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WSET ® Level 3 Wine > Australia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Australia Deck (73)
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1
Q

Is Australia in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere?

When does its vineyard cycle (budburst) start and when does it end (harvest)?

A

Southern Hemisphere

Vineyard cycle starts in September/October and harvest is in March/April.

2
Q

What is the overarching climate of Australia?

A

Warm to hot

There are zones and sub-zones where the climate can be Maritime, Mediterranean, and Subtropical.

3
Q

Australia is situated in fairly northern latitudes of the southern hemisphere, making overall conditions in the country’s growing regions mostly dry, and quite warm to hot – like much of California.

With summers being so dry, there can be an increased risk of what?

A

An increased risk of fires, which can affect the grapes with smoke taint should fires blaze before or around veraison.

4
Q

Is irrigation allowed in Australia?

A

Yes

Irrigation is essential due to low rainfall.

5
Q

What are the bodies of water surrounding Australia?

A
  • Indian Ocean to the west;
  • Southern Ocean to the south;
  • Tasman Sea separating Australia and New Zealand

A region’s warmth can be tempered if it is proximal to one of these bodies of water.

6
Q

What is the hierarchy of Australian wine growing areas (GIs)?

A

From largest to smallest:

Zones: large areas which can cover a state or several states with similar climatic conditions (e.g. Limestone Coast zone).

Regions: smaller in size than zones, but wines must demonstrate consistent and recognizable traits that differ from nearby regions (e.g. Margaret River, Clare Valley).

Subregions: smallest in size, these areas must have distinct traits and be within one region (e.g. Polish Hill River subregion within Clare Valley).

7
Q

What is the most planted red grape of Australia?

And the most planted white grape?

A
  • Shiraz (most planted of either color)
  • Chardonnay

According to Wine Australia, ~146,000ha in Australia are under vine as of 2019.

8
Q

Select which style of Shiraz matches with a hotter region and which style matches with a cooler region:

  • full bodied and intensely fruity
  • lean, peppery

Give an example of a hot region and a cool region.

A

Hot region: full bodied and intensely fruity

  • Hunter Valley, Barossa Valley

Cool region: lean, peppery

  • Geelong, Heathcote
9
Q

What are some broadstroke differences between Australian Cabernet Sauvignon and Australian Shiraz?

A

Aussie Cabernet is often darker in color with firmer tannin, higher acidity, and blacker fruit characteristics (black currant, black plum, black cherry).

Aussie Shiraz tends to have softer tannin, redder fruits, and peppery notes.

10
Q

Name 2 classic regions in Australia known for Cabernet Sauvignon.

A

Margaret River and Coonawarra

11
Q

Select the correct answer.

The best examples of Australian Pinot Noir come from:

  • warm to hot sites
  • cool to moderate sites
  • northern region

Give an example of an Australian region known for its Pinot Noirs.

A

Cool to moderate sites

  • Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula, Tasmania

Pinot Noirs from these regions will be medium across the tasting grid: M body, M tannin, M/+ acid

12
Q

What do some Australians call the Mourvèdre grape?

A

Mataro

13
Q

What sun-loving, late-ripening red grape is well suited for Australia’s warmth?

Hint: think Southern Rhône or Priorat.

A

Grenache

14
Q

Describe the differences between everyday Australian Chardonnay and high-quality Australian Chardonnay (where they come from and what style to expect from each).

A

Everyday

  • blended from various regions
  • can be unoaked or oaked (using chips/staves)

High Quality

  • from cool to moderate regions
  • well balanced and integrated thanks to thoughtful use of lees aging, malolactic fermentation, and/or barrel maturation
15
Q

Give two examples of Australian regions known for their high-quality Chardonnays.

A
  • Adelaide Hills
  • Mornington Peninsula
  • Yarra Valley
  • Margaret River
16
Q

Which Australian wine region is known to produce benchmark Sauvignon Blanc?

A

Adelaide Hills

  • passion fruit, high acid
17
Q

What is the classic Australian region for Semillon?

A

Hunter Valley

18
Q

What is the profile of a classic, young Hunter Valley Semillon?

A
  • Harvested early
  • Light body
  • Low sugar levels
  • High acid
  • Low alcohol
  • Minimum oxygen contact
  • Neutral flavors
19
Q

What is the profile of a classic, young Australian Riesling?

A
  • Very citrusy (especially lime)
  • Unoaked
  • High acid
  • Dry to barely off-dry
20
Q

Classic (and exceptional!) Rieslings are known to be grown in these two South Australian GIs.

A

Clare Valley and Eden Valley

21
Q

The South Eastern Australia super-zone covers what areas?

