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Flashcards in Acid-Base Deck (39):
1

what are the three components of the buffer system?

buffers of body fluids (ICF and ECF)
respiratory mechanics
renal mechanism

2

small change in pH = ______ change in H concentration

VERY LARGE

3

acids exist as ______ or as ______

volatile
fixed

4

sulfuric and phosphoric acids are examples of ______ acids and are produced by metabolism of proteins and phospholipids

fixed

5

beta-hydroxybuteric and acetoacid are produced in ______ metabolism and are ______ acids

fat metabolism
fixed

6

_______ acids are those we can breathe out

volatile

7

Buffers can ____ free H or _____ a H, so that pH changes ____

absorb
donate
minimall

8

strong acids _____ completely in aqueous solution

dissociate

9

weak acids dissociate _____ and the majority remain ______

slightly
undissociated

10

what is the equilibrium constant?

the point at which for a given acid or base, equilibrium is reached between the dissociated and undissociated form

11

what are the three ECF buffers?

bicarbonate (HC03) (most important)
inorganic phosphate
plasma proteins (trade Ca for H)

12

what are ICF inorganic phosphate examples?

ATP, ADP, AMP, 2-3DPG

13

normal serum level of bicarbonate is ____

18 - 28 mEg/L

14

with alkalemia, there is less ____ in blood, serum, and ECF. As H is pulled off proteins, free ____ occupies those sites on protein, which decreases free Ca. This may result in ________

H
Calcium
carpal pedal spasm

15

what is the slow mechanism in acid base?

the renal acid-based

16

the kidney reabsorbs filtered HC03 in the _______ tubule, which increases HC03 stores

proximal

17

the kidney _____ fixed acids, synthesizes _______, and excretes H as _____

excretes
HC03
NH4

18

the rapid compensation for acid-base occurs in _______

pulmonary

19

when the pH is less than 7.35, ______ may occur. May be the result of an increase in H or a decrease in __________

acidosis
buffering capacity

20

the pH is greater than ______ in alkalosis. This is most commonly a result form a decreased H concentration than increased minute ventilation

7.45

21

increased production of non volatile acids, decreased _____ ______ by the kidney, decreased synthesis of ________ by the kidney, and loss of HC03 in the GI are examples of _________

acid excretion
HC03
metabolic acid-base disturbances

22

hypoxia, anxiety, sepsis, and pregnancy may all cause ________

alkalosis

23

inadequate minute ventilation may result in _______ ______

respiratory acidosis

24

abnormalities of HC03 levels identifies a _______ component

metabolic

25

abnormalities of PC02 levels identify a ______ component

respiratory

26

for each change in PC02 of 10mm, pH will change by _____ in the opposite direction

0.8

27

respiratory acidosis may be caused by problems in the _____, in pulmonary disease states, and in _________ disease states (botulism, tetanus, curare)

CNS (narcotics, barbituates, tumor, stroke, head injury)
neuromuscular

28

COPD, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia, CHF may all cause ______________

respiratory acidosis

29

anxiety, hypoxia, pregnancy, high altitude, sepsis can all cause ________

respiratory alkalosis

30

metabolic acidosis may occur as a result of an ___________, decreased excretion of H in the kidney, and loss of ______ of ____. Lactic acidosis and _____________ are examples

overproduction of acid
HC03 in the GI/renal
diabetic keto acidosis

31

a measure of cation concentration versus anion concentration is called the ______. The normal range is 12 + /- 4

anion gap

32

Anion gap = [Na+] – (HC03 + ____)

Cl

33

the anion gap is _______ in an acidotic patient

increased

34

a low anion gap is often the result of _________

hypoalbuminemia

35

if bicarbonate decreases, what will be compensated? (how will the extra acid be taken care of?)

pc02 will decrease (minute ventilation will increase)

36

if bicarbonate increases, Pc02 will ______

increase, because minute ventilation will decrease

37

if PC02 increases, bicarbonate will _______

increase

38

if Hc03 is low, because of aspirin overdose, what would respiratory partial compensation look like?

increased minute ventilation,which would lower PC02 to lower than normal (24 rather than 40)

39

PC02 is higher (57), pH is 6.96, HC03 is low (13), is a sign of _______

mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis