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Flashcards in Aquatic Ecology final Deck (324):
1

Aquaculture impacts

escapement
waste discharge
fish health
water quality
coastal activities
global feedfish populations
marine foodwebs

2

Captured/farmed fishery products flow chart

aquatic production (PP)-- capture fisheries (discarded bycatch, human consumption)- fish meal - aquaculture (livestock) -human consumption (terrestrial agriculture)

3

Captured/farmed fishery products flow chart, negative feedbacks

- feedbacks on PP
capture fisheries, fish meal, aquaculture

4

Captured/farmed fishery products flow chart, aquaculture negative feedback

waste, habitat modification, pollution, impacts on population/food web dynamics, escaping feral species

5

PP proportion division from capture fisheries

approximately:
1/4 bycatch (waste)
1/4 fish meal
1/2 human consumption (straight)

6

PP proportion division from fish meal

1/6 Aquaculture
2/6 (1/3) livestock
3/6 (1/2) human consumption

7

changes in total capture

increased substantially

8

human consumption from aquaculture & capture fisheries, 1997

~95 million metric tonnes (worldwide)

9

environment issues from aquaculture

discharge degrades water quality
alter/degrade natural habitat
pressure from multi-uses on water system

10

Biological issues with aquaculture

over-exploitation of organisms - food web consequences
chemical use (health concern)
introduction/transmission diseases, parasites, aliens
contamination

11

production quantity and value vs. year

exponential increase
huge increase since 1980's
2004 quantity: ~60million tonnes
2004 value: $70 billion US

12

aquaculture production, china/asia/rest of world

China by far the hugest proportion and largest increase (50million tonne increase in 30yr), Asia ~20million tonne increase in 30 yrs, rest of world increased less than 10million tonne (an IS less than 10)

13

world population 1950-2002

2.56billion – 6.23billion
(now ~7billion)

14

consumption per capita, 1950-2002

~doubled since 1950 (10-22kg per person/per year)

15

changes in marine fish catch, 1950-2002

~20million tonnes – 80/90million tonnes

16

Utilization of fish, 2000's

40% fresh
30% non-food (feed)
18% frozen
7% cured
8% canned

17

Changes in utilization of fish since 1960's

increase in fresh fish- better transportation, maintenance
increase in frozen fish

18

Canada's Atlantic cod

1980-1990 catch was ~500,000 tonnes, 1995 drops off to nothing, overexploited to population collapse, still can not recover b/c niche space taken over

19

human fish consumption as a percent of total animal protein

worldwide 16%
N America 6.6%
Africa 21%
Far East 28% (Asia, healthier, cheaper, less fresh water needed)

20

World farm salmon production, 1980-2003

BC, Norway, Chile, UK all increase in production
Norway MAJOR increase

21

Changes in world farm salmon production, 1996-2002

Chile +235%
Norway +71% (but highest total value)
Scotland +89%
BC +96% (but lowest total value)

22

Changes in wild salmon, US + Canada, 1988-2002

chinook, chum, coho, sockeye- all decrease in production roughly 30%, decrease in at-vessel price/lb ~70%
pink production +11%

23

Changes in farmed Atlantic Salmon, US + Canada, 1988-2002

production: +895,000%
price: -61%

24

mariculture

cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean

25

aquaculture by environment (2004)

Brackish 6%
Freshwater 43%
mariculture 51%

26

what is grown in aquaculture

very diverse: crustaceans (shrimp, crab), finishes (carps, tilapia), filter feeders (mussels, oysters, scallops..), aquatic plants, carnivorous fish (salmon, bass, bream)

27

World aquaculture production by volume, by country/continent, 2004 (the main players)

China 70%
Rest of Asia 22%
Other 9%
w/i Other: W Europe 3.5%, Latin America 2%, NA 1.27%

28

World aquaculture production by value, by country/continent, 2004 (the main players)

China 51%
Rest of Asia 29%
Other 20%
w/i other: WE 8%, LA 7.5%, NA 1.86%

29

fastest growing food producing industry

aquaculture

30

problem of rapidly increasing aquaculture

demand for feed ingredients increasing rapidly, supply limited

31

feed used in BC, 2000

65 million kg
to produce 49million kg farmed fish

32

what happens to feed

20% deposited as feces
unused feed deposited as solid
excretory release of dissolved material

33

chemical components of aquaculture feed

45-65% is Carbon
6-10% is N, 1-2% is P
total system loading unknown

34

whats so important about increased N, P

two most important nutrients responsible fro eutrophication

35

Estimated loading to BCs coastal water from aquaculture

7.1 million kg of C
1.3 million kg of N
236,000kg P
all per year
may not be significant for entire system, but definitely important in enclosed bays

36

how salmon are unlike other 'farm' animals

carnivorous, feed is 45% fishmeal, 25% fish oil

37

cost of producing farm fish

2.8kg wild fish = 1kg farm fish
area required to produce the feed = 40-50,000X production area

38

Amount of PP being used for aquaculture

European industry - ~90% of North Seas's PP
BC - 7.8million ha of ocean (278X area of all terrestrial BC horticulture)

39

what's underneath a fish farm???

black sediment - highly organic material, reductive, lacking oxygen

40

taxa richness vs [sulfide] (µM)

negative linear
appears well correlated, but also a pretty wide spread in the data

41

whats happening with the sulfide

increased Cord -- increased sulfide accumulation-- kill benthic inverts.

