Colorectal cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Colorectal cancer Deck (15):
1

What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer?

Age
Male
Previous adenoma or colorectal cancer
Diet
Obesity
Lack of exercise
Smoking
Diabetes

2

How do most colorectal cancers arise?

Pre-existing colorectal polyps

3

What is the origin of adenoma polyps?

Epthelial

4

What are the 2 min histological types of adenomas?

Tubular
Villous

5

What is the morphology of adenoma polyps?

Pedunculated
Sessile

6

How does colorectal cancer present?

Rectal bleeding
Altered bowel opening
Diarrhoea
Iron deficiency anaemia
Palpable rectal or right lower abdominal mass
Acute colonic obstruction
Weight loss

7

What are the investigations of colorectal cancer?

Colonoscopy (retrieve tissue biopsy, polypectomy)
Barium enema
CT colonography

8

What are the risks of colonoscopy?

Perforation
Bleeding
Sedation issues

9

What is the pathway progression of Duke's classification?

A= tumour confined to mucosa
B= tumour extended through mucosa to muscle layer
C= involvement of lymph nodes
D= distant metastatic disease

10

What is the treatment for colorectal cancer?

Surgery
Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy (rectal only)

11

What is the palliative treatment for colorectal cancer?

Chemotherapy
Colonic stenting

12

What test is used to screen the population for colorectal cancer?

FOB (faecal occult blood ) test

13

What are the high risk groups that must be screened?

Inflammatory bowel disease
Previous adenomas/CRC
Familial risk
Heritable conditions (familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer)

14

What is familial adenomatous polyposis?

Autosomal dominant condition
Mutation of APC gene on chromosome 5
Caan get desmoid tumours or extracolic manifestations

15

What is hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer?

Autosomal dominant condition
Mutation in DNA mismatch repair genes