5 5.3 Aging Process Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5 5.3 Aging Process Deck (14):


Harding of the arteries , restricting the oxygenation process.


Aortic Stenosis

The term describes a narrowing of the aorta, which is the major artery leading from the heart and channeling the oxygenated blood supply to the rest of the body. This stenosis, or narrowing of the vessel, increases the workload specifically for the left ventricle of the heart, since it now has to pump harder to overcome the obstructive resistance to blood flow.



Progressive buildup of fat deposits in the inner lining of blood vessel walls.


Cerebrovascular Disease

disease manifests itself through restricted blood flow to the brain, caused by occlusions within the carotid arteries that supply blood to the brain. One of the most important causes of strokes is atherosclerosis


Peripheral Vascular Disease

The group of diseases that affect the veins, arteries , and other blood vessels of the extremities.--- all result in decrease blood flow.


Coronary Artery Disease

Also known as chronic ischemic heart disease, here the heart muscle itself suffers from a lack of oxygen due to blockages in the coronary arteries that usually supply it
Symptoms: Symptoms can include chest pain—commonly called angina—which results from a lack of oxygen to certain areas of the heart muscle. Pain may be located anywhere in the chest, especially in the left arm or neck. This symptom is commonly found in residents over 60 years of age.


Myocardial Infarction

This results when a large enough are of the heart does not receive oxygen for a period of time.


High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure is present when you are 140/90 consistently. 140 = Maximum Pressure , when heart is fully contracted . 90 = lowest pressure when heart is fully relaxed.
The effects of continued high blood pressure, regardless of the cause, may be harmful to various organs within the body, especially the heart, brain, kidney, and eyes.
When the heart needs to work harder, then it will fail more often , and other systems will start to shut down.


High Blood Pressure (a) essential hypertension

The cause of essential hypertension is unknown, and therefore, the disease is without a complete cure, but it can be successfully controlled by medication


High Blood Pressure (b) secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension is the elderly results from other underlying diseases, including anemia, fever, endocrine disease or hormonal disruption, arteriosclerosis, and/or kidney disease


Congestive Heart Failure

This is not a disease but is actually a complex set of many symptoms associated with an impaired performance of the heart . A progressively weakening heart results in an increasing inability of the heart to pump enough oxygen to the various tissues of the body

Cause: CHF may be a variety of diseases or conditions, most notably arteriosclerosis, uncontrolled high blood pressure and/or a problem with one of the heart valves, heart attack, alcoholism, or chronic exposure to agents harmful to the body tissues


Right Side Heart Failure

Typically have these symptoms:
Edema: a build-up of fluids outside of the blood vessels that forces fluid into the tissues; occurs mostly in the ankles; gradual loss of energy   
Anorexia (loss of appetite for food)   
Weight gain (because kidneys cause the body to keep too much sodium and water)


Left Side Heart Failure

Typically have these symptoms:
  Frequent coughing or wheezing
  Shortness of breath (dyspnea), a result of the blood backing up into the lungs thus decreasing the amount of space in the lungs available to hold air.
Confusion and loss of memory are severe symptoms that suggest the disease has progressed far enough to damage the brain tis


Treatment for CHF (Congestive Heart Failure)

rest; monitoring weight to guard against sudden changes;
diet therapy, including reducing salt intake and encouraging potassium intake with foods like bananas and oranges;
oxygen therapy to improve the oxygen content of red blood cells, since there is less and less exchange area available in the lungs.