42

rockfish near farms

found to have higher Hg content closer to fish farms

43

why rockfish?

not very migratory, good proxy for local condition

44

why higher Hg near fish farms?

oxygen reduction due to C loading = anoxic sediment-- Hg methylated and converted to usable form (methyl mercury)-- accumulates in tissues-- produces neurological effects

45

levels of contaminants in farm produced, store bought, wild salmon

farmed & most of store bought ~ equal in all of the contaminants/carcinogens tested (PCB, dioxin, toxaphene, dieldrin), wild lower
some store bought appears to be wild but more is farmed

46

fish utilization and supply (excluding China), trend

1950-2002
population linear increasing
food supply non changing

47

changes in fishmeal use, 1988-2002

1988: Poultry 59%, aquaculture 10%, pigs 20%
2002: poultry 22%, aquaculture 46%, pigs 25%

48

what are poultry being fed now

bluegreen algae (more deeply coloured yolk, carotenoids)

49

fish oil use

1990: edible 76%, aquaculture 16%, industrial 8%
2002: edible 14%, aquaculture 81%, industrial 5%

50

Other sources of fish feed

by-catch
fish processing by-products
plant products
livestock by-products

51

Canada salmon feed

lowest fishmeal and oil inclusion rate

52

SA fish feed

41% of all fish used in feed, including: Anchoret, Chilean jack mackerel, South American pilchard
very important low trophic level fishes!!

53

top marine capture, 2002

anchoveta (9.7mt)
pollock (2.7mt)
tuna (2.0mt)
capelin (2.0mt)
herring (1.9mt)

54

changes in salmon fishmeal/fish oil use

fishmeal +185%
fish oil +577%

55

changes in carp fishmeal/fish oil use

fishmeal 750%
oil 70%

56

changes in crustacean fishmeal/oil use

fishmeal 1363% increase
fish oil 2660% increase!

57

overexploited species for fish feed

Peruvian anchovy- 6.2mt harvested 2003, recovering, overfished
Chilean jack mackerel- 1.7mt harvest 2003, fully fished, overfished
up to 11 species in this list are fully fished, unsustainable!

58

SA harvest of feed fish

1960-70's exploit anchoveta-- collapse-- SA pilchard takes over niche-- exploit them-- collapse-- chilean jack mackerel moves in..

59

natural cause of population decline in fish species

El Niño- huge decrease 1998

60

capture-reduction

how much is caught relative to time vessel spends out (? maybe) .. lowest in El Niño yrs

61

larger scale effects of harvesting fish feed

taking ~85% of sea predators food; seabirds, marine mammals

62

Effects of farming on wild salmon health

smolts travelling to ocean pass by fish farms, pick up significant infections rates; many farm fish have sea lice (infestation from low diversity, close quarters)

63

forage fish

prey fish/bait fish, small pelagic fish preyed on by larger predators for food

64

areas of application for stable isotopes

paleoclimate reconstruction (O2)
paleolimnology
terrestrial aquatic linkages
food web ecology
migratory studies
individual feeding behaviour

65

paleolimnology, stable isotopes

historic patterns of productivity, mostly C, N

66

terrestrial aquatic linkages, stable isotopes

terrestrial--> aquatic (lake management)
marine derived nutrients (salmon)--> terrestrial

67

food web ecology, stable isotopes

contaminant transfer, ecology

68

migratory studies, stable isotopes

birds, fish, zooplankton, mammals, C
how much time in open/coastal ocean
algae isotope ratio highly variable in open/coastal

69

individual feeding behaviour, stable isotope

niche shift, omnivore, trophic position
within single population
ex. stickleback - some neutral all the time, some pelagic all the time, all related to evolution, studiable by isotopes

70

∂13C ratios

C fractionates during photosynthesis, little-no fractionation up food chain
determine what food sources are based on ∂13C ratio

71

∂13C determination of food source possible with following conditions

large isotopic separation (btw food sources)
over time food signatures are stable
two/few food sources

72

examples of ∂13C determination of food source

middle of lake - very highly negative
close to littoral zone (terrestrial C) - less negative

73

∂15N in food web ecology

tells trophic level, fractionated throughout trophic levels

74

trophic enrichment of ∂15N

2.92+/- 0.8 ‰

75

typical ∂15N signatures

algae 4-8‰
invertebrates 8-16‰
forage fish 10-14‰
predatory fish 10-18‰

76

typical ∂13C signatures

off-shore -28‰ (depleted)
near-shore -14‰

77

why is ∂15N fractionated up trophic level

preferential excretion of 14N

78

high ∂15N

heavy
more positive

79

atmospheric N2 ∂15N

0‰
hasn't been fractionated by organisms

80

enriched in ∂13C

heavy
less negative
∂13C never positive

81

depleted in ∂13C

light
more negative
∂13C never positive

82

inorganic fertilizer ∂15N

0‰
made from captured atmospheric N

83

fractionation

in a chemical reaction one isotope proceeds at a quicker rate than the other due to a slight difference in mass (lighter synthesized faster/easier, more efficient)

