonous, not modified scales, novel, grow from bone throughout life, multiple kinds (fine coat, second coat (guard hairs) grow through to provide protection)

186

feathers

down- close to body, small feathers, insulation
body contour feathers- grow through
flight feathers- moulted periodically and replaced, occur in tracks along body

187

skin as a sensory organ

touch receptors, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, touch information to CNS
important interface between body and environment

188

skin receptors

nociceptors, pruriceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptor, hair/glabrous skin, lips/tongue/cheeks, mystical pads, tactile foraging

189

nociceptors

pain

190

pruriceptor

itch

191

hair/glabrous skin reception

glabbrous/nebrous skin- free of hair (palms, soles)
discriminative touch- clearly distinguish differences in objects, descriminate more clearly

192

lips/tongue/inner cheeks reception

localization and movement of food

193

mystacial pads, vibrissae

snout of animals, long whiskers
vibrotactility, navigation, spatial orientation in dark
extend sensitivity beyond skin surface

194

tactile foraging

snout of star nose mole
elaborate w/ tentacles extremely sensitive to touch, finds way around and food

195

fish sounds

>700 known vocal species

196

fish sounds

simple vs complex
same frequency, varying frequency/amplitude (moans, growls, peals)

197

how do fish make sounds

stridulation
air passage
drumming

198

stridulation (fish sounds)

rubbing/scraping together fins, bones, teeth

199

air passage (fish sounds)

little understood, internal movement of air, escape of air through mouth, gills, anus (farts), FRT- frequently repetitive ticks

200

waveform

amplitude vs. times

201

spectrogram

frequency (kHz) vs. time (s)

202

types of FRTs

3 types- FRT1, FRT2, FRT4
~2-8kHz, ~50-60dB, differ in amplitude

203

drumming (fish sounds)

'sonic' muscles pushing/pulling on internal air/swim bladder
males have longer muscles than females

204

why/when fish are vocal

spawning, courtship, agression, territorial, distress, predator/prey behaviour

205

cod drumming muscles

larger in males
larger at spawning time
correlated with fertilization potential

206

haddock courtship behaviour

pulse repetition rate changes at each stage of courtship- increases in frequency

207

studying fish sounds

passive acoustics
technology

208

passive acoustics

simply listening to sounds w/ hydrophones
non-invasive, non-visual (light not needed), continuous remote monitoring, provides detailed behaviour info

209

technology (fish sounds)

AULS
ROVs
Autonomous glider

210

AULS

autonomous underwater listening stations

211

ROVs

remotely operated vehicle

212

autonomous glider

buoyancy-drive AUV
moves through water independently, no engine, moves via density changes

213

ecological uses of fish sounds

locate vocal fishes
determine when fish are vocal
study of underwater noise effects
examine fish interactions

214

locating vocal fishes

identify essential fish habitat (EFH)
locate spawning habitats
exploration of the seas
census of marine life

215

determining when fish are vocal- season and time of day

spawning behaviour
predator/prey interaction
foraging
territorial defense

216

studying underwater noise effects

identify noise sources and levels
quantify temporal/spatial patterns in noise
quantify noise impact on fish behaviour

217

cusk-eel

found in Cape Cod by low tech passive acoustic methods, call in chorus just after sunset, tracks time of sunset through summer,

218

Haddock

using AULS 1000m deep, first in situ recordings in NA, recorded daily vocal activities- more vocal late in day, spawn mostly at night-

219

freshwater drum in hudson river

widely distributed highly vocal family, invasive, may spawn within canals that drain into Hudson

220

how did FW drum make it to hudson river

track acoustic path, with emphasis on spawning locations
found drum sounds in lake champlain canal, expected to spread dramatically and may alter rivers ecosystem

221

NEPTUNE canada subsea instruments

Hydrophones, seismometer, piezometer, bottom pressure recorder, gravimeter

222

piezometer

measure liquid pressure

223

gravimeter

measure local gravitational field

224

penetrometers

moisture, strength, harness of substrate

225

VENUS

Strait of Georgia, Saanich Inlet
UVic data archive, shore station, instrument platforms, nodes, autonomous vehicles, surface monitoring by BC ferries, satellites, gliders, profiling system

226

noisy ocean

peak listening is 1-10kHz (low frequency), lots of anthropogenic noise

227

fish hearing

fish have 2 inner ears, no middle or external ear, inner ear similar to other verts., sensory hair cells responsible for converting sound to electrical signal

228

potential effects on hearing

high intensity (transient)- fatigue, damage or kill sensory hair cells
low intensity (shipping)- may have behavioural and physiological consequences

229

fish sensory cells

can be replace or repaired, unlike mammals

230

pile driving noise

direct mortality in surfperches
startle and alarm responses when exposed to air gun- rockfish, tighter school, school collapse, become motionless

231

behavioural effects of noise

distribution
fitness- reduced growth, reprod.
predator-prey interaction- interference
communication- range reduction, info loss

232

shipping noise

most extensive source of noise in ocean, especially along major shipping channels

233

reproductive consequences

physiological stress, restricting mate finding, keeping fish from preferred spawn sites

234

masking communicative sounds

impact ability of fish to communicate acoustically or use acoustic 'soundscape' to learn about envrionment

235

masking predator-prey relationships

affect ability to find prey or detect presence of predators

236

skeletomuscular system

vertebrate characteristic
internal, jointed skeleton (bone or cartilage)
works with muscular system

237

skeletomuscular functions

support of body
movement via joints
enclosure/protection of vital organs
storage of minerals
assistance in lung ventilation (amniotes)

238

skeletomuscular body support

ligaments, tendons, muscles

239

skeletomuscular mineral storage

Cap, P, Mg in bones

240

skeltomuscular lung ventilation

muscles connected to ribs

241

important connective tissues

cartilage
bone
ligaments
tendons
muscle

242

cartilage

matrix
collagen
chondroblasts
chondrocytes
lacuna(e)

243

chondrocytes

only cells found in healthy cartilage; produce and maintain cartilaginous matrix

244

chondroblasts

make cartilage matrix

245

lacuna(e)

hole in which cells grow

246

cartilage characteristics

more flexible than bone
most skeletons start w/ cartilage
offer support, bone growth
no blood vessels

247

types of cartilage

Hyaline
Fibrocartilage
Elastic

248

Hyaline cartilage

'temporary' cartilage during growth; most articulations, ribs, nose, larynx; least elastic; low collagen

249

Fibrocartilage

intervertebral disks, other joints (meniscus in knee); load bearing; show absorption; joint stabilization; able to resist pressure w/ minimum friction; moderately elastic; moderate collagen

250

Elastic cartilage

pinna, epiglottis, other parts of visceral skeleton; vibrational properties help emit/receive sound; most elastic; most collagen

251

knee minisci

important for knew function- load bearing, shock absorption, joint stabilization, joint lubrication, proprioception

252

proprioception

ability to sense stimuli arising within the body regarding position, motion, and equilibrium

253

bone properties

support and locomotion
organic components
mineral components
mineral reserves
dynamic

254

bone support and locomotion

balance between stiffness (hardness) and toughness (strength)

255

bone organic components

ex. collagen
toughness and elasticity
resistance to tensile loads

256

bone mineral components

ex. hydroxyapatite
stiffness, resistance to compressive loads

257

bone mineral reserves

Ca, P, Mg

258

bones, dynamic

modeling and remodelling
reabsorption and deposition

259

bone parts

osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast
lacunae, canaliculi
compact, spongy
marrow
woven, lamellar
periosteum

260

osteoblasts

cells with single nuclei that synthesize bone

261

osteocytes

star-shaped cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone

262

osteoclasts

type of bone cell that resorbs bone tissue. This function is critical in the maintenance and repair, and remodelling of bones

263

bone lacunae and canaliculi

small canals between cells, blood cells and transport materials

264

periosteum

protective sheath around bones that connects to blood vessels and other structures like tendons

265

osteon

fundamental functional unit of much compact bone; bundle of blood vessels and lacunae

266

two types of tissue that form bone

compact
spongy

267

compact bone

cortical; facilitates bone's main functions: to support the whole body, protect organs, provide levers for movement, store/release calcium; forms the cortex (outer shell) of most bones

268

spongy bone

cancellous, trabecular bone; higher SA:mass; less dense; softer, weaker, more flexible; suitable for metabolic activity-exchanges Ca; typically found at ends of long bones- proximal to joints, within interior of vertebrae; highly vascular; frequently contains red bone marrow- hematopoiesis

269

marrow

flexible tissue in interior of bones, 2 types
yellow: fat
red: blood cells
birth- all red
adult- 1/2 red

270

hematopoiesis

production of blood cells

271

woven bone

no uniform structure; early development; eventually replaced by lamellar bone

272

lamellar bone

compact, spongy, vascular canals, osteons, 'plywood' structure

273

plywood structure

regular parallel alignment of collagen into sheets (lamellae), mechanically strong, much lower proportion of osteocytes to surrounding tissue

274

bone stiffness

trade-off with toughness
high T low S: collagen-- wood-- chitin-- bone-- tooth dentin-- mollusk shell-- tooth enamel-- glass, concrete, rocks, pottery

275

strain

dimensionless, epsilon = ∆length/length

276

stress vs. strain plot

elastic region-- yield point-- plastic region- fracture point

277

elastic region (stress vs. strain)

increases with high slope
rubber band like
steeper slope = less elastic

278

plastic region (stress vs. strain)

much lower slope increasing
stays together but is deformed

279

fracture point (stress vs. strain)

material breaks

280

stress

sigma = F/A

281

tissue stiffness =

y / x (stress/strain)
>yield pt. - yield or failure

282

bone elasticity

0.007% of strain
0.003 normal strain
0.015 results in fracture

283

ossification involves

direct or indirect
heterotropic bones

284

membranous ossification

direct laying down of bone- dermal armour, dermatocranium, parts of visceral skeleton, clavicle, others

