A&P LAB Practical 1 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > A&P LAB Practical 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P LAB Practical 1 Deck (117)
1

What Position is this?

Anatomical Position

2

Describe Anatomical Position

[Verbally]

F-PUSH

F- FEET CLOSE TOGETHER

P-PALMS FACING FORWARD

U-UPPER LIMBS DOWN AT THEIR SIDE

S-STANDING ERECT

H-HEAD FACING FORWARD

3

Demonstrate the Anatomical Position

4

Label the common Anatomical Landmarks

 

5

Label the Anatomical Landmarks

 

6

Label the Body Planes

Label the Body Planes

1. Coronal

2. Transverse

3. Sagittal

7

Label the Body Planes

8

Body Planes

 

9

Anatomical Landmarks

Label at the asterisks

 

 

10

Define

Body Cavity

Define

Body Cavity

Spaces within the body that contain various organs.

11

What are the major Body Cavities?

Major Body Cavities

  • I. Dorsal
  •       a. cranial
  •       b. spinal
  • II. Ventral
  •       a. thoracic
  •       b. abdominal pelvic

12

List Major Organs for the Body Cavity

  1. Cranial
  2. Spinal
  3. Thoracic
  4. Abdominal*
  5. Pelvic*

* Emphasized during lab

  1. Cranial  -----------------Brain
  2. Spinal   -----------------Spinal Cord
  3. Thoracic -----------------Heart & Lungs
  4. Abdominal* -----Digestive organs + kidneys
  5. Pelvic*----Reproductive organs & Urinary bladder

13

List Major Organs for the Following Body Cavities

 

Cranial::Brain

Spinal::Spinal Cord

Thoracic::Heart & Lungs

Abdominal::Digestive organs & Kidneys

Pelvic::Reproductive organs and Urinary Bladder

14

ante

before

15

post

after

16

thorac

chest

17

nas

nose

18

orb*

circle

19

cervic

neck

20

acr

extremity

21

brachi

arm

22

digit

finger or toe

23

cranio

skull

24

peri

around

25

cardio

heart

26

trans

through

27

Hand is (proximal or distal) to the shoulder.

DISTAL

28

Mouth is (superior or inferior) to the nose.

INFERIOR

29

Heel of the foot is (proximal or distal) to the ankle.

PROXIMAL

30

The heart is (anterior or posterior) to the spinal cord.

ANTERIOR

31

The heart is (medial or lateral) to the arms.

MEDIAL

32

Thoracic Cavity contains.....

33

Abdominopelvic cavity contains ....

34

Label these cavities

35

Name the four Major Types of Organic Compounds found in Humans.

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

Lipids

36

What is the monomer for carbohydrates?

monosaccharide

37

What is the monomer for Protein?

Amino Acid

38

What is the monomer for Nucleic Acid?

Nucleotide

39

Lipids do not consist of monomers.

List some examples of lipids.

Fatty Acids

Triglycerides

Phospholipids

Steroids

40

Identify this Biomolecule.

41

List the Monosaccharides we discussed in Lab.

Monosaccharides

  1. Glucose
  2. Fructose
  3. Ribose

42

List the Disaccharides we discussed in Lab.

Disaccharides

  1. Sucrose
  2. Maltose
  3. Lactose

 

43

List the Polysaccharides we discussed in Lab.

Polysaccharides

  1. Glycogen
  2. Starch
  3. Cellulose

44

Carbohydrate Testing

Benedict's Reagent identifies Glucose

What does the Negative Test look like?

Carbohydrate Testing

Negative Result for Glucose

Blue

45

Carbohydrate Testing

Benedict's Reagent identifies Glucose

What does the Positive Test look like?

Carbohydrate Testing

Postive Result for Glucose

Orange

46

Carbohydrate Testing

Benedict's Reagent identifies Glucose

What if there is no Glucose, but lots of Starch in solution?

Carbohydrate Testing

Negative for Glucose

Blue

47

A test involving Benedict's Reagent requires what?

Boiling for 1 minute.

48

Lugol's Reagent is specific to which of these?

Monosaccharide

Polysaccharide

Polysaccharide

49

Lugol's Reagent gives a positive result when mixed with Fresh Potato Juice.

 

TRUE

50

Lugol's Iodine gives a positive result when mixed with Apple Juice.

 

FALSE

51

Lugol's Iodine gives a positive result when mixed with Karo Syrup.

 

False

52

Lugol's Iodine gives a positive result when mixed with 1% Starch Solution.

 

TRUE

53

Identify this Biomolecule

Amino Acid

54

What is the Relationship between these two biomolecules?

Polypeptides are made up of monomers called amino acids.

55

How do we test for Protein?

Biuret Reagent

56

If I test Apple Juice with Biuret Reagent ......

It turns

Blue / Negative

57

If I test Albumin with Biuret Reagent ......

It turns

VIOLET / Positive

58

Biuret Test for Protein requires what?

10 drops of Biuret Reagent and mixing.

59

What biomolecule is referred to as our genetic material?

Nucleic Acids

DNA

60

If proteins are the most diverse and most important molecules in our cells,

Why is DNA the "master molecule?"


DNA carries the codes for how to make the proteins.

Proteins cannot be made without the exact sequence of bases in the DNA.

61

Throughout our ____, the appearance of the right proteins at the right time in our _____ maintains the structure and ____ of our bodies and continues our life.

lives

cells

function

62

DNA carries thousands of codes or ________.