84

two types of fractionation

animals- body tissue
algae

85

animal tissue fractionation

14N is preferentially released so 15N increases relative to its food source

86

algae fractionation

photosynthetic enzyme can process 12C molecules quicker than 13C, utilize it preferentially
based on size

87

algae photosynthetic enzyme that processes carbon molecule

RUBISCO

88

isotopic composition in foodweb

sediment: ~-30, towards terrestrial
inverts: ~-33, ~50/50 terrestrial/planktonic
piscivorous fish: ~-28/-30 pretty close to terrestrial

89

littoral zone

near shore area where sunlight penetrates all the way to the sediment and allows aquatic plants (macrophytes) to grow

90

Loch Ness Zooplankton, temporal shift in C signature reflecting food source

winter- low PP, most C is detrital, POM (less - ∂13C), zoop signature matches POM
summer- higher PP, signature drops to mirror to algae ∂13C (more - )

91

reconstruct historic salmon runs with ∂15N

sedimentary ∂15N correlated to number of spawners
250,000spawners ~ 6‰
1mill spawners ~ 8.5‰

92

∂15N sediment signature change in 1900

dramatically drops off, commercial fishing

93

significantly different ∂15N signatures along the river

higher ∂15N signature in root feeders, omnivores, detritivores, predators.. BELOW falls (input of high ∂15N source, salmon)

94

Class 1 lake

lack preferred lake trout prey, pelagic forage fish, causing lake trout to feed on zooplankton and zoobenthos

95

class 2 lake

contain at least one species of pelagic forage fish, resulting in piscivory

96

class 3 lake

pelagic forage fish and glacis-marine relict invertebrate predator Myis relicta - elevates lake trout to fifth trophic level

97

measuring trophic level by ∂15N ratio

gut contents
digestibility highly variable
assumptions made

98

pelagic

Any water in a sea or lake that is neither close to the bottom nor near the shore

99

pelagic zooplankton signatures

variable! needs to be established as a baseline
study found differences in calanoid copepods, Daphnia, Holopedium

100

lake to lake isotope signatures

highly variable depending on inputs (human, animal, fertilizer, salmon)

101

PCB (ng/g wet mass) vs trophic position

liner increasing
class 1 at low end
class 2 in middle
class 3 at top end (most trophic positions)
appears to be due to increased % lipid with increased trophic level

102

PCBs and lipids

lipophilic contaminants, accumulate in fat (lipophilicity)
unnatural, remain in bodies

103

∂15N trophic position vs. dietary trophic position

highly correlated = N good measure of trophic position

104

Hg (µg/g) vs. Lake class

higher in higher class
higher if smelt present in each individual class

105

∂15N vs ∂13C, Arctic Lake System, Lake Trout

LT top predator - highest ∂15N, ~middle of ∂13C spread- consumes pelagic and littoral fish

106

Log Hg (µg/g wet weight) vs. ∂13C

decreasing
terrestrial source has lower level of Hg
if LT feed more on nearshore/benthic than offshore/pelagic they will have lower Hg

107

Hg consumption guideline

0.5µg/g
one meal per week (non pregnant adults)

108

[Hg] (µg/g) vs. ∂15N (‰) in Ontario, Quebec lakes

all Class 2 and 3 fish are above consumption guideline level of Hg
sport fishing species, widely consumed

109

US Hg blood levels

300,000-600,000 children/yr cord blood Hg level > 5.8µg/L, a level associated with loss of IQ

110

cost of methyl mercury toxicity

lost productivity (lower IQ) $8.7bill/yr

111

Daphnia spp. ∂15N (‰) vs levels of land-use (low, high)

low land use (Sooke lake) - 0-5‰
high land use (Shawnigan lake) - 6-13‰

112

Sooke lake

our drinking water
fully protected

113

Shawnigan lake

developed
lots of septic
highly enriched in ∂15N

114

Caffeine (ng/L) vs. ∂15N in Mussel Tissue

linear positive
caffeine from septic contamination
robust indicator of fecal contamination

115

Caffeine (ng/L) vs. Shoreline Development (lots/km^2), Shawnigan lake

linear positive
denser housing = more septic = fecal input = more caffeine

116

∂15N (‰) vs. year, Sooke Lake and Shawnigan lake sediment cores

Shawn. has increased from ~1-3 as a result of human development
Sooke- has some spikes from building new dams/raising the dam- inundating land

117

EBS

Eastern Bering Sea

118

EBS 2002-2005

large-scale warming event
followed by 2yrs cooling event (2006-07)

119

EBS sampling

zooplankton from 186 stations each year
13,000 fish
600 zooplankton

120

change in abundance of juvenile salmon and forage fish

increase in warm years
decrease in cold years
in salmon, juveniles, forage fish

121

EBS zooplankton ∂15N

must be determined for baseline
higher in N EBS- upwelling? predatory?