285

endochondral ossification

indirect, cartilage precursor- most of axial and appendicular skeleton

286

ossification

laying down new bone material by osteoblasts- bone tissue formation

287

Heterotopic bones

isolated bones formed outside skeleton proper

288

sesamoid bones

small bones associated w/ tendons, joints; Often form in response to strain; act like pulleys, prove smooth surface for tendons to slide over increasing muscular forces

289

long bone structure

epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis

290

epiphysis

rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s)

291

diaphysis

the long midsection of the long bone

292

curious heterotopic bones

baculum, baubellum
Os penis, os clitoridis

293

baculum

penis bone, penile bone or os penis; bone found in the penis of many placental mammals, absent in human, function unknown- lock and key? some have projections, trident

294

baubellum

os clitoridis – a bone in the clitoris

295

bird bones

light skeleton, not necessarily light bones, hollow bones- air filled, not marrow filled; very dense bones, especially cranial compared w/ other animals

296

pneumaticity

air spaces in bones

297

post cranial pneumaticity

only birds, dinosaurs, perhaps gas exchange system

298

bone density

proportional to bone stiffness and strength

299

dense bone

stiffer, stronger, heavier

300

bone density vs. shape graph

heavy-light density vs. less-more rigid shape
min. density and rigidity = low stiffness and strength
max density and rigidity = high stiff. and strength
isoclines of stiffness and strength

301

medullary bone

woven bone, female birds, formed seasonally, prior to and during egg-laying, Ca reservoir for building hard eggshell

302

3 kinds of eggshells

hard
flexible
soft

303

hard shell

self-contained, rigid, fossils
calcareous matter dominates; tortoise, bird, dino, croc, gecko

304

flexible shell

needs water, calcareous layer loose, some fossils; turtles

305

soft shell

needs water, organic matter dominates, no fossils, gecko, tuatara, lizard, snake

306

crocodilian egg laying

pre-ovulatory hpercalcemia (takes 40% of Ca to make eggshells), no medullary bone formed

307

medullary bone significance

underscores evolutionary link btw. bird and dino
similar reproductive bio
means of sex ID in dino

308

ligaments

hold bones together, provide support, connective tissue, typically collagen

309

patellar ligament

between patella and tibia
holds tibia and femur together

310

2 main skeleton classifications

endoskeleton, exoskeleton
OR cranial, postcranial

311

exoskeleton

within integument
keratinized exo. - epidermis
bony exo. - dermis

312

endoskeleton

deep, within body
bony endo.
cartilagenous endo.
notochord

313

cranial skeleton

splanchnocranium
chondrocranium (cartilage)
dermatocranium

314

postranial skeleton

axial skeleton
appendicular skeleton

315

axial skeleton

vertebral column
notochord

316

appendicular skeleton

limbs
girdle

317

endoskeleton cartilage bone

vertebrae, ribs, limb bones

318

endoskeleton membrane bone

centra (teleost), sesamoid

319

exoskeleton dermal bone

skull roof, dentary, clavicle, gastrula, fish scales, osteoderm

320

gastralia

dermal bones found in ventral body wall of crocodilian/Sphenodon, between sternum and pelvis, do not articulate with vertebrae, support for abdomen, attachment sites for abdominal muscles

321

sphenodon

tuatara

322

main components of the skeleton

dermal
endoskeleton: somatic (axial, appendicular), visceral
median fin

323

median fin

one of the unpaired (i.e. dorsal, anal, and caudal) fins, restricted to fish, stability, propulsion

324

nuchal ligament

supports head, keeps it upright

325

degree of exoskeleton

greatly varies in all taxa

326

origin of vertebrate head skeleton

deep homology and co-option (exaptation)
spread of tissue through head (neural crest), not evolution of new skeletal tissue

327

axial skeleton

braincase, vertebral column, ribs

328

braincase

endochondral part of skull

329

vertebral column

backbone, tail, articulating vertebrae

330

first vertebra

atlas- allows up and down motion of head

331

atlas articulates with

occipital condyle(s) on back of braincase

332

second vertebra in amniotes

axis- allows rotary motion of head

333

parts of vertebra

centrum, neural arch and spine, zygapophyses (pre and post), diapophyses

334

occipital condyles

1 or 2 in tetrapods
undersurface protuberances of the occipital bone, articulates w/ superior facets of the atlas vertebra

335

centrum

main body of vertebra

336

neural arch

above centrum, spinal cord runs through

337

zygapophyses

projections of the vertebra that fit with adjacent vertebra; articulation, lateral/up/down motion, resist portion

338

diapophyses

the part of the transverse process of a thoracic vertebra that articulates with its corresponding rib

339

vertebrate lateral motion

many vert., including tetrapods, use lateral motion for locomotion, mammals- minimally

340

fish vertebral column

less flexible, without zygapophysis

341

dimetrodon

elaborate extension of neural spines, probably supported sail, evidence of vascularized tissue- thermoregulation, and/or social signalling

342

regionalizations of vertebral column

Trunk- Presacral, Cervical, Dorsal, Sacral
Caudal

343

Dorsal vertebra

thoracic, lumbar

344

frog vertebral column

very short, don't bend well, highly reduced

345

mammal cervical vertebrae

7, typically do not have ribs

346

mammal ribs

thoracic vertebrae

347

mammal caudal vertebrae

tail, coccyx

348

urostyle

long bone-fused vertebrae at base of vertebral column, frogs and toads

349

bird vertebral column

stiff, lots of fusion, clavicle + inter clavicle = wishbone

350

wishbone

furcula, fusion of two clavicle bones

351

snake vertebral column

many vertebrae, large range of motion

352

autotomy

self amputation

353

lizard autotomy

fracture planes in vertebrae separate w/ muscle movement; tail moves back and forth rapidly, builds up lactic acid
regenerated tail is different- cartilaginous

354

Ribs

protect organs, used in breathing (muscle attachment), modified in various groups (ex. turtle)

355

tetrapod ribs

homologous w/ fish dorsal ribs
attached to sternum ventrally
reduction/loss (ex. anuran)
extras (ex. snakes)

356

fish ribs

dorsal/ventral/both

357

cobra

cervical ribs 'spread out' to give the illusion of being larger

358

Draco, lizard

wings, ribs articulate w/ vertebrae to spread out skin and form wings

359

rib newt

pierces own body wall w/ ribs to spread toxin

360

importance of sternum

not in animals that move ribs
very in animals that don't, especially birds (keel)

361

appendicular skeleton

limbs, girdles

362

tetrapod pelvic girdle

firmly attached to sacrum- hind limbs need firm attachment to provide thrust (not in fishes)

363

sacrum

large, triangular bone at base of spine and upper, back of pelvic cavity, inserted between hip bones, number of fused vertebrae

364

number of vertebrae in sacrum

dogs- 3
humans, horses - 5

365

tetrapod pectoral girdle

not attached to head, often not attached to vertebral column (except in brachiators, flyers)
fishes- firmly attached to head

366

brachiators

primate, firm attachment of pectoral girdle for swinging

367

humerus, radius, ulna

present in crossopterygian- tetrapods- amniotes
deep homology, homologies in limbs

368

homologies

Similar characteristics due to relatedness

369

pelvic girdle bones

ilium, pubis, ischium

370

clavicle

present in fish and tetrapods- lost in some groups
only dermal element in mammal pectoral girdle
variable presence in mammals

371

mammal clavicle presence

present- human, bats
reduced- cats
most carnivores- absent or rudimentary

372

manus

carpals + metacarpals + phalanges

373

pes

tarsals + metatarsals + phalanges

374

variations in tetrapod manus and pes

homologies

375

convergences

fins, reduction/loss of fins, legs, 'flippers', wings, loss of flight, body elongation, reduction/loss of digits/limbs

376

functions of digits in tetrapods

support
locomotion
digging
grasping- perching, climbing, food manipulation

377

grasping behaviour in tetrapods

well conserved, chiefly arboreal life, feeding
very well-developed in tree frogs (manual and pedal)
best developed in mammals (manual and pedal)

378

grasping behaviour birds

front limbs modified to wings- grasping behaviour with back limbs, diverse toe configuration

379

grasping in lizards

negotiating complex habitat, varying degrees of manual and pedal grasping

380

grasping in unrelated tree frogs

convergence
suckers for gripping, digits that can wrap around branches

381

most bipedal tetrapod

birds, longer history of bipedalism that we do

382

modular locomotor system

hindlimb adapted for bipedal locomotion
shift from ab. muscle-- back limbs for locomotor
shift from tail counter weight in dino.-- knee as centre of gravity for straight back

383

theropod dinosaurs leading up to birds

all bipedal

384

joints

were bones meet, where all normal muscular function happens

385

kinds of joints

immoveable
slightly moveable
freely moveable

386

immoveable joints

synarthrosis
bones meet at a suture, associated w/ connective tissue
ex. skull bones

387

slightly moveable

amphiarthrosis
usually cartilage and connective tissue btw. bones, quite variable, ex. pubic symphysis (moves for child birth), spinal column

388

freely moveable

diarthrosis; synovial joint
subtypes: hinge joints, ball and socket joints, etc.

