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Acid-Base & RNA Viruses > Pulmonary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (54):
1

predisposing conditions for ____________include tobacco, alcohol, COPD, bronchial obstruction, malnutrition

community acquired pneumonia

2

typical pneumonia refers to bacteria that causes chills, cough, ________ and _____

fever and SOB

3

typical bacteria include s. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staph aureus, group A ______

strep

4

______ causes of pneumonia include chlamydia, legionella,

aytpical

5

chills, cough, fever, and SOB are common symptoms of ______

community acquired pneumonia

6

Hemophilus influenza is a typical cause of CAP in ______ patients with underlying pulmonary disease

older

7

beta-lactam agents are the preferred antimmicrobial agents for __________

H. influenza

8

H. flu are gram negative rods, facultative anaerobic, and ____

small

9

if patient is younger than 40, lives in close quarters, it is likely they have ________

mycoplasma pneumonia (via infected respiratory droplets)

10

mycoplasma pneumonia has no _____ ______ that can grow in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

cell wall

11

beta lactam attack cell walls, so they will not be effective on ___________

myoplasma pneumonia

12

aytpical CAP occurs from ________ ______, which has gradual onset (headache, malaise, low grade fever)

mycoplasma pneumonia

13

treat M. pneumonia with ________ (azithromycin)

macrolides (inhibit protein synthesis, so works on bacteria without a cell wall); doxycycline is an alternative (fluoroquinolone can cause a achilles tendon tear)

14

if your patient is middle aged or older, has travelled recently, or exposed to mist environment (showers/whirpool), the pathogen is _____________

legionella

15

legionella is a gram negative bacilli has an onset of _____

2-10 days

16

legionella CAP has the same symptoms, but with a higher fever and ______ symptoms (atypical)

GI

17

treat legionella with ______

azithromycin

18

a mildly ill patient who lives in a close environment may get CAP through __________

chlamydia pneumoniae

19

pneumonia and bronchitis, most common respiratory infections, are the result of _________

chlamydia pneumoniae

20

chlamydia is an obligate ________ bacteria. immunity is _______

intracellular
short lived

21

chlamydia pneumoniae has the usual symptoms, plus ________ and hoarseness (atypical)

pharyngitis

22

switch from azithromycin to _______ if Chlamydia pneumonia is documented

doxycycline

23

if patient is not severely sick, not in a special group, they likely have _________. Typical.

strep pneumoniae

24

step pneumonia is a gram positive, alpha hemolytic bacterium. Adheres to ________ cells of the nasopharynx and forms bridges

epithelial

25

gram negative bacilli (klebsiella) are uncommon for pneumonia. People with these have _______ pneumonia, admitted to ICU

severe

26

klebsiella pneumonia is a _____ cause of CAP. Also in alcoholics, ______ and COPD

nosocomial
diabetics

27

fever, cough, INCREASED sputum production, leukocytosis, crackles in __________

klebsiella pneumoniae

28

"currant jelly" is blood tinged sputum that occurs in ______ (due to necrosis in the lung tissue)

klebsiella pneumoniae

29

influenza more likely to cause viral pneumonia after an __________

upper respiratory infection

30

respiratory syncytial virus is hardest on the ______ and is spread hands to nose

elderly

31

parainfluenza usually starts off with a mild upper respiratory infection, but can be life threatening in ___________ adults

immunocompromised

32

adenovirus causes patchy _________ infiltrates

alveolar

33

SARS and MERS-CoV, Avian influenza, Hantavirus, and some fungal also cause _______

pneumonia

34

children under _____, adults over 65, people with chronic _____ disorders, immunosuppression are at a high risk for CAP

2
pulmonary

35

bronchitis is usually _____ and develops on top of a cold or flu

viral

36

chlamydial infect often results in _______ ______

acute bronchitis

37

persistent cough lasting 10-20 days, wheezing, low fever, chest tightness are symptoms of ____ _____. Dullness to ______

acute bronchitis
percussion

38

treat cough with anti-tussives, treat airflow with ________, and steroids to reduce ______

humidifier
inflammation

39

in COPD patients, treat bronchitis with _________

antibiotics

40

bronchiolitis occurs in children under ____ years, upper respiratory symptoms, and wheezing/crackles

2

41

bronchiolitis is most common in infants and children following ____________ and adenovirus

respiratory synctial virus

42

nasal flaring, accessory muscle use may occur in __________

severe bronchiolitis

43

pertussis attacks infants under ____ years old, caused by _________ ______. Via respiratory droplets.

2
bordatella pertussis

44

treat pertussis with a ________

macrolide (erythromycin)

45

________ are ingested by alveolar macrophages, pass through the lymphatics and blood stream before an immune response is mounted

tubercul bacilli

46

the _____ lung lobes are most affected by TB. PA and lateral chest X-ray.

upper

47

TB treatment lasts for 6-9 months. ______ is difficult

compliant

48

Histoplasmosis occurs when soil is disrupted, and _______ occurs

aerosolization to humans

49

histoplasmis is a ______ infection of the lung; worse in _______ pts

fungal
immunocompromised

50

itraconazole and amphotericin are used to treat ________

histoplasmosis

51

_____ TB is inactive and cannot infect others. But, it activates if the host immune response _____

latent
weakens

52

in primary TB, the patient inhales airborne ________ with tubercle bacilli. These pass through ______ and _______ before an immune response is mounted

droplets
lymphatics and blood stream

53

pertussis occurs via _______ droplets, often in infants under 2. 3 stages. Treat with _______

respiratory
macrolides (erithromycin)

54

TB presents with malaise, anorexia, weight loss, _____, and ______ _____. Cough is dry at first, becomes ______ streaked.

fever
night sweats
blood
often seen in children