A&P Lab Practical 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P Lab Practical 4 Deck (83)
1

Identify the factors that determine a person's ABO blood type.

 

Antigens on the surface of Red blood cells.

Antigens are proteins with sugars attached.

2

List the antigen(s) and antibodies present in blood type A-

  • Antigen A
  • Anti-B
  • Anti-D

3

List the antigen(s) and antibodies present in blood type AB+

  • Antigen A
  • Antigen B
  • Antigen D
  • No antibody

4

List the antigen(s) and antibodies present in blood type O-

  • Anti-A
  • Anti-B
  • Anti-D

5

Predict the blood types of people who can receive blood type O+

  • Antigen D
  • Anti-A
  • Anti-B

6

Predict the blood types of people who can receive blood type AB+

  • AB+

7

Predict the blood types of people who can receive blood type B+

  • B+

8

Identify the factors that determine a person's Rh factor.

  • Presence of Antigen D on surface of red blood cells

9

In blood typing lab you used the following: Lancets ______ blood typing cards ______ sticks

  • Eldon
  • Eldon

10

Distinguish between blood and plasma.

  • Blood is the total of plasma + formed elements
  • Plasma is the yellow liquid component of blood

11

Distinguish between serum and plasma.

Serum is liquid portion of blood without RBCs, WBCs, and clotting factors.

Plasma is the yellow liquid portion of blood, still contains clotting factors.

12

What are formed elements?

  • Formed elements are blood cells, platelets, and proteins

13

Where are the AB antigens found?

  • On the surface of Red Blood Cells.

14

List some blood safety rules.

  • 1. Consider all body fluids as potentially infected.
  • 2. Do not touch anyone else's body fluids.
  • 3. Wear latex gloves and protective eyewear.
  • 4. Do not reuse lancets.

15

What structures are visible on a blood smear slide?

  • Red Blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Platelets

16

Blood is a _____ _______ tissue.

  • fluid connective

17

Blood has several functions ....

  1. transporting nutrients & gases
  2. maintaining pH
  3. regulating body heat
  4. fighting pathogens
  5. clotting/minimizing blood loss

18

Blood is composed of

  1. plasma
  2. red blood cells
  3. white blood cells
  4. platelets

19

Another name for red blood cells is

  • erythrocytes

20

White blood cells are also known as

  • leukocytes

21

Leukocytes are broken down into what two categories?

  • 1. Agranulocytes
  • 2. Granulocytes

22

Agranulocytes include

 

  • a. lymphocytes (round nucleus, very little cytoplasm)
  • b. monocytes (kidney-shaped nucleus)

23

The 3 types of granulocytes are ....

a. neutrophils-lobed nucleus and fine granules

b. eosinophils-lobed nucleus and red/yellow granules

c. basophils-large purple granules and difficult to see nucleus

24

Platelets are also called

  • thrombocytes

25

Platelets are small ____ fragments that originate in the ____ from a cell called a _____.

cellular

bone marrow

megakaryocyte

26

Platelets main function is

  • blood clotting

27

Antigens are substances made of _____ and ______, that can trigger an ______.

proteins /

sugars /

immune response

28

An immune response is simply ....

a defense mechanism that protects you from infection

29

Antibodies are ____ produced by plasma cells that bind to ____ antigens and promote the _____ or ____ of the antigen from the body.

proteins

specific

destruction / removal

30

Antibodies are found in the _____.

Antigens are found on the ____ of red blood cells.

  • plasma
  • surface

31

The ____ on an individual are _____ determined and can occur in different _____.

antigens

genetically

combinations

32

How many genetically determined blood group systems are known today?

What are the most important ones that are used for blood transfusions?

20 blood group systems

ABO and Rh systems

33

The ABO blood typing system allows for the following blood types:

  • Types A, B, AB, O

34

Fill in the blanks.

Type AB blood type has--

  • 1. antigens on surface-
  • 2. antibodies in his plasma-

Type AB blood type has--

  • 1. A & B antigens
  • 2.no A or B antibodies

35

Fill in the blanks.

Type O blood type has--

  • 1. antigens on surface-
  • 2. antibodies in his plasma-

Type O blood type has--

  • 1. no A or B antigen
  • 2. A & B antibodies

36

Fill in the blanks.

A person with Rh factor present has--

  • 1. antigens on surface-
  • 2. antibodies in his plasma-

A person with Rh factor present has--

  • 1. Rh is the antigen
  • 2. no Rh antibodies

37

A person who can only receive blood from only a type O donor is likely ....

Type O

38

A person who can only receive blood from a type A, B, AB, O donor is likely ....

  • Type AB

39

A person who can only receive blood from a type A, or O donor is likely ....

Type A

40

For a blood transfusion to be successful what two things must be compatible?

ABO and Rh blood groups must be compatible between donar blood and patient blood.

41

What happens when the wrong blood type is transfused into a patient?

  • Red blood cells from the donated blood will agglutinate.
  • Agglutinated RBCs can clog blood vessels and stop circulation.
  • Agglutinated RBCs also crack and release hemoglobin which is toxic outside the cells. Patient may die.