389

spinal column moveability

joints btw vertebrae, vertebrae move against each other but movement is limited

390

types of synarthrosis

serrate joint, scarf joint (wedge shape), butt joint (flush), peg and socket, lap joint (edges overtop each other, rare)

391

hinge joint

finger, knee, elbow; one-way movement

392

ball and socket joint

hip, shoulder; rotary motion

393

synovial fluid

reduces friction between articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement (freely moveable joints)

394

skull parts

chondrocranium
splanchnocranium
dermatocranium

395

chondrocranium origins

neurocranium, braincase- somatic
(and neural crest)

396

splanchnocranium origin

visceral skeleton, facial skeleton- from branchial arches
(and neural crest)

397

dermatocranium origin

skull roof- dermal
(and neural crest)

398

first gill arch

gnathostome jaw

399

second gill arch

hyomandiubular

400

jaw suspensions

amphistyly
hyostyly
autostyly
streptostyly

401

amphistyly

mandibular arch supported in part by hyomandibular, primitive Chondrichthyes

402

hyostyly

mandibular arch supported primarily by hyomandibula- Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygia

403

Autostyly

mandibular arch not supported by hyomandibule- Dipnoi, Tetrapoda

404

Steptostyly

quadrate bone moveable- Aves, Squamates

405

fate of meckel's cartilage, arch 1

Articular (teleost, amph., reptile)--- Malleus (mammals)

406

fate of palatoquadrate, arch 1

quadrate (teleost, amph., reptile)---- Incus (mammals)

407

fate of hyomandibula, arch 2

hyomandibula (teleost)-- stapes (amph., reptile., mammal)

408

upper jaw teeth

mammals- restricted to 2 bones
other vets., more bones can support teeth

409

types of teeth

incisors- ripping
canines- stabbing
molars- chewing

410

carnivore dentition

incisors in front, large sharp canines, pointy triangular premolars, couple of molars

411

herbivore dentition

few small incisors, canines, space with no teeth, few premolars and molars- flat

412

omnivore dentition

teeth in same order but not much differences in shape/size, all relatively flat, fit together tightly, no spaces

413

temporal fenestration in amniotes

openings in side of skull, defined relative to position of bones; anapsid, synapsid, parapsid, diapsid

414

anapsid

ancestral, stem, lacking opening, early reptiles, turtles

415

diapsid

2 temporal fenestrae behind orbit, one superior and one inferior; dinosaurs, crocodilians, birds, tuaturas, lizards, snakes

416

synapsid

1 temporal fenestra behind the eye, below the postorbital bone, like the lower fenestrae in diapsids; extinct reptiles, mammals

417

parapsid

(euryapsids) extinct, ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs; 1 fenestra behind the eye, above the postorbital, similar to upper fenestra of diapsids

418

streptostyly

quadrate bone rotates, increases mobility of jaws, lizards, snakes; 2 joints for jaw- one can be locked while other moves- more fore/apt movement, can swing out, can aid tongue projection, more forceful bite, can change in-lever

419

temporal fenestration in reptiles

sphenodon, crocs- unmodified diapsid
lizards- lower temporal bar lost- freeing quadrate
snakes- lower and upper bar lost, very open skull, highly developed streptostyly, more moveable quadrate

420

mammal temporal fenestration

temporal opening expanded and became confluent w/ orbital opening; bar btw eye and temporal fenestra lost
large open side of skull- large muscle attachment

421

turtle fenestration

anapsid but debatable- may be diapsid and secondarily anapsid

422

what is the function of temporal fenestrae

lighten skull without weakening, provide margins for muscle attachment, space for muscles to bulge out

423

pattern of temporal bar evolution in diapsids, especially squamates

lower temporal bar is lost very early in history of diapsids, is re-aquired in tuatara and others to reduce stress

424

function of derived lower bar in tuatara

reduction of stress on skull

425

squamate

scaled reptiles, are the largest recent order of reptiles, comprising all lizards and snakes

426

change from anapsid-- diapsid

muscles from neurocranium to lower jaw (anapsid)-- fenestra opens in dermatocranium-- attachment of jaw muscles expands to edges of openings (therapsid)-- jaw muscles attach to surface of dermatocranium (diapsid, synapsid)

427

zygomatic arch

cheek bone, zygomatic process of temporal bone- a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear

428

loss of lower temporal bar

allowed more musculature jaw-- increases stresses on skull when animal bites-- opened possibility for streptostyly

429

fixed quadrate

more stress on skull with biting

430

cranial kinesis

metakinesis, mesokinesis, prokinesis
movement of skull roof relative to braincase

431

metakinesis

joint between brain case and back of skull is at back of skull

432

mesokinesis

joint is in middle of skull- near orbits

433

prokinesis

joint in front of the orbit where snout articulates

434

symphysis

fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones

435

evolution of snake gate

multiple joints all over skull, extremely mobile symphysis, not fixed like in humans, stretches

436

sphenodon skull

lower temporal bar, smaller jaw muscles and lower bite force than similar sized lizards, propalineal feeding, mastication (chew food more than other reptiles), handles food longer

437

croc. temporal bar

have bar, have strongest absolute bite of any living tetrapod; lizards the size of an alligator would have a much stronger bite (temporal bar lowers bite force)

438

propalineal feeding

close mouth- lower jaw in slightly posterior position-- jaw slides forward- slides back in forth with food between teeth- temporal bar stabilizes jaw

439

secondary palate

found in various amniotes
best known in mammals

440

palate evolution

primary palate (early tetrapod)-- growth across primary palate, shelf of bone (therapsid)-- passageway btw primary and secondary palate, moves internal naris farther back into mouth, separate passage for eating and breathing (mammal)

441

internal naris

choana- the paired openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx

442

succling mammal secondary palate

soft palate pressed against epiglottis- 2nd seal, allows swallowing milk and breathing (through nose)- disappears in adults because trachea drops

443

uvula

projection from posterior edge of middle of soft palate; almost completely unique to humans, unknown function and origin, involved in speech?

444

secondary palate bones

mammals- maxilla, premaxilla, palatine
crocs- those 3 + 1 more.. pterygoid?

445

why crocs have more elaborate secondary palate

flap closes off passageway for air, from water in mouth, so it can sit in the water for long periods of time ready to snap jaws shut

446

palate and stiffness

skull less resistant to bending if palate removed
maximum resistant with full palate

447

functions of muscular system

movement of body and parts, support, posture, protection of joints, internal transport, homeostatic adjustments, protein storage, metabolic heat production

448

muscular system internal transport

aids movements in blood vessels, digestive tract, reproductive tract

449

muscular system homeostatic adjustments

eyes- pupils constricting/dialating

450

muscular system heat production

shivering

451

blood flow musculature during before-during exercise

drastically change supply of blood to different body parts
kidneys: 24% - 1%
brain: 13% - 3%
skin: 9% - 2%
heart: 4.3% - 4.%
skeletal muscle: 21% - 88%

452

types of muscle tissue

smooth, skeletal, cardiac

453

smooth muscle tissue

not striated, spindle shaped, not branched, involuntary, capable of slow sustained contractions, ex. walls of blood vessels

454

skeletal muscle tissue

striated, cylindrical, not branched, largely voluntary

455

cardiac muscle tissue

striated, cylindrical, branched, involuntary, looks like skeletal, ex. heart, involuntary- don't control rate of heart beat, working all the time, branching propagates contractions

456

skeletal muscles

actin, myosin proteins- sarcomeres- make up muscle fibrils- make up muscle fibres-- make up strap muscle

457

contraction of skeletal muscle

sliding of actin chains on myosin chains
shortened sarcomere length = increased overlap btw myosin and actin = maximum contraction = resting length

458

maximum force of a muscle depends on

being close to resting length
more x-sectional area- more potential force
velocity- max force at lowest velocity

459

length-tension curve of sarcomere

force vs. sarcomere length
small sarcomere (hypercontracted)-- increasing up to max. force at resting length--- decreases to maximally extended sarcomere

460

speed of muscle contraction

-muscle configuration
-proportion of red and white fibre
-longer muscle can shorten more than shorter muscle

461

absolute muscle contraction

long muscle- more sarcomeres in series- can shorten more than a fibre with fewer sarcomeres in series

462

configuration of muscle fibres

parallel- strap, fusiform
pennate- angled (diff. angle than long axis)
bipennate- 2 different directions

463

pennate fibres

typically smaller, can fit into smaller places

464

muscle fibre cross section

anatomical, physiological
some dissipation of force if fibres aren't in long axis direction, still contribute a lot of force

465

anatomical cross-section

across long axis of muscle
area of a slice through the widest part of the muscle perpendicular to muscles length
similar in parallel and pennate muscle

466

physiological cross-section

different in pennate b/c fibres are not parallel to long axis
area of a slice that cuts across all fibres of the muscle
different for a parallel and pennate muscle

467

tendons

connect muscle to bone, collagenous, all over the place, fairly elastic, can extend length by ~16%, store elastic energy when stretched which can be used by recoil to move body forward

468

muscle opperation

by contraction not relaxation
2 opposite actions need to take place (antagonism)

469

foramen magnum

hole at back of skull where spinal cord enters and connects w/ brain

470

acetabulum

hip, concavity, provides part of ball and socket joint w/ femur, head of femur fits into acetabulum

471

arm antagonism

extension: tricep contracts, bicep relaxes
flexion: tricep relaxes, bicep contracts
biceps and triceps are antagonistic

472

flight muscle antagonism

pectoralis- wing goes down
supracoracoideus- raises wing

473

synergism

perform ~same function in slightly different ways + up to ore complex action together

474

olecranon process

elbow, funny bone, where triceps connect
size depends on importance of tricep (ex. digging animal)

475

different size of antagonistic muscles

gull- downstroke more important
hummingbird- upstroke more important- larger supracoracoideus

476

categories of muscle function

extensor (extend), flexor (flex), adductor/abductor, levator, depressor, rotator, sphincter

477

adductor vs. abductor

adductor- bring body part towards body
abductor- takes body part away from body

478

levator vs. depressor

levator- raises
depressor- lowers

479

rotator

pronation- involves placing palms into the face-down position
supination- turns the palms anteriorly or superiorly to the supine (face-up) position