A

This vast super-zone covers the whole of Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania, along with the southeastern corners of South Australia and Queensland.

Note: the book doesn’t specifically mention Tasmania, but see the map on p. 165 where it’s clearly indicated.

22
Q

Wines labeled South East Australia are known to be:

  • high volume brands made from blended fruit producing inexpensive wines
  • small-production brands made from single-site fruit producing exceptional wines
A

High volume brands made from blended fruit producing inexpensive wine

23
Q

Which heavily irrigated, Australian GIs are major sources of grapes for big brands?

A
  • Riverina in New South Wales
  • Riverland in South Australia
  • Murray-Darling in Victoria
24
Q

Besides bulk wine, Riverina is well known for making a specialty dessert wine made from this grape.

A

Semillon affected by Botrytis

25
Q

What 6 regions in South Australia do you need to know?

A
  1. Barossa Valley
  2. Eden Valley
  3. Clare Valley
  4. Adelaide Hills
  5. McLaren Vale
  6. Coonawarra
26
Q

South Australia produces approximately how much of Australia’s total annual production?:

  • very little
  • the majority
  • all of it
A

The majority

27
Q

If a wine comes from the Barossa Zone, what appellation does it take?

What are the 2 regions in Barossa Zone?

A

Barossa

  1. Barossa Valley
  2. Eden Valley
28
Q

What is the difference between a wine labeled ‘Barossa’ and ‘Barossa Valley’?

A

If a wine is labeled with its GI as ‘Barossa’, it means the grapes came from both Barossa Valley and Eden Valley.

If a wine is labeled with its GI as ‘Barossa Valley’, it means the grapes came just from Barossa Valley.

29
Q

The heart of fine wine production in South Australia is ________ Valley.

A

Barossa Valley

30
Q

What is the climate of Barossa Valley?

A

Warm and dry

31
Q

What are the red grapes that come from Barossa Valley?

A
  • Shiraz (old bush vines)
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Grenache
32
Q

What is the profile of a classic Barossa Valley Shiraz?

A
  • Full body
  • Soft tannins
  • Ripe black fruit
  • American oak

As they age, Barossa Valley Shiraz develop notes of spice and leather.

33
Q

Eden Valley is to the ________ of Barossa Valley, and Clare Valley is to the ________ of Barossa Valley.

Which of these (Clare and Eden) has a cool to moderate climate, and which has a warm climate?

A

Eden Valley is east of Barossa Valley - has cool to moderate climate

Clare Valley is northwest of Barossa Valley - has warm climate

34
Q

Eden Valley is best known for which grape?

What other grapes are grown successfully there?

A

Riesling - citrusy, steely

Other grapes: Chardonnay, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon

35
Q

Although Clare Valley is warm, its nights are cold.

How does Clare Valley get so cool, and what does that mean for the wines grown there?

A

Clare Valley gets cool from altitude (300- 570m asl).

Wines become intensely aromatic and structured thanks to the diurnal shift, with the Rieslings being dry, citrusy with high acidity.

36
Q

What is the climate of Adelaide Hills?

When does it typically rain there?

A

Moderate climate

Rains in winter

37
Q

What grapes are most often found growing in Adelaide Hills GI?

A
  • Sauvignon Blanc (best known)
  • Chardonnay
  • Pinot Noir

Adelaide Hills makes some sparkling wine blending Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.

38
Q

All vineyards in Adelaide Hills are planted above ______m in altitude.

A

400m

39
Q

Where is McLaren Vale in relation to Adelaide?

What is the climate like in McLaren Vale?

A

South of Adelaide, on the coast

Warm (ocean breezes help cool it down)

40
Q

What style of wine dominates McLaren Vale?

A

Dry, concentrated, intense red wines with soft tannins + dark fruits.

Based on Shiraz, Grenache, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

41
Q

Name the region in the southeastern corner of South Australia that has a moderate maritime climate and is influenced by cold currents sweeping up from the Antarctic.

A

Coonawarra

42
Q

What makes the soil in Coonawarra so distinctive?

What grape grows well here and what special characteristic does it have?

A

The soils in Coonawarra are terra rossa (red clay) over limestone.

Coonawarra is known for its firmly structured, Cabernet Sauvignons that are scented with eucalyptus, menthol, and cassis.

43
Q

What is the coolest state on Australia’s mainland?

A

Victoria

44
Q

Why does Victoria have some of the coolest vineyards on the mainland?

A

Ocean breezes (coming up from Antarctica)

45
Q

Wine regions around Melbourne, particularly Yarra Valley, get cool enough to grow these grapes to make this style of wine.

A
  • Chardonnay + Pinot Noir
  • Sparkling wine
46
Q

What 5 regions in Victoria do you need to know?

