Bacteria Flashcards Preview

Acid-Base & RNA Viruses > Bacteria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (63):
1

gram ____ has a lipoprotein outer wall

negative

2

the cell wall of bacertai contains _______, which prevents osmotic lysis

proteoglycan

3

inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan is one mechanism of action for ________

antimicrobials

4

so bacteria are also ______ with a polysaccharide coating which prevents phagocytosis

encapsulated

5

transpeptidase catalyzes the formation of the _____

cell wall

6

penicillin binds to _______ to inhibit it

transpeptidase

7

mycobacteria (TB), spirochetes, and mycoplasma are exceptions to _____ _____

gram stain

8

in gram ________, the peptidoglycan layer does not block diffusion of LMW compounds, so substances that damage the cytopasmic membrane can pass through

positive

9

in gram _____, the outer lipopolysaccharide membrane blocks the passage of substances to the peptidoglycan layer

negative

10

antibiotics and chemicals that attack the peptidoglycan wall are unable to pass through in _____ ______

gram negative

11

grape like cluster is _________

staphylococci

12

staphylococcus is the _____, whereas staphylococcus auras is the ________

genus
species

13

hydrogen peroxide is broken down by _______ and _______

catalase and peroxidase

14

coagulase activates ______, causing blood to clot

prothrombin

15

obligate aerobes cannot live without _____. they have catalase, peroxides, and superoxide dismutase

oxygen

16

facultative _____ can grow in air or under low oxygen tension

aerobes

17

______ aerobes have the faculties to be anaerobes but prefer aerobic conditions

facultative

18

obligate _______ are killed by oxygen. They have no enzymes to protect them

anaerobes

19

microaerophilic bacteria use _________ and have no ETC. they have tolerate low levels of oxygen. They don't have catalase.

fermentation

20

________ infect deep tissues and are often associated with gas production

anaerobes

21

flagella is for mobility, _____ are for adhesion/binding, and capsules are for ______ from phagocytosis

pili
protection

22

endospores have _______ and are resistant to the environment

dormancy

23

_________ is the body's solution to encapsulation

opsonization

24

facultative intracellular organisms are _______ by the host's macrophages but they ______ within the WBC by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion. They escape the host's _______ peroxide and superoxide radicals

phagocytized
survive

25

exotoxins are _____ released from both gram ______ and gram negative bacteria

proteins
positive

26

almost all gram _____ have _____ (except listeria)

positive
exotoxins

27

enterotoxins are infectious ______ or food poisoning. Bacteria bind to the ____ _____

diarrhea
GI tract

28

In food poisoning, bacteria grow in the food and release ________ in the food. This results in diarrhea and vomiting for less tha ______ hours

enterotoxin
24 hrs

29

botulism and tetanus release ________

neurotoxins

30

pyogenic exotoxins stimulate the release of ________ and cause rash, fever, toxic shock syndrome (staph aureus and strep progenies)

cytokines

31

endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides within gram ______ outer membrane released with the death of the bacterium

negative

32

endotoxins are only in ______ ______

gram negative

33

endotoxins are not a _______ excreted like exotoxin, but a normal part of the _____ _____

protein
outer membrane

34

bacteremia can lead to ______, which causes a systemic immune response

sepsis

35

in septic shock, both gram ______ and gram ______ infection

positive and negative

36

________ are part of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria and are ________when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart

endotoxins
liberated

37

_______ are produced in _____ ______ and are released following lysis

exotoxins
gram positive

38

DNA fragments from one bacterium can incorporate itself into another _______

bacterium

39

a virus can infect a bacteria in ________, making it a bacteriophage

transduction

40

a bacteriophage carries a piece of bacterial ______ from one bacterium to another

DNA

41

in ______, DNA is transferred via cell to cell contact

conjugation

42

transposons have ______ and carry genes for antibiotic resistance and virulence

legs

43

__________ are gram positive spheres (cocci). They differentiate from staph because they are in a _____ versus cluster

streptococci
line

44

strep do not have ______ enzyme

catalase

45

strep can _______ RBCs

hemolyze

46

alpha hemolytic _____lyse, gamma "hemolytic" are unable to hemolyze. Beta completely lyse.

partially

47

________ are gram positive cocci in clusters

staphylococci

48

staphylococci have ________, blowing oxygen bubbles

catalase

49

staph are ____ hemolytic, so they fully lyse RBCs. They are _______ positive.

beta
coagulase

50

most staph are ______ resistant because they secrete penicillinase

penicillin

51

staphy aureus are also ______ resistant

methicillin (MRSA)

52

bacillus are gram ______, aerobic and ___ forming rods

positive
spore-forming

53

bacillus anthraces has a ______ that prevents phagocytosis. Spore activates in ____

capsule

54

bacillus cereus causes ______ _____

food poisoning

55

clostridium are ______ _____, spore forming rods

gram positive

56

clostridium is _____, and common in hospitals. Exotoxins are fatal.

anaerobic. examples: gas gangrene, tetanus, botulism

57

the most common cause of antibiotic diarrhea is ______ _____ (5-10 days post antibiotic)

clostridium difficile

58

C tetani is gram ______ rod, forms _______. Has a neurotoxic ______

positive
spores
exotoxin

59

clostridium botulinum is a gram ____ rod. Spores resist ______, and produces neurotoxin

positive
boiling

60

corynebacterium diphtheriae colonizes in the ______, forming a gray membrane

pharynx

61

corynebacterium diphtheriae is a gram _______ _____, but doesn't for spores

positive rod

62

the gram positive rod with an endotoxin is _______

listeria

63

listeria is worrisome for neonates, ______ and immunocompromised. Hides in macrophages or neutrophils.

pregnancy