480

sphincter vs. dilator

sphincter- ringlike muscles surrounding and able to contract or close a bodily passage or opening
dilator- muscles that widen a body part

481

muscle insertion

typically stable end of muscle, sometimes more proximal part of muscle (closer to body)

482

muscle splitting and fusion

make homologies uncertain

483

axial musculature typically divided into

myomeres, separated by myosepta

484

myomere shapes

amphioxus: v-shaped
lamprey: w-shaped
shark- bony fish- more complexly folded
higher complexity - contraction extends beyond segment, important in locomotion

485

hypaxial and epaxial musculature

hypaxial- lie ventral to horizontal septum of vertebrae
epaxial- lie dorsal to the septum

486

amphibian/lizard motion

use lateral movement of body to extend stride
hard to move with limbs splayed to side

487

tetrapod motion

stride dependent on motion of limbs, musculature more developed around appendices, locomotory apparatus is limbs

488

snake axial musculature

expatiate use for contractions

489

remodelling muscle

hypertrophy, hyperplasia

490

hypertrophy

increasing size of individual muscle fibres

491

hyperplasia

increase in number of fibres, due to splitting of fibres

492

unused muscles

atrophy

493

snake, lizard reproductive modes

oviparity- lay eggs
viviparity- birth to live young with placenta

494

modes of delivery of nutrients to young

placentotrophy- delivery via placenta
lecithotrophy- delivery of nutrients via yolk- most reptiles (even viviparous)

495

process of forming yolk

vittelogenesis

496

income and capital of vittelogenesis

income- nutrients acquired to make yolk
capital- using previously stored nutrients
snakes more often use capital, female snakes often exhibit anorexia, don't feed while carrying young- especially lose muscle (high protein store)

497

worlds smallest vertebrates

larval fish (<5mm)

498

larval fish characteristics

feed initially from yolk-sac
very poor swimmers
start with no vertebral column
stage of life history where recruitment is determined

499

larval fish mortality

>99.9% - starvation, predation, advective losses (poor swimmers, carried away by currents in unfavourable conditions)

500

interannual variations in fish population abundance

<1915- variations in migration patterns
now know- due to recruitment

501

recruitment

variability in abundance results from interannual variability in # of individuals that survive larval stage

502

fisheries oceanography

branch of biological oceanography that studies the relationship between physical environment and abundance of marine fish

503

interannual variability in abundance reflects interannual variability in recruitment, proposed by

Johann Hjort, 1914

504

marine fish eggs

millions of eggs/ year
clear, buoyant, ~1mm diameter
preyed upon by zooplankton, larval fish, large fish (cannabalism common)

505

hatch times

days-months
colder water = longer time to hatch

506

yolk- sac

nutrition to developing embryo
aids in buoyancy
nutrients are function of mothers health

507

larval stage

2 phases: yolk-sac phase, post yolk-sac phase
large eyes, visual predators
suction feeding

508

yolk-sac phase

rely on yolk-sac, days-weeks (dependent on T), no gills no obvious fins, no proper tail

509

post yolk-sac phase

after yolk used up- exogenous feeding (plankton)

510

larva eat

initially copepod nauplii-- switch to larger zooplankton

511

larval pray size depends on

foraging ability, gape (mouth width)

512

suction feeding

swim up to prey, open mouth quickly, creates vacuum, prey sucked into mouth

513

how far can larval fish see

about another body length away (~1cm)
prey are ~5cm apart, spend most of time foraging

514

reynolds number Re =

UL/v
U = swimming speed m/s
L = body length m
v = viscosity of seawater m^2/s - 10^-6 for 20º seawater

515

Re <100

viscous forces dominate, environment is totally viscous to animal, like human swimming through honey, larval fish in this range

516

Re > 200

intertial forces begin to dominate

517

typical reynolds numbers

sperm 0.01
copepod 4
larval fish 25
human 4x10^6
blue whale 3x10^8

518

reciprocal motion

fore-stroke and return are identical- useless in low Re conditions (must be non-reciprocating)

519

larval fish metamorphosis

transition from larval-juvenile
begins ~5-10mm
juveniles resemble miniature adults
mortality declines after metamorphosis

520

changes associated with metamorphosis

cutaneous (skin) breathing - gill breathing
develop paired pectoral fins, tail
develop adult-like pigment
eel-like swimming - beat and glide swimming
eye migration (flatfishes)
develop vertebrae- body rigidity for swimming

521

ELHS

early life history stages

522

ELHS atlantic cod

eggs 1mm
yolksac larva 3mm
late larval period 8mm
metamorphosed juvenile 10mm

523

c-start escape mechanism

larval fish, entire body curved like an eel or 'C' (no vertebral column)

524

as yolk-sac is absorbed and tail develops

swim speed increases
response time decreases
acceleration increases
time to max speed decreases
body curvature decreases

525

allometric growth in larval fish

head and tail grow relatively faster than rest of body- developing speed capabilities
after early development, change in growth rates

526

gills in fish

O2 uptake AFTER larval development (skin before)
ion exchange- Na+ uptake increases faster than O2 uptake

527

skin-gill transition

significantly earlier or Na+ uptake than O2 uptake
~16days vs. ~30?
ion exchange more important than respiration in larva?

528

why larval flatfish have eyes on both sides

living in 3D environment, need binocular vision (eggs are buoyant)

529

flatfish eye migration

can be as quick as 2 days, or 120
eyes kept in same plane as body turns
adaptation for 2D environment (ocean floor)

530

larval mortality graph

mortality %/day vs. length mm
- exponential
egg stage is highest percent and sharp slope
inflection point of graph is metamorphosis (~10mm)

531

metamorphosis distribution

tight distribution with size, not age- hydrodynamic constraints (Re number)
most undergo metamorphosis at 5-10mm

532

why metamorphosis is constrained by size

remodelling can't be done at low Re
reciprocal motion doesn't work at low Re
gill transition wouldn't work at low Re
can't have vertebral column in low Re (need flexibility)
fins no use in low Re (would move them back and forth)

533

fundamental units

mass, m, kg
length, l, meter
time, t, second
force, F, newton
work, W, joule
power, P, watt

534

F =

m x a

535

W =

F x l

536

P =

W / t

537

types of muscular contraction

isotonic- concentric, eccentric
isometric

538

isotonic contractions

muscle changes length as it contracts- results in movement

539

concentric muscular contraction

force of muscle is adequate for moving a load
ex. picking up a stick
muscle shortens as it contracts
muscle contraction - sarcomeres

540

eccentric muscular contraction

muscle lengthens as it is contraction
ex. big heavy load you can't pick up

541

isometric muscular contraction

muscle doesn't change length as it contracts, constant length from one end to other including tendon connecting it, important in posture and support
ex. pushing a boulder you can't move, pull open a door that won't open

542

muscular force vs. speed

trade-off, decreasing, can't maximize both at once, force is max at velocity = 0

543

force and power vs. shortening speed

force drops as velocity increases but power increases at intermediate velocity, can't maximize force and power at the same time

544

classification of muscle fibres

fast-twitch fibres
slow-twitch fibres
some intermediates

545

fast-twitch fibres

white/blue, Type II; generate high force, rapid fatigue, high glycogen, anaerobic (glycolytic) metabolism- build up lactic acid, moderate blood and oxygen supply, low myoglobin, fast actions

546

slow-twitch fibres

red, Type I; low force, lower power, fatigue-resistant, abundant mitochondria- aerobic (oxidative) metabolism, myoglobin- transport hemoglobin, rich in blood and oxygen, can contract in sustained fashion

547

muscle fibre composition

speed depends on fibre composition, individual muscle can have both types of fibres, actions depend on amount of each type

548

duck breast muscle fibres

dark meat- red fibres- sustained flying

549

chicken breast muscle fibres

white meat- white fibres- can't fly- fast twitch

550

force and power vs. velocity for slow and fast-twitch

slow-twitch- force has lower inflection point, power has lower max (~same as force infl. pt. in fast-twitch), max. velocity is ~1/2 that of fast-twitch
fast-twich have more power

551

contraction strength vs. time of muscles

eye: reaches max quick and dissipates quick- mostly fast-twitch
deep muscle of leg: reaches max slower and sustains it, declines much slower (mostly slow-twitch)
calf muscles: intermediate between the two

552

power performance and endurance

originally thought to not be a trade-off, after correcting for differences- found a negative correlation
can't be a specialist and a generalist at the same time

553

endurance, sprint speed, lizards

high endurance = low sprint speed
high spring speed in ground dwelling- escape behaviour when entering open habitats, not seen in all lizards because its a trade-off

554

%red muscle in ocean species

large variations, constant swimmers = high proportion; benthic living = low proportion

555

position of red muscle, fish

usually superficial, internalized in tuna

556

power vs. tail-beat frequency, fish swimming

red muscle much lower in graph, much less powerful- slow, medium locomotion; white muscle kicks in and provides the power and fast locomotion

557

tuna vs. billfish

tuna: internalized red muscle, body remains stiff, caudal peduncle and tail are point of flexion
billfish: superficial red muscle, most of body involved in propagation of propulsion

558

senescence

muscular atrophy occurring with age, even if used; gradual deterioration of function

559

sarcopenia

degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5–1% loss per year after the age of 50), quality, and strength associated with aging

560

whats going on with senescence

loss of fast-twitch fibres
shifting from fast-slow twitch phenotype with age, slowing of muscle contractile properties- reduces cost of locomotion in elderly

561

rattlesnake shaker muscles- rapid movement sustained for long periods of time

loaded with mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum- supply Ca for nervous action
very economical- lowest cost per twitch
intermediate type of muscle
generates heat (one of the costs?)

