Alimentary Tract pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Alimentary Tract pathology Deck (23):
1

What are the different sections of the large bowel?

Caecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid
Rectum

2

What 3 cell types are found in the mucosa of the small bowel?

Goblet cells
Columnar absorptive cells
Endocrine cells

3

What are the main histological features of the large bowel?

No villi
Tubular crypts
Columnar absorptive cells
Goblet cells
Endocrine cells

4

What constitutes the myenteric plexus?

Meissener's plexus (base of submucosa)
Auerbach's plexus (between inner and outer muscle layers)

5

What type of control are the extrinsic muscles of the bowel under?

Autonomic innervation

6

What is the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease?

Strong immune response against normal flora with defects in the epithelial barrier function in genetically susceptible people

7

What are the pathological features of ulcerative colitis?

Limited to the colon
Continuous pattern of inflammation

8

What are the histological features of ulcerative colitis?

Inflammation of mucosa
Crypt abscesses
Disarray of crypts
Mucosal atrophy
Ulceration into submucosa- pseudopolyps
Submucosal fibrosis

9

What are the complications of ulcerative colitis?

Haemorrhage
Perforation
Toxic dilatation
Increased risk of cancer

10

What are the pathological features of Crohn's disease?

Thickened, oedematous and fibrotic mesentery
Can effect any level of tract from mouth to anus
Narrowing of lumen
Can present as skip lesions
Ulceration

11

What are the histology features of Crohn's disease?

Cryptitis and crypt abscesses
Atrophy
Deep ulceration
Transmural inflammation
Non caseating granulomas
Fibrosis
Hypertrophy of mural nerves

12

What are the complications of Crohn's disease?

Malabsorption
Strictures
Fistulas and abscesses
Perforation
Increased risk of cancer

13

What is ischaemic enteritis?

Acute occlusion of 1 of the 3 major supply vessels leading to infarction (coeliac, sup mesenteric and inf mesenteric arteries)

14

What are the predisposing conditions of ischaemia?

Arterial thrombosis (atherosclerosis, aneurysm, hypercoagulable states, oral contraceptives)
Arterial embolism
Cardiac failure

15

What are the histologic features of acute ischaemia?

Oedema
Intestinal haemorrhages
Initial absence of inflammation
Sloughing necrosis of mucosa
Vascular dilatation

16

What are the pathological features of chronic ischaemia?

Mucosal inflammation
Ulceration
Submucosal inflammation
Fibrosis
Strictures

17

What are the symptoms of radiation colitis?

Abdominal cramps
Diarrhoea
Malabsorption
Weight loss

18

What are the histological features of radiation colitis?

Bizarre cellular changes
Crypt abscesses
Arterial stenosis
Ulceration
Necrosis
Haemorrhage
Perforation

19

What are the histological features of appendicitis?

Fibrinopurulent exudate
Perforation
Abscess
Acute inflammation in wall and pus in lumen

20

What are the features of low grade adenoma?

Increased nuclear size
Increased nuclear number
Reduced mucin

21

What are the features of high grade adenoma?

Crowded
Very irregular
Carcinoma in situ

22

What are the symptoms of a right sided colorectal adenocarcinoma?

Anaemia
Vague pain
Weakness
Exophytic/polypoid

23

What are the symptoms of a left sided colorectal adenocarcinoma?

Annular (similar to apple core)
Bleeding
Altered bowel habit