A&P 1.16 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > A&P 1.16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 1.16 Deck (33)
1

Flexor carpi ulnaris


A, I, O



I- base of 5th metacarpal, hamate, and pisiform

O- medial epicondyle of humerus via the flexor tendon (humeral head); olecranon process ulna (ulnar head)

A - wrist flexion and ulnar deviation or adduction of the wrist (combined action)

Named for location and action

2

Extensor carpi ulnaris

A, I, O



I- base of 5th metacarpal and hamate

O. - lateral epicondyle of humerus via the common extensor tendon and proximal posterior boarder ulna

A. - wrist extension and ulnar deviation or adduction of the wrist (combined action)

Named for location and action

3

epicondyle

epi- on top
condyle - knuckle like bump

4

flexors

all origionate on medial epicondyle of the humerus

cross the wrist anteriorly

5

extensors

all origionate on lateral epicondyle of the humerus

cross the wrist posteriorly

6

osteogenisis

2 types

the combined action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts sculpting bones into their adult shape

endochondrial
intramembranous

7

osteogenisis

endochondrial

long bones

bone formation spreads from center to ends

grows lengthwise

8

osteogenisis

intramembranous

flat bones

cartilage is replaced with calcified bone

9

Bone tissue types

Compact

Spongy/cancellous

10

Compact


Lies

Composes

Function

Dense bone

Lies - over the spongy bone on the outside

Over spongy bone
Makes up diaphysis in long bones

Composes - most of the bone tissue in the diaphysis

Function - supports, protects and resists stress

11

Compact bone tissue made up of

Osteons or Haverian systems

12

Histology of compact bones

osteons or haversian systems

Cylinder shaped structural units with little space between them
Osteoblasts secrete collagen and minerals in a ring surrounding the cell
Cemented together
Allows delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products from metabolically active but imprisoned bone cells

13

Compact bone plumbing

Have unique plumbing that allows nutrients and waste to come and go

Uses central Haversian canal

14

Central or Haversian canal

Pipe in the center of the osteon which contains blood vessels, lymph and nerves

15

Concentric lamellae

Rings (like a tree trunk) of hard calcified matrix (mineral salts and collagen fibers)

16

Lucunea

Little lakes

In the rings of concentric lamellae

Contain fluid and osteocytes

17

Canaliculi

Little canals
Connect lacunae and contain offshoots of osteocytes so that they have a connection to the blood stream for nutrients

18

Spongy bone or Cancellous

forms/location

made up of

Function

Forms- the inside of compact bones (most of the short, flat, irregular bones and epiphysis of long bones)

Made up of needle like boney spicules called trabeculae

Function - stores red bone marrow and provides support

No osteon; Irregular lacunae and canaliculi

Rings of matrix are oval instead of round

19

trabeculae

spongy bone

needle-like bony spicules

means small beam

provides the lattice work of spongy bone

19

trabiculae are arranged/orientated




Bony spicules or trabiculae are arranged along lines of stress

Makes their orientation different from bone to bone depending upon the magnitude of applied loads

20

Fractures

Defined

A break in the continuity of bone

It tears and destroys blood vessels that carry nutrients to osteocytes
Vascular damage initiates the repair sequence
Dead bone either removed by osteoclast reabsorption or it serves as a scaffolding for specialized repair tissue called callus
Osteoblasts work together to build new bone

21

Fractures types

6

Open compound fracture
Communituded
Greenstick
Impacted
Potts
Colle's

22

Open compound fracture

The broken ends of bone protrude through the skin

Simple fracture does not break the skin

23

Communituded

Bone splinters at site of impact and small fragments fill the space between the two larger fragments

24

Greenstick

A partial fracture in which one side of the bone breaks and the other side bends

Happens only in children because their bones have not yet ossified

25

Impacted

One end of the fractured bone is forcefully driven into the other

26

Potts

At the distal end of the lateral leg bone (fibula) with serious injury of the distal tibial articulation

27

Colle's

A fracture at the distal end of the lateral forearm bone (radius) in which the distal fragment is displaced posteriorly

28

Repair of bone fractures

Formation of hematoma
Fibrocartilagenous callus formation
Bony callus formation
Bone remodeling

29

Spinal curvatures

3 types

Lordosis
Kyphosis
Scoliosis

30

Lordosis

Sway back

Increased lumbar curve

31

Kyphosis

Hunchback
Increased thoracic curve
Usually due to osteoporosis or prolonged poor posture

32

Scoliosis

Abnormal side to side curvature

Common before adolescence or due to injury