562

levers

class 1, 2, 3
fulcrum between in-force and load
in-force generated by muscular contraction
lever-bone
fulcrum- typically a joint
speed/force depend on distances

563

class 1

out down, fulcrum, in up
ex. pushing down on toe, ankle, heel moving up

564

class 2

fulcrum, out up, in up
ex. pivot toe, leg goes up up, lift heal up

565

class 3

fulcrum, in up, out up
ex. pivot heel, push on leg, toe goes down

566

in-lever

l_i, length

567

out-lever

l_o

568

in-force

F_i

569

out-force

F_o, load

570

when in-force balances load

F_i * I_i = F_o * I_o

571

in-force moves load

F_i * I_i > F_o * I_o

572

load moves lever against in-force

F_i * I_i < F_o * I_o

573

steady state (levers)

F_o = F_i (I_i / I_o)
to increase F_o---- increase F_i, or I_i / I_o

574

digger vs. runner arm leaver

runner: short I_i, ratio is fairly low, not very big mechanical advantage; mechanical advantage tells a lot about function

575

to increase velocity of out-lever

decrease I_i / I_o
V_o * I_i = V_i * I_o

576

gear ratio

GR = I_o / I_i

577

low GR

power

578

high GR

speed (and stride in limbs)

579

direction of force of muscle

depends on orientation
arm at right angle- force directed along length of arm
arm open more than 90º- force 'out' from 'elbow pit'

580

plantigrade

whole foot on ground- small metatarsals

581

digitigrade

walk on toes- med. metatarsals

582

unguligrade

walk on tips of toes- large metatarsals

583

orientation, speed of limb

effects gearing, speed

584

bear limb gears

high gear gluteal group- gluteus maximus, gluteus medius
low gear femoral group- adductor femoris
high AND low gear muscles used to extend femur
can rotate limb very rapidly with little power, rapid acting muscles, steady speeds
femoris- low gear for rapid acceleration

585

MA

mechanical advantage

586

Redeye Piranha

large adductor muscle, huge tendon, 3rd class lever, Li/Lo amplifies AM force transmission from jaw tip to posterior teeth- more powerful force at back of mouth

587

streptostyly in lizards, lever

2 different size in-levers and out-levers
upper articulation = longer in-lever = more forceful bite

588

cuticle

acellular outer mucus layer in fish, protective substance including toxins and antimicrobial compounds; limited keratinization

589

diversity of feeding types in fish

detritivores, planktivores, herbivores, carnivores, molluscivores, insectivores, piscivores, omnivores, parasites

590

evolution of feeding in fish

parasitize (jawless fish)-- suction, biting (since jaw evolution, in most fish)

591

new mechanisms with bony fish

premaxilla protrusion, pharyngeal jaws, mechanical diversity, muscle duplication

592

important mouth functions

food capture- feet, mouth, teeth, tongue
oral transport- food handling in mouth, ingestion, mastication, swallowing, teeth, tongue, cranial kinesis, salivary glands

593

salivary glands

sublingual gland, mandibular gland, parotid gland, orbital gland; lubricate foods and start digestion

594

mobility of upper jaw

has evolved twice, led to increased processing capabilities, can tackle larger prey because they can break it into pieces as they kill it

595

grass carp pharyngeal jaws

no teeth in jaws, long serrated teeth in pharyngeal jaw- pharyngeal teeth; interact with basioccipital pad to grind down material making it more digestible

596

moray eel pharyngeal jaws

are brought forward when it opens its mouth and becomes an important prey capture mechanism- unable to generate pressure differences for suction feeding, massive adductor muscles propel pharyngeal teeth

597

feeding in water

prey is generally same density as water- approaching it pushes it away- most open mouth and oral cavity wide to create negative pressure- suck in prey and water

598

box turtle feeding

capable of feeding on land and in water (most turtle only in water), hyoid apparatus depresses more in feeding in water than in land

599

ways to swallow food whole

suction feeding, raptorial pharyngeal jaws, pterygoid walk, inertial feeding

600

suction feeding

teleosts, aquatic amphibians, aquatic turtles

601

raptorial pharyngeal jaws

moray eels

602

pterygoid walk

most snakes, move jaws independently over prey and pull it in

603

inertial feeding

birds, lizards, like a pelican

604

mechanical digestion

breaking food down into pieces

605

chemical digestion

in stomach

606

evolution of mammal chewing

1. jaw joint, shapes of jaws changed so jaws be brought together to breakdown food unilaterally (one side of jaw at a time)
2. change in jaw joint and adductor muscles- transverse movements (teeth can be moved side to side against each other)
3.tribosphenic molars develop w/ complex surfaces, cusps that fit together dynamically during occlusion (can grind up food)

607

occlusion

manner in which the upper and lower teeth come together when the mouth is closed

608

tribosphenic chewing

unique to mammals, parallel to some dinos., puncture crushing- vertical bite first, then more side to side like horse/cow

609

increase lever arm of jaw muscles acting on jaw joint to increase chewing fores

moving muscle insertions further out on lower jaw
moving muscle insertions higher onto coronoid process
moving the position of the jaw joint to increase lever arm

610

arcilineal jaw movement

jaw closes, up and down, no fancy movement

611

propalineal movement

tuatara, jaws move against each other longitudinally

612

bird chewing

chew with guts not mouth, no teeth, beaks only for capture, can move both jaws, unique to raise upper jaw

613

gizzard

ventriculus- modified stomach, very muscular, horny sheet inside of it, keratinous sheet grinds up food

614

stomach stones in birds, to grind up food

gastroliths (typically rough rocks)

615

gizzard compensating for teeth loss

initially thought this, but these traits are seen together in some dinosaurs; probably aided reduction of head mass for flight

616

alimentary tract

tubular passage extending from the mouth to the anus, through which food is passed and digested

617

GI tract

gastrointestinal; esophagus, stomach, intestine; organ system responsible for consuming and digesting food, absorbing nutrients, expelling waste

618

sphincter GI tract

esophageal sphincter before stomach, gastric sphincter after stomach

619

gut regions

fore/mid/hind

620

cecum

beginning of large intestine; processing bacterial digestion of plant material, present in many verts.

621

parts of small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

622

parts of large intestine

cecum, colon, rectum, anus

623

changes in GI tract structure

straight- agnathan
spiral valve- chondrichthian
more and more complicated up to mammals
increasing surface area to improve digestion

624

the more plant material consumed

the longer the gut, difficulty with which plant material is digested
increasingly long and coiled intestines: carnivore- omnivore- hebivore

625

rumination

complex stomach with multiple chambers; regurgitate partially digested food from stomach (Cud), chew it again; Rumination- rechewing the cud, facilitates proper breakdown of cellulose rich plant matter

626

foregut

stomach, primary digestion, HCL

627

midgut

intestine, pancreas, liver; digestion, absorption, peptidases, amylases, etc.,

628

hindgut

hindgut chamber, rectum; absorption, defecation, fermentation

629

bird stomach(s)

proventriculus- secretes acids/enzymes
gizzard- mechanical breakdown

630

crop

dilation of esophagus that stores and softens food

631

gut lining

villi, which are lined with microvilli
enormously increase surface area

632

labile

to change

633

gut is labile

lots remodelling, increases in size with feeding, including increasing size of villi, increase seen in multiple organs (stomach, lungs, heart, pancreas, liver, kidneys, intestinal mucosa)

634

Hirschsprung's Disease

Megacolon; musculature in gut stops working, faces are not moved properly, removed surgically

635

adaptive constipation

typical in large bodied vipers; may not deficit in 400days, provide balance when animal strikes, rapid strikes lunge it forward, retain feces more than other species that don't lunge

636

atavism

resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type; 'one-off' developmental abnormalities, 'throwbacks'; evolutionary reversals; problems for phylogenetic analysis

637

snake atavism

occasionally find a snake with Diddy biddy hind limb buds

638

human atavism

some babies born with tails
human coronary circulation similar to reptiles

639

Dollo's law

biologist who argued that evolution can't run backwards, genes/developmental pathways released from selective pressure will become nonfunctional

640

best example of evolution in reverse

axolotl- paedomorphosis lost, metamorphosis regained

641

viviparity in squamates, atavism

viviparity has evolved multiple times, most transitions are o-v, but in some cases v-o; if oviparity is ancestral (as is thought) then this represents a requisition

642

spontaneous atavisms

rare atavistic anomalies in individual specimens

643

phylogenetic character reversals

expressed in all members of a give clade

644

taxic atavisms

phylogenetic character reversals- important for evolution, mechanism for generating morphological variation within clades

645

atavisms and convergent evolution

can easily be confused if trees are equally parsimonious

646

double decay BS

double decay branch support

647

crocodilian atavism vs. convergence

similar long skinny snout- long thought to be convergent
molecular data shows sister species- snout derived- atavistic; skull table, braincase, jaws, hyoid, osteoderms, ribs, vertebrae, forelimbs, pelvis- reversals to fossil/outgroup traits

648

the case of the midwife toad

proteus with eyes restored
induced color adaptations by rearing on coloured soil
nuptial pads developed by forced water mating

649

nuptial pads

seasonal hypertrophy in skin of male frogs in water living species, hormonally controlled, help male keep grip on female for mating in water

650

hypertrophy

increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells

651

hyperplasia

cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number

652

venom glands

modified salivary glands, venom kills prey, sometimes begins digestion

653

relative gizzard sizes

high fibre diet (hard to digest)- gizzard increases in size
low fibre- gizzard decreases in size
gizzard varies between and within species, gut readily remodelled

654

respiratory gas exchange

oxygen gain from fluid medium, CO2 dumped into fluid medium

655

ventilation

movement of medium (water/air) either due to current or muscular action on a part of the animal, especially in relation to the gas exchange surface