122

Juvenile Sockeye Salmon ∂15N, EBS

warm years- up to 2 levels above zoop. = piscivory
cool years- remain small, stay near shore, can't grow enough to move up food chain

123

Juvenile Pink Salmon Trophic position above zooplankton, EBS

pink salmon normally zooplanktivorous..
in wam years- up to 2 levels above zoop., piscivorous

124

Juvenile Chum Salmon trophic position above zooplankton, EBS

chum usually feed on jellies
warm event- up to 2levels above zoop., piscivorous

125

Signatures in northern Bering Sea

warm year- less negative ∂13C, near terrestrial loading (from Yukon river)
cool year- more negative ∂13C, pelagic source
not really a pattern in ∂15N

126

Signatures in Southern Bering sea

Warm- higher ∂15N, higher trophic position, trophic enrichment
Cool- lower ∂15N, lower trophic position

127

sediment ∂15N profiles from NH lakes

26 profiles, almost all show drop in ∂15N since 1900 = depleted N signature from fertilizer use! recall (fertilizer is from atmospheric N2)

128

global fresh water

3%
99.7% of that 3% is unavailable (glaciers, deep aquifers)

129

Where is our available water

80% is in 20 large lakes
95% is in 145 lakes

130

water demand per person

1400-1800m^3/person/year
(1.4-1.8million L)

131

unequal distribution of water

little water in some parts of China, France, unglaciated US
abundant in Canada, Scandinavia, NZ, Russia

132

Water required for some crops

70L for 1 apple
50L for 1 orange
140L for 1 cup coffee
2300L per kg rice
15,500L per kg beef

133

water exchange times, lakes basin

days - centuries
balance of inflow, precipitation, evaporation

134

water balance affected by

dams, diversions

135

Aral Sea

1.3million km^2 watershed
before 1960, 4th largest lake in world 67,000km^2
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

136

Aral Sea, 1920s

water diversion for agriculture (especially cotton), storage for hydroelectric power

137

Aral Sea ppt

historically- 10ppt
Now- 34ppt (Ocean salinity!)

138

Aral Sea, since 1960s

85% volume lost (42,000km^2 lost)
65% SA lost
lakeside towns now 100-150km away
former lake area dry, saline

139

Affects of Aral Sea changes

all fish species gone
60,000 fishing jobs lost
massive ecological change- species extinctions
local climate substantially changed

140

Aral sea historic harvest

48,000T/yr
largest fish processing plant in USSR

141

Aral Sea 2000's

area 24,000
volume 175
salinity 65-70
separated in to two lakes in 1993
2010, only 1 lake left

142

Economic Consequences of Aral Sea loss

fishing, agriculture, cost of water rights

143

Health Consequences of Aral sea loss

highest child mortality in former USSR
life expectancy decrease 64-51yrs (in ~60yrs)
highest world rate of esophageal cancer
widespread DNA damage
birth abnormalities 5X EU, infertility

144

What's causing the health consequences, Aral Sea

large volume of agricultural chemicals, waste
carcinogenic salt/chemicals transported by wind

145

Pesticide use in Aral sea area

72kg/ha
compared with US- 1.6kg/ha

146

Valiant Dam Italy

265m concrete arch dam, steep walled mountain valley
built in 1960
limestone/clay layers = slides as reservoir filled

147

Vainont Dam, 1963

debris slide
displaced 30x10^6 m^3 water over dam (1/4 of contents)
2500 deaths downstream

148

China, S-->N water diversion

un-uniform water distribution
divert water from major S rivers to industrial in low water N
3X cost of Three Gorges
3 separate routes

149

Three Gorges Dam, China

once largest in world
flood control, diversion of water to N, hydro power, transportation

150

Three Gorges Dam problems

loss of agriculture, historical sites
changes to climate, public health, soil stability

151

Dam changes to soil

when water bodies are made, soils release heavy metals they have been holding into water

152

Colorado River, 1928

water treaty
7 states get 19km^3
Mexico 1.8km^3

153

Colorado River, 1930's

major water diversion to LA

154

Colorado River, 1935

Hoover Dam

155

Colorado River, 1960's

Glen Canyon Dam
[salt] exceeds 1.5g/L
ruins Mexico agriculture (collapse)

156

Response to Glen Canyon Dam - Mexican agriculture collapse

Yuma (Arizona) desalination plant
$1B/yr

157

Ground Water

give stability to ground
over draining creates space in ground
sinkage
drawdown water table
subsidence

158

Mexico City

built on a lakebed, elevation 2240m
Initially water flowed in and had to be diverted out

159

Changes in Mexico City

rapid growth (more than 20million)
Had to pump in water but had very poor infrastructure (holes in pipes)
subsidence 1m/yr
buildings tilting, roads, pipes moving

160

Canadian water

Great lakes: 240,000km^2
20+% of world FW
85% of NA water
45mill people in watershed (15mill Canada)