42

A transfusion may work if the recipient has a blood group that doesn't have any ______ against the donor's ______.

  • antibodies
  • blood antigens

43

An antibody against the Rh factor is also called

anti-D antibody

44

The heart is a ____, four chambered muscular organ. It is specialized to ______ blood.

  • hollow
  • pump

45

The heart circulates blood to the lungs for ______ and throughout the body for ______.

  • gas exchange
  • metabolic exchange

46

List the chambers of the heart.

  • a. right atrium
  • b. left atrium
  • c. right ventricle
  • d. left ventricle

47

List the layers of the heart.

  • Epicardium aka visceral percardium --most superficial
  • Myocardium-middle layer, made of cardiac muscle
  • Endocardium-deepest layer

48

What are the structures found inside the heart?

  • a. fossa ovalis
  • b. interventricular septum
  • c. apex
  • d. Chordae Tendineae
  • e. papillary muscle

49

List the valves in the heart.

  • 1. tricuspid valve aka right atrioventricular valve
  • 2. pulmonary semilunar valve
  • 3. bicuspid valve aka mitral valve or left AV valve
  • 4. aortic semilunar valve

50

Blood vessels of the heart:

  • 1. aorta
  • 2. pulmonary trunk
  • 3. pulmonary arteries
  • 4. pulmonary veins
  • 5. superior vena cava
  • 6. inferior vena cava
  • 7. coronary arteries

51

What is the function of the coronary arteries?

Supply blood to the myocardium

52

Blood vessels pump blood throughout the body. Arteries carry blood ______.

Blood in the arteries is ___________.

away from the heart

under high pressure

53

Arteries branch into ______.

arterioles

54

_______ allow for exchange of fluids, nutrients, gases between blood and _____ fluids.

Capillaries

interstitial

55

_______ are small veins. Veins carry blood ________.

Venules

back to the heart.

56

To supply a region of the body with blood, the blood circulates in what order?

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins

57

Arteries and veins are distributed _____ on the left and right side of the body, except near the ___.

identically

heart

58

A blood vessel may change ____ as it crosses an area. An example of this is the subclavian artery.

names

59

What names does the subclavian artery possess in the armpit and the arm?

  • armpit--axillary artery
  • arm--brachial artery

60

Six functions of the respiratory system.

  • 1. large surface area for gas exchange
  • 2. physical movement of air for gas exchange
  • 3. protection of respiratory surfaces from dehydration and temperature changes.
  • 4. defense against invading pathogens
  • 5. sound production for speech
  • 6. olfactory sensation to CNS

61

CO2 is produced as _______ when the body breaks down glucose.

waste product

62

Fill in the formula:

Glucose + ____ --> ___ + H20 + ___

  • O2 
  • ATP 
  • CO2

63

CO2 if not released can ___ the blood's pH. Causing potential ____ change to _____ in blood and cells.

  • lower
  • structural
  • proteins

64

What is the formula summarizing CO2 blood buffer system?

CO2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-

65

What organ regulates the amount of CO2 in the blood?

  • Lungs

66

What organ regulates the amount of bicarbonate ions in the blood?

  • Kidneys

67

What is the normal blood pH range?

  • 7.35 to 7.45

68

If blood pH decreases below 7.35, it is called ____.

  • acidosis

69

Whole Blood consists of .......

  • Plasma,
  • red blood cells (erythrocytes),
  • white blood cells (leukocytes),
  • thromobocytes (platelets).

70

Plasma is composed of ..........

  • Water (90%), proteins (albumin, fibrinogen and globulins),
  • nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids),
  • waste products (urea, uric acid, lactic acid, creatinine),
  • clotting factors, minerals, immunoglobulins,
  • hormones and carbon dioxide

71

Formed elements are ......

  • red blood cells (erythrocytes),
  • white blood cells (leukocytes),
  • and thromobocytes (platelets).

72

Identify A and B.

A. Neutrophil

B. Eosinophil

73

These are agranulocytes.

Identify A and B and list a special feature.

A.  Monocyte -kidney shaped nucleus

B. Lymphocyte - round nucleus, little cytoplasm

74

Describe a key functional difference for each of these.

Eosinophils attack cells covered with antibodies.

Basophils accumulate within damaged tissue and release chemicals that increase the immune response.

75

Blood types are determined by ...

76

Define Antigen.

  • antibody generator,
  • any substance which provokes an adaptive immune response

77

Define Antibodies.

Antibodies (Ab) are proteins produced by plasma cells that bind to specific antigens and promote their destruction or removal from the body.

Antibodies are found in blood plasma

78

Antibody production or acquired immunity underogoes three steps.

What are they?

1. Sensitization--exposure to antigen

2. Activation

3. Division and differentiation

79

Name the phenotype for each of the following genotypes.

a. Rh+/Rh+

b. Rh+/Rh-

c. Rh-/Rh-

a. Rh positive

b. Rh positive

c. Rh negative

80

This graph describes what?

Immune Response

81

Fill in the missing blood types.

82

What antibodies are present in these blood types?

83

The Eldon card for a blood type test shows this.

What blood type do you assign?

A +