Flashcards in Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding Deck (23):
What is the structure used to determine whether a bleed is upper or lower GI?
Ligament of Treitz
What are the risk factors for peptic ulcers?
What are the risk factors for gastritis?
What are the risk factors for duodenitis?
What are the risk factors for oesophagitis?
What is the major cause of varices?
What are the causes of upper GI bleeds?
Mallory Weiss tear
What is a Mallory Weiss tear?
Tear in the oesophageal mucosa
What are the symptoms of a Mallory Weiss tear?
What are the causes of lower GI bleeds?
What is diverticular disease?
Protrusion of the inner mucosal lining through the outer muscular layer forming a pouch
What are the clinical signs associated with upper GI bleeds?
What are the clinical signs associated with lower GI bleeds?
Fresh or altered hematochezia
What are the initial investigations used in GI haemorrhages?
12 lead ECG
What is used to assess the severity of a GI haemorrhage?
Rockall score or Glasgow-Blatchford score
What is given in the resuscitation step of managing a GI bleed?
Blood products (packed red cells, platelets)
Avoid excessive transfusion
What is shock?
Circulatory insufficiency resulting in inadequate oxygen delivery, hypo perfusion and tissue hypoxia
What are the clinical signs of shock
What is the management step of GI bleeds?
Stop harmful medications
Reversal of harmful medications
What is the management of non variceal haemorrhages?
Proton proton inhibitors post endoscopy
What are the risk factors for variceal haemorrhages?
Signs and history of chronic liver disease
What are the complications of variceal haemorrhages?