161

Canadian water export

policy unclear (provincial vs. federal)
NAFTA may require selling water to US
potential profit, damage degradation loss

162

Unclear water policy

freshwater is provincial jurisdiction
who can use water is federal - dept transportation, dept fisheries, dept fish&oceans

163

NAWAPA

North America Water and Power Alliance
potential water diversion: Rocky Mt trench -- Texas
from Mackenzie river valley
240 dams
nuclear power to pump it

164

GRAND Canal dam

Great Recycling and Northern Development channel
potentially divert from James Bay -- Great lakes

165

Dam/Diversion problems and education

political
economical
public education important
International co-operation
conservation
water re-use

166

Dam impacts, land inundation

mobilizes DOC & Hg to food web
Hg accumulation in fish
neuro-degenerative symptoms
loading to ocean (of water) is decreasing, may increase ocean salinity

167

MPA, IUCN definition

Any area of intertidal or subtotal domain, together with it's overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclose environment.

168

MPAs attempt to

protect sensitive habitat
conserve biodiv.
shelter vulnerable/endangered species
boost fisheries catch

169

IUCN

international union for conservation of nature

170

MPA coverage, now

less than 1% of worlds oceans

171

Newfoundland Cod, historically

fished from small dories, land lines
spawning ground far offshore (unreachable)- natural protection, refuge

172

dories

small, shallow-draft boat, 5 -7m, usually lightweight with high sides, flat bottom and sharp bows

173

Fishing technology

no natural fish refuges
very long range & time
targeting capability

174

Traditional fishery protection laws

species specific
i.e. Atlantic Cod

175

MPA, allowable

no ocean dumping or dredging
no exploration for or development of non-renewables
fishing/extraction permitted

176

fully protected MPA

"No-take zones"
"Areas of the ocean completely protected from all extractive and destructive activities"
no fishing, removal, dumping, dredging

177

Coverage of 'no-take' zones

less than 0.1% of the worlds ocean

178

Accidental MPA

Cape Canaveral
US gov't creates security zone around Cape C. satellite launch zone

179

MPA benefits

Increase/Enhance:
fish abundance
fish size/age
reproductive output
species diversity
habitat complexity
fishery yields in adjacent grounds
overall biomass increase

180

"Fishing the Edge"

fishing boats sitting right on edge of MPA

181

Importance of letting fish grow big

reproductive output
large fish = higher reproductive output
23"in vermilion can produce 17X more young than 14"

182

Sustaining Sea Otter, kelp forest

protects fish abundance, mussel growth, other inverts and crustaceans, changes to predatory sea bird resources

183

Fish Abundance, sea otter presence

~5X higher w/ S.O. present

184

Mussel Growth, sea otter

~2X w/ s.o. present

185

Gull diet, sea otter

Diet is 90% fish w/ s.o. present
90% macro inverts. without sea otter

186

Bald Eagle diet, sea otter

s.o. present: diet is fish, mammals, birds ~ equal
s.o. absent: ~70% of diet is seabirds

187

control sea urchin populations

sea otter
predatory fish species
spiny lobsters

188

urchin/kelp feedback

lack of predation-- urchin population boom-- urchins feed on kelp holdfast-- kelp wash away in tide-- habitat is lost

189

Anacapa Island MPA

California - predatory fish, lobsters regaining populations- increased urchin predation- sustainable kelp forest

190

Idealized MPA

Equilibrium state:
maximized species diversity
many linkages in food web
redundancy
stability

191

Ecological redundancy

organisms having several food sources

192

"Spillover effect"

= export of adult fish out of MPA
high fish density within MPA - leave protected area (no physical boundary)

193

MPA size determination

dependent on species to be protected
too large detracts from fishery
too small ineffective

194

Sizes of MPAs

not self-sustaining
moderately self-sustaining
completely self-sustaining

195

MPA not self-sustaining

most species lost
high periphery : area
unsustainable
small effect on recruitment and commercial fishing
too much loss out of reserve to be effective

196

MPA moderately self-sustaining

some species lost
adequate periph:area
some individuals retained
significant source of recruits to fished area
some reduction of fishing grounds
good balance of benefits for all

197

MPA completely self-sustaining

all species retained
low perish:area
small spillover
little recruitment outside reserve
severe reduction to fishing ground
little export

198

Where should MPAs be?

vulnerable habitats
important habitat
species rich habitat
spawning grounds

199

MPA and migratory species

doesn't really protect migratory species, better for stationary species (ex. rock cod)
DOES increase salmon prey though

200

MPA vulnerability

currents flow through, pollutants can flow through
MPAs necessary but not adequate

201

Lake Victoria

SA 69500km^2
depth Zm = 39m
several invasives: Nile Perch, water Hyacinth
overfishing (gillnets)
massive loss of endemics
loss of Oreochromis fishery

202

Lake Victoria native population

300 Cichlid fish
most diverse cichlid population
2/3 gone
highest vertebrate extinction rate
Oreochromis sp. (algal feeder) - major protein source

203

Management troubles of Lake Victoria

shared by 3 countries that don't get along
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania

204

Water hyacinth

mostly near shore environment- highly mixed/dynamic water bodies, sheltered small basins
clog up waterway

205

Major aquatic plants (invasive)

Hydrilla (US)
Elodea (Europe)
Eurasian milfoil (NA)
Purple loosestrife (NA)
Canary Reed Grass (NA)
take over shallow transparent water bodies
huge economic losses

206

Invasive plant management

Herbicides
Mechanical harvesting
biological control

207

Invasive plant management, biological control

introduce something else that will prey on it (kind of like how coopers hawk controls European starlings)

208

Invasive plant management, mechanical harvesting

bulldozers!