656

breathing

skeletoventrical movements that cause ventillation near the gas exchange surface

657

respiratory gas exchange organs

gills, lungs, skin

658

skin for gas exchange

majorly amphibians but to some degree in all animals, even a little bit in humans

659

plethodontid salamanders

loss of lungs
loss of larval stage
consequences in tongue projection

660

plethodont lung loss

synapomorphy, ancestral character, anti bouyancy mechanism, changes in breathing- lose need for hyoid apparatus (movements of mouth floor)

661

ancestral lung state

salamanders lived in fast flowing streams- high O2
not the case now, lung loss is not a function of O2

662

plethodont, loss of larval stage

direct development, in some species, no requirement of hyoid for suction feeding

663

plethodont tongue projection

ballistic tongue projection; hyoid apparatus projected out of mouth (tongue skeleton), retracted by muscles all the way back to hip; only possible b/c hyoid not needed for buccal pumping

664

O2 concentrations

fresh water 6.6 mL/L at 20ºC
Air 209 mL/L
increases with declining temperature and increasing turbulance

665

increasing skins respiratory exchange

loose, baggy skin, increased SA (hellbender salamander, lake Titicaca frog), capilli growth- highly vascularized gas exchange surface (male hairy frog)

666

larval salamander gas exchange organs

skin, lungs, gills

667

bony fish gas exchange organs

lungs very basal, secondarily lost in many groups, modified into swim bladders in many species- triple exaltation (breathing, buoyancy, sound?)

668

gills

main aquatic gas exchange surface, fish, amphibians
pharyngeal arch- gill arch- skeletal support for the gill

669

on each gill arch (gas exchange)

primary lamelli, covered in secondary lamelli- these are the actual gas exchange surface

670

counter current exchange system, gills

water flows across secondary lamella on gill arch, they pick up oxygen from water, and carry the oxygen to body tissues in the opposite direction of water flow

671

lamprey water flow

nonfeeding: through mouth-- pharynx-- gill arches-- out
feeding: in sides of gill arches and back out, doesn't enter body cavity, mouth, or pharynx

672

spiracle

opening in sharks where water enters and can be forces out gill slits

673

operculum

bony flap covering gills, can be closed

674

teleost fish respiratory (gills)

take in water in buccal cavity with operculum closed-- expand opercular cavity, pressure drops (same as feeding)-- force water through opercular cavity-- opercular valve open-- water out

675

salamander gill

remain external, well developed

676

frog spiracle

dictates direction of water flow through gills (tadpole), types 1,2,3,4

677

variation in gill sizes

large gills- still ponds
small gills- fast flowing mountain stream
bigger fin on tail- pond
larger gas exchange surfaces

678

lungs

major gas exchange surface in air
gills have too many fine surfaces, would not be efficient in air

679

evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods

1.aquatic buccal pump- operated by hyoid apparatus
3.two-stroke buccal pump- 2 movements of mouth for each breath, sole dependence on buccal pump
4.exhalaion powered by hypaxial musculature
5.costal aspiration (loss of buccal pump, fully associated with musculature)

680

aspiration

bringing in air via musculoskeletal system- sucking in air

681

2-stroke buccal pump

drops floor of mouth to open mouth cavity (using buccal pump)-- then glottic opens-- air is forced out past air that has just been taken in-- floor of mouth raised-- air forced past lungs

682

frog/amphibian lung breathing

breathe through nose-- glottis closed-- open nostril-- lower floor of mouth-- negative pressure-- air enters oral cavity-- open epiglottis-- force air out nostril (exhale) by elastic recoiling of lung-- close nostril-- raise floor of mouth (second stroke)-- force air into lung- set up elastic recoil

683

epiglottis

a thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx

684

glottis

opening between the vocal cords at the upper part of the larynx

685

in between breathes, frogs

raise and lower floor- get rid of stale air in mouth

686

frog courtship noises

with nostrils closed- force air into vocal sacs rapidly- accoustic radiator- shift air back and forth between lungs and vocal sacs very rapidly

687

sprawling posture and breathing

body musculature needed for locomotion, breathing?
volume moved out of lungs decreases rapidly with speed, can't run fast for long- can't breathe- trade-off

688

minute ventilation

total air inhaled and exhaled in a minute

689

axial constraint

breathe and move with same musculature

690

gular pump

accessory breathing apparatus- independent of body musculature so they can move air into lungs while running

691

oropharyngeal pump used for lung inflation in air-breathing fishes and amphibians

buccal pump

692

pharyngeal pump used as accessory lung inflation mechanism in lizards and tuataras

gular pump

693

non-ventilatory expansion/compression of buccal cavity, preformed with mouth closed and usually serving as olfactory function

buccal oscillation

694

non-ventialtory expansion/compression of buccal cavity, with mouth open, serving as thermoregulatory function

gular flutter (related to panting)

695

Ichthyostega

had a rib cage, perhaps breathing close to amniotes

696

elastic recoil

exhalation

697

recoil aspiration

lung wall musculature contracts-- pressure drops-- lungs deflate, air pushed out-- integument drawn inward to compensate for volume change--- deformation stores elastic energy - negative pressure

698

tetrapod respiratory system

tidal or unidirectional
dead space
vocalizations

699

tidal respiration

bidirectional, humans

700

unidirectional

birds, more efficient O2 extraction

701

dead space

volume of air inhaled that does not take part in gas exchange, because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, (2) reaches alveoli not perfused

702

perfused

supply (an organ, tissue, or body) with a fluid, typically blood, by circulating it through blood vessels

703

benefits of dead space

CO2 retained, make buffered blood; Inspired air brought to T_b, increasing affinity of hemoglobin for O2, improving uptake; Particulate matter trapped on mucus, allowing removal; Inspired air is humidified, improving quality of airway mucus

704

vocalization

vocal chords- in larynx, vibrate when air rushes past
syrinx- vocal organ of birds; at the base of trachea, produces sounds w/o vocal cords, sound is produced by membrane vibrations when air flows through

705

types of lung

faveolar lung
alveolar lung

706

faveloar lung

septate, reptiles, modified in birds, less compartmentalized, no alveoli, pockets open from central chamber

707

alveolar lung

mammals, lots of alveoli pickets

708

compliance

ability for the lung to be inflated

709

parenchyma

gas exchange tissue

710

structural type vs. praenchyma

uni-cameral, multi-cameral, highly specialized vs. homogeneous, heterogeneous

711

highly specialized, homogeneous

large surface area, low compliance, mammal

712

highly specialized, heterogeneous

large surface area, high compliance, dinosaurs, birds

713

uni-cameral, homo-heterogeneous

amphibians, reptiles, large surface area, low compliance unless body elongated

714

amphibian lungs

single chambered, only complement gills and skin

715

amniote lungs

multichambered shared by all amniotes, principle gas exchange site, key to conquering land

716

Archosaurs

crocodiles, birds

717

Lepidosaurs

lizard, snakes, tuatara

718

lepidosaur lungs

couldn't maintain multi chambered heart due to miniaturization, multichamberedness is still ontogenetically visible

719

axial bending, lizard

bending axis btw right/left lobes of lungs- bending to one side- one lobe reduces in volume, the other expands, air may be pumped back and forth btw, but little is moved in and out of the animal

720

axial bending, dog

bending axis is dorsal to thoracic cavity, sagittal ending changes thoracic volume- actively pumps air in and out of lungs for each locator cycle

721

sagittal plane

vertical plane which passes from anterior to posterior, dividing the body into right and left halves

722

7 important, independent, character developments in breathing

diaphragmatic muscles
large transverse process
bipedal locomotion
upright posture
bounding
lateral stability of vertebral column
endothermy

723

large transverse process

trunk vertebrae providing attachment sites fro axial muscles, independent of ribs; functional separation btw breathing and locomotion; characteristically large in Archosaurs

724

costal aspiration, reptiles

inhalation- ribs move forward and out, thorax expands, air sucked in
exhalation- ribs move backward and in, thorax compresses

725

craniolateral movement of ribs

forward and out

726

turtle breathing

use muscles
inhalation: abdominal oblique, serratus
exhalation: transverse abdominus, pectoralis

727

alligator breathing

craniolateral movement of ribs, have diaphragm, post hepatic septum behind liver, transversals

728

posthepatic septum

when pulled back, helps with breathing- 'hepatic piston', 'pelvic aspiration', muscles attached to pelvis

729

transversals

move liver forward- capable of breathing and walking and galloping

730

bird respiratory

highly modified reptilian lungs, air sacs do not exchange gases, unidirectional lungs, extract 30-35% of O2 from air, adaptation for flight, sternum moves down for inspiration; abdominal/thoracic cavities not divided (no diaphragm)

731

evolution of bird respiratory system

thought to be unique, findings of unidirectional flow in iguana- new understandings

732

mammals respiratory system

simple system, craniolateral movement, diaphragm, elastic recoil

733

mammal respiratory passage

mouth/nares-- buccal cavity/nasal cavity-- trachea-- bronchi-- bronchiole-- alveoli-- diaphragm

734

circulatory system involves

blood
closed circulatory system (vertebrates)
muscular heart
arteries, veins, capillary beds
portal veins

735

veins/arteries

veins- to lungs
arteries- from lungs

736

portal vein

one organ to another

737

simplified circulation pathway

aorta-- arteries-- arterioles-- capillaries-- venules-- veins-- vena cava

738

heart evolution

single ventricle, single aortic opening (amphibian)-- single ventricle, two aortic openings (reptile)-- fully divided heart (croc)

