Aquatic Ecology final Flashcards Preview

Biology > Aquatic Ecology final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aquatic Ecology final Deck (324)
Loading flashcards...
1

Aquaculture impacts

escapement
waste discharge
fish health
water quality
coastal activities
global feedfish populations
marine foodwebs

2

Captured/farmed fishery products flow chart

aquatic production (PP)-- capture fisheries (discarded bycatch, human consumption)- fish meal - aquaculture (livestock) -human consumption (terrestrial agriculture)

3

Captured/farmed fishery products flow chart, negative feedbacks

- feedbacks on PP
capture fisheries, fish meal, aquaculture

4

Captured/farmed fishery products flow chart, aquaculture negative feedback

waste, habitat modification, pollution, impacts on population/food web dynamics, escaping feral species

5

PP proportion division from capture fisheries

approximately:
1/4 bycatch (waste)
1/4 fish meal
1/2 human consumption (straight)

6

PP proportion division from fish meal

1/6 Aquaculture
2/6 (1/3) livestock
3/6 (1/2) human consumption

7

changes in total capture

increased substantially

8

human consumption from aquaculture & capture fisheries, 1997

~95 million metric tonnes (worldwide)

9

environment issues from aquaculture

discharge degrades water quality
alter/degrade natural habitat
pressure from multi-uses on water system

10

Biological issues with aquaculture

over-exploitation of organisms - food web consequences
chemical use (health concern)
introduction/transmission diseases, parasites, aliens
contamination

11

production quantity and value vs. year

exponential increase
huge increase since 1980's
2004 quantity: ~60million tonnes
2004 value: $70 billion US

12

aquaculture production, china/asia/rest of world

China by far the hugest proportion and largest increase (50million tonne increase in 30yr), Asia ~20million tonne increase in 30 yrs, rest of world increased less than 10million tonne (an IS less than 10)

13

world population 1950-2002

2.56billion – 6.23billion
(now ~7billion)

14

consumption per capita, 1950-2002

~doubled since 1950 (10-22kg per person/per year)

15

changes in marine fish catch, 1950-2002

~20million tonnes – 80/90million tonnes

16

Utilization of fish, 2000's

40% fresh
30% non-food (feed)
18% frozen
7% cured
8% canned

17

Changes in utilization of fish since 1960's

increase in fresh fish- better transportation, maintenance
increase in frozen fish

18

Canada's Atlantic cod

1980-1990 catch was ~500,000 tonnes, 1995 drops off to nothing, overexploited to population collapse, still can not recover b/c niche space taken over

19

human fish consumption as a percent of total animal protein

worldwide 16%
N America 6.6%
Africa 21%
Far East 28% (Asia, healthier, cheaper, less fresh water needed)

20

World farm salmon production, 1980-2003

BC, Norway, Chile, UK all increase in production
Norway MAJOR increase

21

Changes in world farm salmon production, 1996-2002

Chile +235%
Norway +71% (but highest total value)
Scotland +89%
BC +96% (but lowest total value)

22

Changes in wild salmon, US + Canada, 1988-2002

chinook, chum, coho, sockeye- all decrease in production roughly 30%, decrease in at-vessel price/lb ~70%
pink production +11%

23

Changes in farmed Atlantic Salmon, US + Canada, 1988-2002

production: +895,000%
price: -61%

24

mariculture

cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean

25

aquaculture by environment (2004)

Brackish 6%
Freshwater 43%
mariculture 51%

26

what is grown in aquaculture

very diverse: crustaceans (shrimp, crab), finishes (carps, tilapia), filter feeders (mussels, oysters, scallops..), aquatic plants, carnivorous fish (salmon, bass, bream)

27

World aquaculture production by volume, by country/continent, 2004 (the main players)

China 70%
Rest of Asia 22%
Other 9%
w/i Other: W Europe 3.5%, Latin America 2%, NA 1.27%

28

World aquaculture production by value, by country/continent, 2004 (the main players)

China 51%
Rest of Asia 29%
Other 20%
w/i other: WE 8%, LA 7.5%, NA 1.86%

29

fastest growing food producing industry

aquaculture

30

problem of rapidly increasing aquaculture

demand for feed ingredients increasing rapidly, supply limited