209

Nile Perch

large piscivorous fish
introduced in 1960 for British sport fishing
up to 300lbs

210

Lessons of Lake Victoria

introduction of one species changed entire trophic dynamics of one of the largest lakes in the world

211

% of total catch vs year (Lake Victoria)

haplochromines (cichlid) majority of prey catch until ~'74
1974-1980 majority is haplo. and omena
after 1980 majority is Nile perch and omena

212

Omena

anchovy-like minnow

213

Standing stock estimates, Lake Victoria
Kg/ha vs year

Native - ~60 in 1970's down to ~0 in 80's, 90's
Introduced- ~30 in 80's --> ~70 in 90's
almost entirely introduced species

214

Oxygen in Lake victoria
O2 (mg/L) vs Month

surface ~10 all year
bottom: less than 5 all year, anoxic in winter, highest in summer
loss of haplochromines (algal readers) changed oxygen structure
bottom up control

215

Eastern Bullfrog

widely introduced for aquaculture (restaurants) Europe, Asia, Japan
replace/consume prey of/ infect native amphibians

216

spread of Eastern Bullfrog

California 1905
Burnaby 1940
Elk Lake 1960's

217

Eastern Bullfrog diet

omnivores
insects, fish, ducklings, rodents

218

Invasive Zooplankton

Daphnia lumholtzii (Europe-NA)
Bythotrepes (NA)
Cercopagus (black sea-baltic)
Mysis relicta (Ghost shrimp, glacial relict)

219

Success of invasive species

distinct features that give them the advantage
ex. sharp spine, anti predator mechanisms, larger T/resource/habitat ranges

220

Mysis relicta foodweb changes

introduced to Flathead river-lake ecosystem to increase kokanee population. Only feed at night, competition for kokanee's resources.. decreases kok. pop., lake trout, bears, eagles, copepods, cladocerans (water flea)

221

Invasive filter feeders

Zebra, Quagga mussels
introduced from ship ballast from E Europe, 1988
few predators (dicks, 1 fish)
widespread through Mississippi
major financial impact
larvae continue to spread with boats

222

Why are so many eggs released in St. Lawrence seaway

ships have to release ballast to rise in canal

223

Effects of increased mussles

clog water pipes, make great lakes more oligotrophic, affect fish productivity

224

Origin of foreign fish

mostly from:
South America, Asia, Africa, Central America

225

Laurentian Great Lakes

most important NA water source
SA 244,000km^2
V 23,000km^3
21% worlds water
84% NA water
1/3 of Canadian Population

226

Great Lakes fish introductions

1600's Carp
1930's Lamprey, alewife
1960's Pacific Salmon
Rainbow smelt, reffe, goby (ballast water), zebra mussels

227

Lamprey, alewife introduction great leaks

1930's
upper lakes via Welland canal
loss of lake trout, whitefish
alewife - zooplanktiverous--> anoxia

228

Welland Canal

waterways connecting Atlantic ocean to great lakes

229

Pacific Salmon introduction to great lakes

1960's
chinook, coho
introduced to deal with alewife (biological control)
salmon spawn upstream, don't go to ocean, very contaminated

230

VI fish introductions

Sunfish
Rainbow Trout
Small Mouth Bass
Yellow Perch

231

Other introduced species

Asian carp/Grass carp
Cormorants
Bang
Nutria
Didymospenia

232

Asian Carp, Grass carp

introduced to control aquatic plants, took over
biological control

233

Cormorants

Lake Ontario
efficient gobies consumer (invasive fish)
fewer sport fish

234

Bangia

filamentous algae forming extensive growth

235

Nutria

'river rat' -kinda looks beaver/marmot like
very efficient foragers
cause enormous damage
from SA

236

Didymospenia

filamentous diatom
choking river beds
decrease use of rivers as spawning grounds

237

Caulerpa taxifolia

mediterranean
1984 first discovered
1990 1ha authorities informed (in writing)
1994 declared major threat 1500Ha
1998 UN law to battle invader 4600Ha
1999 covers 97% of suitable surfaces France, Monaco, Italy

238

Invasive cats

feral populations, one of worst invasive mammalian predators
direct predation
competition
hybridization
disease transmission
ecologic process alteration
behavioural change

239

Google Earth/GIS

can be used to study introduction/coverage of invasive w/ time
google earth found to be 84% accurate at detection

240

fate of invasives, possible outcomes

Transport-- introduction -- success (fail) --spread (fast/slow) -- impact (nuisance/non-nuisance)