739

amphibian heart

oxy and deoxy blood mix in ventricle

740

basic heart structures

left: superioir vena cava, sinoatrial node, right atrium, inferior vena cava, tricuspid valave, right ventricle
right: left atrium, left pulmonary veins, bicuspid valve, left ventricle
middle: atrioventricular node, ventricular septum

741

single circulation

1V, 1A, gills, tissues, back to heart; fish, O2 picked up from gills, carried to tissue, heart doesn't receive very oxygenated blood- possible evolutionary development of lungs

742

double circulation in

archosaurs, mammals, lungfish, amphibians

743

double circulation, single ventricle, atrium

heart-- gills-- air breathing organ AND tissues-- back to heart from both; partly oxygenated blood coming in to lung- helps oxygenate heart; not completely oxygenated blood delivered to tissues

744

double and partially divided circulation, lungfish

intermediate stage; 2A, 1V-- gills AND air breathing organ-- from gills-- tissues-- back to heart; tissues receive more oxygen than non divided system

745

double and partially divided circulation, amphibians, reptiles

1V, 2A in middle- out right side to skin (then tissues) AND tissues-- then back to heart; out left side to lung and back to heart; fully oxygenated blood going to tissues and heart

746

double completely divided circulation, mammals, archosaurs

2V, 2A: out RV-- lung-- RA-- LV-- tissues-- RA

747

croc divided circulation

foramen of panizza- carries blood from LV (oxygenated) to RV to supply heart with oxygen

748

pulmonary

of, relating to, affecting, or occurring in the lungs; carried on by the lungs

749

systemic

part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart

750

coronary

pertaining to the arteries that supply the heart tissues and originate in the root of the aorta

751

aorta

the main trunk of the arterial system, conveying blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the body except the lungs

752

vena cava

superioir-carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium
inferioir- carries deoxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart

753

coronary support

Lamnidae: moderate- partially endothermic
Osteichthyes, Tetrapods: slight, mostly spongey
Croc, bird, mammals: extensive, no spongey (compact myocardia)

754

5 chamber heart

non-croc reptiles- ventricle 'partially divided', some division of blood but potential for mixing; blood flow can be shunted past lung to avoid build up of CO2 in lungs (diving); R-L and L-R shunts

755

shunt

hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another

756

croc shunt

from right atrium to foramen of panizza (R-L shunt)

757

euthermy

true endothermy, birds and mammals (Eutherms)

758

ectotherm

mainly derive body heat from external sources- radiation, conduction from the ground

759

endotherm

mainly derive heat metabolically, also from external environment

760

poikilothermy

T_b is variable (typically ectotherms)

761

homeothermy

single/stable T_b (typically endotherms)

762

temporal heterothermy

not perfectly constant homeothermy, seen in endotherms

763

variation in thermal physiology of vertebrates

large variation, endo/ecto and poiko/homeo grid shows organisms in all quadrants; though only mole rats are poikilo endotherms

764

animals in a room with homogenous T that is gradually increased

mammal- defend T_b against a gradient, maintains Tb independent of environment
snake- basically matches room T
note- real world is not thermally homogenous

765

real world temperature variations

snake can take advantage of microhabitats to maintain a relatively stable Tb ex. shade on a hot day, on a cold day, must be a thermoconformer

766

ectotherms capable of

rapid excursion of Tb- maintain ~30º, plunge into water- drop to ~10º Tb; can't maintain optimal T during feeding

767

ectotherm performance curve

relative performance vs. Tb; performance increases with Tb up to a point; performance curves reach optimum around same point for all functions; Tb is tightly spread around optimum T

768

temperature ranges tolerable

ectotherms: -10 - 50º
active endotherm: ~30-45º

769

land vs aquatic ectotherms

land: ~-10 - 40º
aquatic: 5-45º

770

thermal conductivity, 25ºC

water: 0.58 W/m K
air: 0.024 W/m K
soil w/ organics: 0.15-2
water is 3333X air, harder for aquatic animals to reach high Tb, less steep T gradients in water- homogenized

771

BMR

basal metabolic rate
minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by warm-blooded animals at rest

772

metabolic rates and turpor

resting (turpor)- large drop in MR, lower Tb
resting MR < active MR, common in small birds/mammals

773

daily temporal heterothermy

dunnart (marsupial) drops MR below BMR and Tb decreases overnight

774

seasonal temporal heterothermy

ground squirrel; series of torpor events interrupted by arousal events- raise Tb to normal levels

775

regional heterothermy

bearded dragon lizard, under thermal stress exhibits panting behaviour to cool down (evaporation from moist inner mouth)

776

oral vs. cloacal T in snakes

concealed: same T
exposed: head ~10º warmer- preferentially heat head first
differential body part heating

777

california ground squirrel

found to have dramatic difference in T in different body parts- can elevate T of tail by allowing more blood to tail- only in response to rattlesnakes (b/c rattlesnakes have heat sensing organs)- may intimidate the snakes

778

emperor penguin regional heterothermy

decrease temperature of wings via wing vein, and feet, to conserve core Tb during diving

779

metabolic rate vs. body size

vastly different in endotherm and ectotherm
ectotherms much much lower and nearly flat line with body body mass changes
endotherms- higher metabolism for smaller animals
metabolism is CAL/GH

780

resting metabolic rate

SMR in ectotherms
BMR in endotherms
measured in thermoneutral zone (balancing gains and losses)

781

MAMR

maximum aerobic metabolic rate- higher metabolic rates when active

782

core temperature, heat production vs. air temperature, ectotherm

ectotherm- Tb increases with increases air T
heat production is minimal, increases w/ increasing T
core T is a passive function of air T

783

core temperature, heat production vs. air temperature, endotherm

at ~38ºC heat production is 3-4X larger than endotherm
decreasing air T = increasing heat production
internal T is largely independent of air T

784

vertebrate ectotherms

fishes, amphibians, reptiles; environment heat source, usually variable Tb, behavioural thermoreg, narrow range of ambient conditions allowing thermoreg, lower energy needs- prolonged exposure to no food, O2, larger ability to take advantage of dormancy, small sizes, long slender shapes

785

vertebrate endotherms

dinosaurs(?), birds, mammals, some fishes
metabolic heat source, relatively constant Tb, mainly physiological thermoreg, wide range of ambient conditions allowing thermoreg, can live in cold places, activity in cold, enhanced aerobic scope for activity

786

endothermic ectotherms

leatherback: largest turtle in world, globular shape, big and round, thermal inertia, can go up to Arctic circle, maintains T 8-10º, muscular activity (swimming) generate heat which is maintained, also reduce circulations to flippers

787

thermal inertia

maintain heat because of large size and low SA:V

788

regional endothermy

green turtle- active tissues ~7º warmer than water T, heat retained due to large body size and insulation of shell, increases swimming ability, facilitate long distance migration

789

brooding python

maintain constant T against T gradient- jacks up metabolic T by shivering, musculature activity (only during brooding)- endothermic characteristic

790

tunas generate heat

via red muscle; retain via counter current heat exchangers in brain, viscera, muscles

791

bullfish/butterfly mackerel

thermogenic organ (modified extra ocular muscle fibres, different muscles, convergence)

792

lamnid sharks

heat generated by slow-twitch myotomal muscle- transferred to cranial area via unique veins; contraction of extra ocular muscle also generates heat

793

extraocular muscle

six muscles that control movement of the eye. and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation

794

niche expansion hypothesis

heating of part of body- especially brain facilitates expansion in cold waters- deep diving

795

body temperature vs. environment

or Tb1 vs. Tb2 (different body parts)
if slope ≠ 1 some type of thermoregulation is occurring

796

lamnid shark and tuna convergence

hydrodynamic body form, thunniform locomotion, negatively buoyant, dive to cold depths, swim constantly with partly open mouth, similar red muscle distribution, similar tendon arrangement, endothermy (26º core), counter-current heat exchange systems; all this and not closely related

797

thunniform swimming

confined primarily to the caudal fin, often fin is crescent-shaped (lunate) like a small wing and connected to the body by only a thin section called the caudal peduncle

798

counter current exchange systems

retain generated heat

799

body temp vs. air temp graph

different isotherms for different populations, body adjusted to different mean temperature; homeothermic only up to certain point (30ºC in shrikes) then heterothermic

800

frequency and duration of turpor are a function of

feeding rate, consistant w/ idea that torpor is a body saving mechanism; negative correlation- lower frequency of torpor with high feeding rate, maintain higher Tb when well fed

801

chick Tb

heterothermic when born; behaviour initiated by certain minimum T's: biting, crawling 5-10º, shivering ~15º, wing flapping ~20º, flight ~30º

802

endothermic performance curve

%Performance vs. Tb; can only show a narrow range of temperatures (endotherms don't have large range of Tb)
ex. chick burst running speed- increasing, but only have data points for 30-45º

803

muscle performance curve (endotherms)

muscles have larger range of T (T_m), max performance is at the highest T, peak T, peak performance- looks more like a 'traditional' performance curve; can even plot muscle performance of endo/ectotherms together on one

804

why be adapted to narrow range of T?

specialists- higher peak performance than a way wider performance curve seen in a generalist
2 enzymes (1 high T acclimated, the other cold) expensive to maintain both at once, typically don't find both forms in one animal at one time

805

why be adapted to higher temperature range?

muscle movements create heat, body must be able to deal with high temperatures

806

energy requirement vs. ambient temperature

two decreasing slopes, lower one - low conductance, higher one = high conductance; both converge at same T = Tb; a specific energy requirement will cross low conductance line at lower T than the high conductance line; balance heat loss?

