A&P 1.18 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > A&P 1.18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 1.18 Deck (47)
1

Rhonboids

A, I, O

Minor

A-retraction of the scapula (adduction)

O-SP of C7 and T1

I-medial/vertebral border of the scapula level with the root spine of the scapula

Named for geometric shape

2

Rhomboid major

A, I, O

A- retraction of the scapula (adduction)

O- SP of T2 to T5

I-medial/vertebral border of the scapula between the spine and the inferior angle

Named for geometric shape

3

Gastrocnemius

A, I, O

A-flexion of the knee, plantar flexion of the ankle

O-condyles of the femur (medial and lateral)

I-calcaneus via the Achilles or calcaneal tendon

Named for shape and location

Gastro: belly, kneme: leg

4

Vertebrae
4
Landmarks

Spinous process
Transverse process
body
foramen

5

Scapula

Bony landmarks

Know all

6

Femur landmarks

Medial and lateral condyles


Plus others see slide

7

Tarsals

Parts

Cuniform: wedge
Navicular: ship
Cuboid: cube
plus others

8

Plantar flexion

Standing on your toes

9

Dorsiflexion

Stand on your heels

10

Synovial joints

General

Most mobile
Most numerous
Most complex/most components
Majority of the joints in the appendicular skeleton

225-229

11

Synovial joint structure

Joint capsule
Articular cartilage
Joint cavity
Ligaments
Meniscus
Bursa
Tendon (sheaths)

12

Synovial joint capsule


2 membranes


Joint capsule created by two membranes

Fibrous
Synovial

13

Synovial joint capsule

Fibrous membrane

outside, holds capsule together, made of dense irregular CT

14

Synovial joint capsule

Synovial membrane

inside, secretes fluid, made of loose areolar and adipose CT

15

Synovial joint articular cartilage



Hyaline cartilage: covers articulating surface of bone and is smooth & slippery

reduces friction between the articulating bones and asorbs shock

16

Synovial joint structure

Joint cavity

The space between the articulating bones

Allows free movement of articulating bones

Contains synovial fluid

17

Synovial joint structure

Ligaments

Dense regular CT, holds capsule together, interconnected with fibrous membrane

Are either extra or intra capular

18

Structure of synovial joints

Menisci

Pads made of fibro-cartilage, lie between articular surfaces and help direct the flow of synovial fluid

19

Synovial joint

Tendon

Tendon sheaths

Tube like bursae that wrap around tendons that undergo a great amount of friction (hands, feet)

19

Synovial joints

Bursa


Purse

Small cushion like synovial filled fluid sacs that are found in between moving parts and reduce friction between bones and tendons or ligaments

20

types of synovial joints

6

Hinge joint
Pivot joint
Saddle
Condyloid
Ball & socket
Gliding or planar

22

Types of synovial joints


3 divisions

Unixalial
biaxial
Multiaxial or triaxial

23

Unixalial

Joints

movement in one axis, one plane

Hinge:
Pivot

24

Hinge joint

Back and forth movement

Flexion/extension

Examples: elbow, knee, interphalangeal

25

Pivot joint


Rotation

Examples: atlantoaxial joints (C1-C2) or Radioulnar

26

biaxial joints

movement in 2 axes, 2 planes

Saddle
Condyloid

27

Saddle joint

found at the thumb

Gives us the opposable thumb action

Metacarpal/trapezium. Saddle like movement

28

Condyloid joint



Allows back and forth and side to side movement

Example: atlanto-occipital, radiocarpal joints

29

Multiaxial or triaxial

Movement in 3 or more axes or planes

Ball & socket
Gliding

30

Ball & socket joint

most moveable
hip/shoulder

31

Gliding or planar joint

Permit side to side and back and forth

Examples: carpal, tarsal, SI, sternocostal

32

major diarthrotic joints

4

shoulder
knee
hip
vertebrae

33

shoulder

joint name & description

glenohumeral
humeroscapular

more mobile than stable

34

Hip

joint name & description

acetabulofemoral

more stable than mobile

35

Knee

joint name & description

tibiofemoral

knee joint is less protected by muscular tissue than hip or shoulder
more easily injured
bear the brunt of our loads

36

vertebrae

joint name & description


intervertebral discs

cartilaginous discs that hold vertebrae firmly together so they are not easily dislocated, but allow for flexibility when the spine moves together as a whole

37

Knee joint

Components

Capsule
Patellar ligament
Menisci
Collateral ligaments
cruciate ligaments

38

knee

patellar ligament

strengthens the anterior aspect of the joint

39

knee

menisci

help compensate for irregular shapes of articulating surfaces
helps stabilize the joint and guide the movement of the femoral condyles

40

Knee joint

Collateral ligaments

Medial/tibial
Lateral/fibular

on either side of joint
helps to stabilize the medial and lateral sides of the joint

41

Knee joint

Cruciate ligaments

Anterior

Posterior

42

Knee joint

Cruciate ligaments

anterior

originates on tibia anteriorly and moves lateral and posteriorly to the femur

prevents hyperextension of the knee

43

Knee joint

Cruciate ligaments

posterior

originates posteriorly on the tibia and moves anteriorly and medially to the femur

prevents posterior sliding of the tibia especially in flexion

44

dislocation

AKA luxation

displacement of a bone from a joint

results in tears of ligaments, tendons, and joint capsule

45

subluxation

partial luxation

46

sprain

tearing of ligaments
not necessarily complete
forceable wrenching

47

strain

tearing of tendons and muscle tissue

not necessarily complete