241

dysentry

infection of the intestines resulting in severe diarrhea with the presence of blood and mucus in the feces

242

Water contamination

millions die worldwide/yr
rural/slums- high dysentry

243

amount of people in rural communities without access to safe water

77%
safe is in don't die from it

244

children under 5 that die from diarrhea in rural/slum communities, due to unsafe water

35/1000

245

Women and school, rural/slum communities

40% complete 3years
intense effort to collect water

246

Water contamination, Canada

many sick, 7 dead in Walkerton, Not
~1000 small communities on boil water advisories (all the time)

247

Water quality parameters of concern

pathogenic bacterie/protozoans (intestine disease)
excessive nutrients/algae (neuro/hepato toxins, carcinogenic byproducts)
harmful chemicals

248

anthropogenic harmful chemicals in drinking water

pesticides, herbicides, metals, antibiotics, pharma-care products
chemical/biological/microbial waste from agriculture, livestock, industry, households

249

why larger communities at lower risk of water contamination

adequate resources
expertise operator training and treatment
money
able to own and control entire watershed

250

example of dharma-care water contaminant, St. Lawrence Seaway

endocrine disrupters causing fish to not develop sex

251

Siem Reap River (cambodia), water contamination

throw waste into same small waterbody that is used for drinking

252

Bangladesh water crisis

well water becoming contaminated with arsenic from contaminated groundwater = ulcers, amputations, gangrene, carcinoma, pigmentation issues

253

Bangladesh water contamination, solution?

develop ponds to harvest rain water and use slow sand filters to clean water to entire village

254

BC water utilities

3500 registered systems
over 90% unfiltered, only chlorination
most small, rural systems
most have no control over environment/source quality
higher rate of enteric illness than rest of Canada

255

Canada boil water advisories

over 1000 communities
higher for aboriginal communities

256

enteric illness in BC, Ontario/Quesbec, Praries, Atlantic
rater per 100,000 vs time

All have decreased by ~50/100,000 from 1987-97
BC ~50/100,000 more than O/Q/P
BC ~100/100,000 more than Atlantic

257

distance from water treatment plant

the further away you are the more at risk you are, may need second treatment

258

economic returns from the biosphere

protecting/sustaining the environment lowers health costs

259

Land-use activities

agriculture
farming
waste disposal
pesticides/herbicides
harvesting
residential/industrial activities

260

Land-use activities cause loading of

pathogens
nutrients
metals/organics
humic compounds
pharmaceuticals

261

Surface/ground water protection and management must

Develop strategies to reduce loading
understand transport and fat of microbes and chemicals
Enhance community knowledge and understanding

262

Effects on/of water for public health

land-use activities
loading
quality of source
quality of output (tap)

263

Affect quality of source water

pathogens
algae
toxins
TOC/DOC
taste/odour
chemicals (drugs)

264

Natural process affecting water quality

small vs larger grazer system
recall: large fish = large grazers = smaller microorganisms (bacteria/algae/pathogens) which also = better water quality! (another problem of fishing down the food web?)

265

processes that affect surface water quality

wildlife
recreation
forestry
livestock
drylands farming
mining
industrial
urbanization
climate

266

Wildlife and surface water quality

beaver, otter, rabbit, ungulates, waterfowl
Protistan parasites

267

Recreation and water quality

boating, ATVs, hiking, camping, pets, cottages, skiing
sediments, pathogens, hydrocarbons, herbicides

268

Forestry and surface water quality

roads, clear cutting, camps, storage areas, stream crossings, slash burning
microbes, turbidity, organic loading

269

livestock operations and surface water quality

clearing, manure, feedlot, recreation, soil erosion
microbes, nutrients, turbidity

270

drylands farming and surface water quality

clearing, pest/weed management, soil erosion
pesticide, herbicide, turbidity, salt

271

mining and surface water quality

clearing, roads, waste rock, tailings, dust, living/operations
turbidity, metals, acid mine drainage

272

Industrial practices on surface water quality

wastewater effluent, contaminated sites, roads
turbidity, chemicals

273

Urbanization and surface water quality

sewage, water extraction, roads, pets, clearing
nutrients, chemicals, turbidity, pathogens

274

surface water quality is a measure of

parasites, bacteria, viruses, turbidity, nutrients, algal toxins, pH, hardness, alkalinity, natural organics, metals, hydrocarbons, chemicals

275

water treatments

no treatment
filtration
sedimentation
flocculation
chlorination
chloramination
ozonation
UV irrdiation

276

contamination in water distribution system (after treatment)

intrusion
regrowth
permeation
leaching

277

Intrusion, contamination in water distribution system

Pressure drop
faulty pipes/gaskets
cross-connections
unprotected tanks
contaminated soil/groundwater

278

regrowth, contamination in distribution system

distance from treatment plant
nutrient availability
regrowth conditions (biofilm)
regrowth in tanks/pipes