807

factors affecting conductance of a body

nature of surrounding fluid
size
shape
nature of body surface

808

nature of surrounding fluid (conductance)

water conductance > air
tougher to be an endotherm in water

809

size affects on conductance

SA:V
bigger animals lose heat less slowly

810

effects of shape on conductance

SA:V
rounder animals maintain heat better

811

nature of body surface, conductance

mammals- air, feathers, trap air btw body and surface of coat, which is a good insulator

812

insulating value of fur

insulating values shift with season, especially in larger mammals; having fur is not adequate to initiate endothermy- important but need the other equipment too (internal)

813

insulation value vs. fur thickness

positive correlation
low end- squirrels
high end- wolf, polar bear

814

changing conductance

if ambient temperature drops- switch from high to low conductance to conserve energy; can be done by changing erection of hairs (in fur)

815

generating metabolic heat

muscular contraction- physical activity, shivering
non-shivering thermogenesis
metabolism of viscera

816

non-shivering thermogenesis

using brown-adipose tissue, particularly well developed in young mammals

817

metabolism of viscera

metabolism of internal organs; 70% of heat production in mammals at rest is generated by internal organs; large internal organs in mammals

818

thermalneutral zone

zone of ambient T's an animal can maintain Tb with minimal energy, complicated by conductance, BMR, and critical T's; T_lc - T_uc

819

critical temperatures

T_lc lower critical- 4 possible locations: High/low BMR and high/low conductance- tightest interval is low BMR and high conductance, then high BMR high conduct., low BMR low conduct., high BMR low conduct.
high BMR, low conduct., gives widest interval on Tb but costs more E

820

T_lc increased by

higher Tb
higher conductance
lower BMR

821

TMR

torpid metabolic rate

822

energy expenditure vs. ambient temperature with torpor conductance

shows that even in turpor thermal neutral zone is defended

823

endotherm RMR, MMAR

higher resting metabolic rate- 5-10X ectotherms
higher maximum metabolic aerobic respiration
sustained activity is vastly higher, sprinting speed similar

824

endotherms compared to ectotherms

higher aerobic scope and endurance- more red fibres in skeletal muscle; more effective oxygen delivery; turbinate bones; erect posture, parasagittal gait; increased mitochondrial SA, leakier plasma membrane

825

endotherm oxygen delivery system

more vascularized lung, higher ventilation rate, 4-chambered heart; birds and mammals arrived at this independently (convergence)

826

endotherm mitochondria and plasma membrane

larger SA in mitochon.- higher aerobic metabolism
plasma membrane leakier to Na, K, increased action potential, muscles, osmolarity-- higher activity level

827

turbinate bones

thin, wafer like structures, covered in moist vascularized mucosa; cool air in-- past mucosa-- moisture lost to mucosa-- breath out-- air is warmer than trniate-- water is given back to mucosa-- helps retain water that would otherwise be lost to environment

828

turnout bone problems

problems in dry environments (deserts)- potential for loss of water with each breath out

829

euthermy evolution

can't tell turbinates, not preserved
bone histology can't read much into- large ranges in endo and ectotherms

830

strong coronary circulation

heart well vascularized, more powerful, generate higher blood pressures, can deliver blood to distal body parts when animal is in upright position

831

most important character in endothermy

it is not just one character it is a whole suite of characters

832

advantages of mammalian euthermy

high BMR, Tb higher than Tambient, constant core Tb, high MAMR (and aerobic scope)

833

which advantages were the most likely targets for selection

constant core Tb, high MAMR

834

aerobic scope

The ratio of the maximal aerobic metabolic rate to the basal metabolic rate, typically in the range of 3–10; range of possible oxidative metabolism from rest to maximal exercise

835

hypotheses for evolution of endothermy

niche expansion
maintenance of high brain T

836

scenarios for evolution of mammalian euthermy

thermoregulation first then aerobic capacity
Aerobic capacity first

837

hypotheses for thermoregulation first

physiological, ecological, brain size, growth of young

838

hypotheses for aerobic capacity first

sustained activity, juvenile provision

839

most likely scenario for endothermy

correlated progression, came about by small steps; reptilians became progressively mor mammalian, gradually accumulate synapomorphies; parallel changes in different lineages (even the ones that don't lead to mammals); integrate changes, a few at a time

840

stick or grip? co-evolution of adhesive topes and claw in Anolis Lizards

Crandell et al., 2014; claw characters significantly different btw arboreal and non-arboreal lizards; arboreal higher and longer, decreased curvature, wider claw tip angles; toped size and claw length/height tightly correlated

841

toepad

allows animal to move across smooth substrates with little difficulty (leaves, smooth bark); microscopic hair-like structures on ventral pad (setae); key innovation in anoles- niche expansion, radiation, diversification

842

clawed vs. non-clawed animals

clawed can occupy larger portion of habitat

843

claws interact with surface irregularities by

interlocking, friction
interlocking: surface irreg. > claw tip diameter
mechanical interlocking stronger, advantagous to decrease size of tip

844

claw curvature

highest- climbers
med- perching
lowest- ground dwelling

845

Nostril position in dinosaurs and other vertebrates and its significance for nasal function

Witmer, 2001; have enromous, complicated bony nasal apertures; fleshy nostril now thought to be rostral (forward); consequences for nasal air streaming, physiological parameters, circumolar odorants

846

nasal structure roles

olfaction, respiration, manipulation, behavioural display, thermal physiology

847

bony nostril

osseous nasal aperture

848

studies fleshy nostril using what approach

extant phylogenetic bracket

849

biological implications

tradition caudal position would be out of main airstream- important in convective heat loss, facilitated evaporative cooling, intermittent countercurrent heart exchange, heat and water balance, selective brain temperature regulation

850

true navigation in birds: from quantum physics to global migration

Holland, 2013; birds able to return to known goal from a place they've never been; presents conflicting findings

851

Type III navigational challenge

birds able to return to a goal after being displaced (even artificially) to an unknown area

852

true navigation

ability of an animal to return to original location after diplacement to a site in unfamiliar territory, without access to familiar landmarks, goal emanating cues, or info about the displacement route

853

migratory true navigation

ability of an animal to navigate to a specific breeding or wintering area following displacement

854

map and compass hypothesis

1. determine position with respect to the goal 2. determine direction to a goal; only conducted in adult birds (experience)

855

celestial cues

using sun, star positions; studies find consitancy with sun compass but not sun navigation

856

olfactory navigation

olfactory deprivation disrupts return home; may associate odours with wind directions; lack of repeatability; without odours may use other cues

857

anosmia

inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction

858

magnetic cues

magnetic field stronger at poles- potential to indicate latitudinal position, coarse scale; skepticism- no sense organ- earths magnetic field can prevade all tissue

859

radical pair mechanism

electron spin states affected by strong magnetic fields- radical pair molecule- photoreceptive- perceived through the eyes- may involve ZENK gene, cluster-N, night vision

860

magnetoreceptor

cryptochrome- blue light receptor, long-lived radical pairs

861

ferrimagnetic sense

multi doman magnetite- no magnetization, single domain- permanent magnetic moment, super paramagnetic- fluctuating magnetic moment; bacteria contain single domain, magnetite widely present in organisms; also only found in adults; magnetic field detected by trigeminal nerve

862

Brave new propagules: terrestrial embryos in anamniotic eggs

Martin and Carter, 2013; lots of fish and amphibians reproduce terrestrially despite absence of amniotic egg; eggs- smaller, simple chorionic membrane; disadvantage- desiccation, novel predators; arisen independently in different lineages

863

anamniotic egg

much smaller, more dependent on environmental conditions, simple chorion membrane

864

advantages of terrestrial incubation

higher T, higher O2, diffusion of O2 more rapid in air- avoid hypoxia, avoid aquatic predators

865

dehydrated eggs

deformed, death, hatch early

866

protection against dehydration, anamniotes

less aquaporin channels, amyloid fibres in the egg envelope, shape, shaded under a boulder, in a burrow, buried in damp sand

867

parental care, anamniotes

choice of oviposition site, guarding eggs, slashing them, exchange oxygen, transport tadpoles to water

868

ECH

environmental cued hatching

869

ECHs

decreased O2 levels, mechanical agitation of seawater, disturbance by snakes or wasps, presence of disease

870

influence on size of egg

yolk, offspring size, time to hatching, maternal size, habitat quality, O2 availability, duration of spawning, geographic location, parental care

871

endotrophy

ability to metamorphose without feeding, requires a minimum egg size

872

larger egg sizes provide opportunity for

developmental plasticity

873

types of terrestrial incubation

Type 1: conservative constitutive, Type 2: ECH early alert, 3: cautious constitutive, 4: ECH by parental involvement, 5: ECH ready and waiting, ECH ready and progressing, 7: precocious or direct development, 8: true diapauses

874

diapause

delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions, physiological state of dormancy with very specific initiating and inhibiting conditions

875

propagule

any structure capable of being propagated or acting as an agent of reproduction

876

Developmental change in the function of movement systems: transition of the pectoral fins between respiratory and locomotor roles in zebrafish

Hale, 2014; changes in roles of morphology between stages of life history; larvae zebrafish use pectoral fins to exchange fluid near body for cutaneous respiration; musculature and positioning of fin change

877

developmental changes mediated by

adding cells, tissues, structures, change in body size, physics of movement, behaviour, scaling of body elements (allometry), motor control, ecological factors

878

fin shape

high aspect ratio (wing shape)- improved cruising performance; low aspect ratio (rounded)- high-acceleration starts and maneuvers, improved hovering stability

879

larval zebrafish

hatch 48-72hr post-fertilization, 3.1-3.5mm, yolk-stage -several days, pectoral fin bud forms ~24hr post-fertilization, 48h- fin elongate w/ skeleton

880

chaotic mixing under viscous conditions

larvae use pectoral finds pull fluid distant from the body towards the trunk and move fluid in the boundary layer away from the side of the body to increase O2

881

mutations in vhl gene

perceive environment as hypoxic