A
  1. Yarra Valley
  2. Mornington Peninsula
  3. Geelong
  4. Heathcote
  5. Goulburn Valley
47
Q

Name two inland, high-altitude regions in Victoria known for making aromatic, stylish wines.

What are the grapes grown here?

A
  1. Macedon Ranges
  2. Upper Goulburn

Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc

48
Q

Where is Yarra Valley in relation to Melbourne?

A

East

49
Q

What is the overall climate of Yarra Valley?

A

Cool to moderate maritime

50
Q

What is the specialty grape of Yarra Valley?

A

Pinot Noir

51
Q

While Yarra Valley has a sweeping cool to moderate maritime climate, it has a range of elevations and aspects.

What does this mean for the style of Yarra Valley wines?

A

There will be a range of styles that come out of this diverse geography.

Due to the varying elevations and aspects, many different grapes can grow here – though none will ever be as full-throttle as those from Barossa Valley.

52
Q

Where is Mornington Peninsula in relation to Melbourne?

A

South (it’s a coastal region)

53
Q

What is the climate of Mornington Peninsula?

A

Cool to moderate maritime

54
Q

Mornington Peninsula is known for these two grapes.

A
  1. Pinot Noir
  2. Chardonnay
55
Q

Geelong:

  • where is it
  • what is its climate
  • major grapes planted
A
  • West of Melbourne
  • Cool/moderate maritime
  • Pinot Noir, Shiraz, Chardonnay (known for its Chardonnay)
56
Q

Heathcote:

  • where is it
  • how does it get cool
  • what is its climate
  • major grapes planted
A
  • Inland, center of Victoria
  • Cooled by altitude
  • Moderate climate
  • Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay
57
Q

Goulburn Valley:

  • where is it
  • warmer or cooler than Heathcote
  • how is it cooled
  • major grapes planted
A
  • East of Heathcote
  • Warmer than Heathcote
  • Cooled by lakes and creeks
  • Shiraz, Marsanne

Marsanne is a specialty of Goulburn Valley

58
Q

New South Wales’ most important GI is ______.

What grape is this GI known for?

A

Hunter Valley GI

Semillon

59
Q

Hunter Valley is:

  • hot + humid
  • moderate + dry
  • cool + windy
A

Hot + humid

60
Q

If Hunter Valley is so hot + humid, what allows the region to be hospitable to viticulture?

A
  • High cloud cover
  • Ocean breezes
61
Q

What are the GIs in New South Wales that have slightly cooler conditions to Hunter Valley?

What makes them slightly cooler?

A
  1. Mudgee
  2. Orange
  3. Cowra

Higher-altitude vineyards – though because the regions are still quite warm, the wines they produce are concentrated + structured (mostly Chard + Cab Sauv).

62
Q

What is Hunter Valley’s weather threat?

A

Rain at harvest

Vineyard managers must stay on top of canopy management to minimize rot.

63
Q

Besides Semillon, what two other grapes have major plantings in Hunter Valley?

A
  • Chardonnay
  • Shiraz
64
Q

Which Australian state does not supply grapes or juice for South Eastern Australia GI?

A

Western Australia

65
Q

What coastal winemaking region is roughly 200km south of Perth and has a warm Mediterranean climate?

A

Margaret River

66
Q

What are the white grapes in Margaret River GI?

A
  • Chardonnay
  • Semillon
  • Sauvignon Blanc

They can be bottled as monovarietals or blended together.

67
Q

What red grape is Margaret River best known for?

A

Cabernet Sauvignon

  • bottled varietally or blended with Merlot
68
Q

What are the nested regions of the Great Southern region?

A
  • Frankland River
  • Mount Barker

Known for Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, and Riesling

69
Q

What is the climate of Tasmania?

What helps keep it cool?

A

Cool maritime climate

Winds off the Southern Ocean

70
Q

What are the principal grapes grown on Tasmania?

A

Whites

  • Chardonnay
  • Sauvignon Blanc
  • Pinot Gris

Reds

  • Pinot Noir
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
71
Q

Between Tasmania’s cool climate and its plantings of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, what style of wine is it well poised to make?

A

Sparkling wine

Tasmanian producers use méthode traditionelle. The sparkling wines from Tasmania represent some of the best examples in the country.

72
Q

What is the name of the body of water that separates Tasmania from the mainland?

A

Bass Strait

73
Q

What is The Great Dividing Range?

A

The Great Dividing Range is Australia’s largest mountain range that roughly parallels the eastern coastline, running approximately 2200 miles (3500 km) from Queensland on a mostly north-south axis down through Grampians in western Victoria.

This extensive mountain range acts as a partition between the damp, coastal areas from the more arid interior.