279

Permeation, contamination in distribution system

organic compounds
plastic pipes
elastomers

280

leaching, contamination in distribution system

piping material corrosion
pipe lines
tank lines/seals

281

flocculation

rocess wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent

282

airborne ammonia

72% of the variability in airborne ammonia explained by expansion of swine population
1988-1998: 0.1 - 0.4ppm

283

N:P ratios based on source

highest: runoff of unfertilized field
forest runoff
rainfall
manure seepage
sewage

284

controls on algal biomass and blooms

nutrients
seasonality of nutrient input
physical properties of receiving system
structure of the foodweb

285

% Total phytoplankton biomass vs. Lot TP (µg/L)

with an increase in TP shift to dominance of cyanobacteria (blue/green algae blooms)

286

Mycrostin concentration (µg/L)

linearly increasing with TP, Toxigenic biomass, and TN
-increase # of algae = increase # of toxin producing algae

287

major sources of P

septic, sewage, storm water, fertilizers

288

biomagnification of BMAA example

cyanobacteria-- cycad-- flying foxes -- Chamorro people
neuro-degenerative & hepato-degenerative disease

289

concentrations of BMAA biomagnified

cyano. 0.3µg/g
cycad 37µg/g
flying fox 3556µg/g
x10^2 per "trophic level"

290

Coagulation/flocculation

removes colloidal particles by adding coagulants

291

sedimentation

Floc settles down to the bottom

292

disinfection

kill bacteria and other organisms

293

filtration

remove particles through filters

294

disinfection byproducts

formed during treatment and disinfection

295

water treatment steps

source water--coagulation/flocculation-- sedimentation--filtration-- disinfection-- storage

296

Victoria water treatment

only disinfection (UV)

297

Increasing disinfection

increases disinfection byproducts, carcinogenic

298

Risk vs. Disinfection Level

Microbial curve is decreasing
DBPs curve is increasing
trade-off.. ideally in lower level of both risks

299

some DBPs

disinfection by-products
Chloroform
Chloroacetic acid
Chloro...
Formaldehyde
Acetone
Acetic acid
Benzoic acid

300

DBPs produced by

1. Chlorine (produces almost all, strongest disinfectant)
Ozone, ClO2, Chloramines

301

Disinfection by-products and birth weight

∆Birth weight (g) vs Concentration (µg/L)
THM, chloroform - decrease function

302

THM

trihalomethane (chloroform)

303

∂13C as a tracer for water condition

less negative ∂13C (lighter?) -- disturbed watershed
more negative -- pristine water source

304

Caffeine

fecal bacteria enriched with caffeine, linear increasing (ng/L)
Mussel Tissue- high caffeine rates for high ∂15N

305

Ibuprofen (ng/L) vs. Caffeine (ng/L)

lakes all in the low left corner, ocean outfall very high in both

306

molecular fingerprinting

take DNA profile of E. coli and compare to animals- tell which animal produced the e.coli
gut bacteria specific to animal
can tell where specific contaminant came from

307

Shawnigan Lake facts

extensive development since 1900, more since 1970
forest harvesting
septic inputs
changes in fisheries from alien species

308

Sooke Lake facts

protected since 1900
raised three time (1910, 1970, 2002)
Introduction of Leech river water through Deception in 1988

309

chloramination

treatment of drinking water with a chloramine disinfectant. Both chlorine and small amounts of ammonia are added to the water one at a time which react together to form chloramine

310

main nutrient linked to algal blooms and toxins

phosphorous

311

Lake sediments

preserve past records
-can be used to see watershed changes and water quality
-sinking of plankton biomass

312

molecular fingerprinting

take DNA profile of E. coli and compare to animals- tell which animal produced the e.coli
gut bacteria specific to animal
can tell where specific contaminant came from

313

Shawnigan Lake facts

extensive development since 1900, more since 1970
forest harvesting
septic inputs
changes in fisheries from alien species

314

HPLC

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

315

chloramination

treatment of drinking water with a chloramine disinfectant. Both chlorine and small amounts of ammonia are added to the water one at a time which react together to form chloramine

316

main nutrient linked to algal blooms and toxins

phosphorous

317

Lake sediments

preserve past records
-can be used to see watershed changes and water quality
-sinking of plankton biomass

318

sediment core procedure

select study area and sampling site-- take sediment cores-- section sediment core-- data analysis-- analyze data

319

sediment core data analysis

Pigment detection and quantification using HPLC

320

HPLC

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

321

Total algal biomass (mg/g organic matter) vs. year, Sooke and Shawnigan lake sediment cores

Sooke lake relatively straight
Shawnigan 3-10X higher biomass than Sooke, large spikes

322

carotenoid pigment vs. year, Sooke and Shawnigan lake sediment cores

Shawnigan higher than sooke
Sooke watershed protection sustained excellent water quality over 100yrs

323

Zeaxanthin pigment (bluegreen algae mg/g) vs. year, Sooke and Shawnigan lake sediment cores

Sooke pretty close to 0 over most of range, almost entirely less than 0.01
Shawn.- all over 0.01, up to 0.04

324

∂15N vs. year, Sooke and Shawnigan lake sediment cores

~equal until 1920's
both have increased
Shawnigan higher from human/animal loading