A&P 1.07 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > A&P 1.07 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 1.07 Deck (36)
1

Trapezius

Middle

O: Nuchal ligament at C6 spinal process (S.P.) C7 - T3

I: acromion process and spine of the scapula

A: retraction of the scapula (adduction)

2

Trapezius

Lower

O: S.P. of T4-T12

I: tubercle of the spine of the scapula

A: depression of the scapula (abduction)/ upward rotation of the scapula


3

Nuchal ligament

Ligament that runs along the spine to C7 or vertebral promance from EOP

4

Spinous process

runs along the entire spine

5

Integumentary system

Structures

Skin

Structures derived from the skin:

- Hair
- Nails
- Sweat & oil glands (exocrine)
- Sensory receptors (neurological)

6

Integumentary system

Functions

- Protects the body
- Helps regulate body temp
- Eliminates some wastes
- Helps produce vitamin D
- Detects sensation: pain, touch, temperature (hot/cold)

7

Reproduction system

Structures

Gonads: testes and ovaries

Associated organs:

Females: uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

Male: epididymis, ductus deferense (vas deferense), penis, prostate

8

Reproductive system

Function

Produces gametes

Release hormones: make hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes

Associated organs: transport and store gametes (sperm & oocytes)

9

Levels of organization


Review

Review from A&P 1.1

10

Tissues

4 types

The body can be divided into 4 tissue types:

Connective
Muscle
Epithelial
Nervous

C.M.E.N

10

Connective tissue

- Specializes to support the body and it's parts
- Connects and holds parts together
- Transports substances through the body
- Protects it from foreign invaders

Blood is a connective tissue

11

Mature connective tissue

3 types

One of the most widespread tissues in the body

Fibrous CT
Fluid CT
Skeletal CT

- Exists in more varied forms than other tissues
- Found in nearly every organ in the body

12

Fibrous connective tissue

Loose: delicate tissue-paper webs

Dense: tough resilient cords

13

Fibrous connective tissue

Loose or dense

4 examples

- Tendons
- Walls of vessels
- Covering of organs
- Fascia

14

Fluid (liquid) connective tissue

- Blood
- Lymph

15

Skeletal connective tissue

- Bone
- Cartilage

16

Categories of connective tissue determined by

Shape and function

17

Fluid connective tissue

Blood
Lymph

18

Skeletal connective tissue

Bone: rigid and firm

Cartilage: even tougher for wear and tear at joints

19

Muscle tissue

- Produces movement of the body and it's parts by shortening it's fibers or cells

- Specialized for contractility

20

Muscle tissue
3 types

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

21

Skeletal muscle tissue

Attaches to bone
Striated and voluntary

22

Smooth muscle tissue

Visceral = organs
Walls of organs or hollow tubes
Nonstriated and involuntary

23

Cardiac muscle

Heart
Heart walls
Striated and involuntary

24

Epithelial tissue

- Covers and protects the body
- Lines body cavities
- Transport: specializes in moving things into and out of the blood (secretion, excretion & absorption)
- Forms many glands

Endocrine and exocrine glands are epithelial tissue

25

Classification of epithelial tissue by

Layers
Shape

26

Epithelial tissue classification


Shape 3 types

Squamous: flat like a pancake

Cuboidal: cube shaped, more cytoplasm

Columnar: wider than higher

27

Epithelial tissue classification

Layers 2 types

Simple: single layer

Stratified: multiple layers

28

Epithelial tissue

Main types 2

- Covering/lining or membraneous

- glandular

29

Glandular epithelial tissues

Grouped in solid cords or specialized follicles

Form the secretory units of endo and exocrine glands

30

Covering/lining or membranous

- Covers body and some of it's parts
- Lines serous cavities
- pleural, pericardial, peritoneal
- Lines the blood and lymphatic vessels, and the respiratory, digestive and genourinary tracts

31

Membrane

Defined & 2 types

Membrane- flat sheets of pliable tissue

- Epithelial
- Synovial

32

Membrane

Epithelial



Epithelial: includes an epithelial layer combined with an underlying layer of connective tissue

Examples - mucous membranes, serous membranes and cutaneous membranes or skin

33

Membrane

Synovial

Synovial: line the cavities of joints. Composed of areolar C.T., adipose tissue, collagen fibers and no epithelial layer

34

Nervous tissue

- Specializes in communication between different parts of the body
- Integration of activities
- Generates complex messages for the coordination of body functions

Most complex tissue

35

Nervous tissue

2 types

Neurons: the conducting units

Neuroglia: support cells