They instruct what ______ should be linked to make up a _______.

It is the _____ that allows a protein to carry out its own specific task in the cell.

genes

amino acids         /         polypeptide

shape

63

DNA is a polymer made from two _____ _______ of

linked _________ twisted together

into a _____ ____.


long strands

nucleotides

double helix

64

The DNA double helix is very ______ because of the _______ bonds that join the nucleotides together.

Adding to the strength of the double helix structure are : ___________formed between__________.

stable      /        covalent

Hydrogen bonds   /       paired nitrogenous bases

65

What are the reactants in this reaction?

Amino acids

66

What is the product in this reaction?

dipeptide

67

What type of chemical reaction is this?

Dehydration

68

What molecule is leaving?

What type of bond is being formed?

H2O

Covalent / Peptide Bond

69

What monomer is used to form DNA?

 

Describe the structure of DNA.

Nucleotide

Structure of DNA is a double helix made up of a sugar phosphate backbone, with an interior held together by the pairing of nitrogenous bases; the structure is then given a helical twist (winding staircase look) with the aid and stabilization of Hydrogen bonds.

70

What did you observe when you examined the DNA attached to the glass rod?

What did you use to precipitate this?

Thick, sticky, opaque substance.

Lots of cold alcohol.

71

What chemical color indicator did you use to detect glucose?

What solutions contained glucose?

Couldn't you just taste them for glucose?

Benedict's Reagent

Karo syrup, apple juice, carbonated soda

NO! Eating or drinking isn't allowed in the lab ;(

72

Basic Unit of Length

Meter, m

73

Basic Unit of Volume

Liter, l or L

74

Basic Unit of Mass

Gram, g

75

Basic Unit of Time

Second, s

76

Basic Unit of Temperature

Degree Celsius, C

77

kilo

1000

78

deci

1/10

79

centi

1/100

80

milli

1/1,000

81

micro

1/1,000,000

82

nano

1/1,000,000,000

83

k

kilo

84

d

deci

85

c

centi

86

m

milli

87

u

micro

88

n

nano

89

RT or room temperature

20 dec C

90

Body temperature

37 deg C

91

Temperature of boiling water

100 deg C

92

Temperature of refrigerator

2-8 dec C

93

Freezing temperature of water

0 dec C

94

One-millionth of a gram

ug, microgram

95

One thousand meters

km, kilometer

96

One-thousandth of a meter

mm, millimeter

97

One-hundredth of a meter

cm, centimeter

98

One-thousandth of a liter

mL, milliliter

99

One-billionth of a gram

ng, nanogram

100

Molecules such as ____ and _____ dissolved in water may dissociate into charged ions, _______.

acids

bases

ionization

101

An _____ is a substance that when it ionizes in a ____-based solution, it increases the number of ___ in a solution.

acid

water

H+ / Hydrogen ions / protons

102

A _____ is a substance that when it _________ in a water-based solution, it ______ the number of H+ in a solution.

base

ionizes

decreases

103

pH is the _______ of the concentration of _________ in a solution. 

It can be easily measured by a _____.

measurement

protons / H+ / hydrogen ions

pH strip

104

If blood pH rises over 7.45 that means that the concentration of   ______ goes _______.

Is blood pH over 7.45 in-range or out-of-range?

protons

down

out-of-range

105

Our body's organic molecules, especially _______ may not function when the pH is changed.

We need to balance pH in our bodies because _____ ____ release waste products that can change pH.

Also the _________can change the pH in our cells and fluids.

proteins

living cells

food we eat

106

pH scale ranges from _______.

pH = _____is neutral

pH greater than ____is basic.

acidic pH is anything _________

0 to 14

7

7

less than 7

107

What happens when H2O combines with CO2?

Carbonic Acid

H2CO3

108

What does acidosis mean?

The increase in protons has decreased blood pH below 7.35

109

Difference in pH scale between 2 and 3 signifies a difference of ___.   pH measures what? __

Solution with pH 2 is ten times more _____ than a solution of pH 3.

if a solution A is 100 times more concentrated than solution B than the pH difference is __.  

10 times         /     protons

concentrated

2

 

110

A buffer is a ______.

It functions to _____ the change in pH when a ___ or ___ is added to solution.

solution

minimize

base

acid

111


Add acid to a buffer and the buffer will combine with _____ and help _______ the pH.

It is the _____ in the buffer which binds H+

extra protons

maintain

weak base

112

Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product during cell respiration.

If the body cannot get rid of CO2 it will combine with ______ in the blood and lower the blood pH.

Lungs regulate the amount of _____ in the blood.

And the kidneys regulate the amount of ______ ions in the blood.

water

CO2

bicarbonate / HCO3-

113

Add a _____ to a buffer and the buffer will release H+ to maintain the pH.

Most buffers consist of a weak acid and weak base

It is the ____ that releases H+ to maintain pH.

base

weak acid

114

3 main buffer systems of the body*

Bicarbonate

Phosphate

Protein

115

What 2 organs regulate the amount of

CO2 and HCO3- in the blood?

Lungs

Kidneys

116

Give the formula that summarizes the

reaction of CO2 and H20 in the blood.

CO2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-

Lungs remove CO2

Kidneys remove HCO3-

117

Name some diseases that cause acidosis.

Emphysema

asthma

bronchitis

pneumonia

pulmonary edema