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Flashcards in Biliary surgery and Gallstones Deck (15):
1

What is the function of the gallbladder?

Bile reservoir
Concentrates bile
Secretion of bile after meal

2

What are the risk factors for gallstones?

Age
Gender (9:1 females)
4F (female, forty, fertile, fair)
Oral contraceptives
Long term low fat diet

3

How do gallstones present?

Jaundice
Empyema
Acute cholecystitis (RUQ pain)
Biliary colic

4

What are choledocho-lithiasis?

Bile duct stones

5

What are the symptoms of obstructive jaundice?

Pain
Jaundice
Dark urine
Pale stools
Pruritis
Steatorrhoea

6

What are the investigations for gallstones?

Bloods
Ultrasound
EUS
CT

7

What are the management options for gallstones?

Dissolution
Lithotripsy
Cholecystectomy

8

What are the causes of benign biliary tract disease?

Congenital (biliary atresia, choledochal cysts)
Benign biliary stricture (iatrogenic, gallstone related, inflammatory)

9

What is the cause of primary sclerosis cholangitis?

Association with inflammatory bowel disease especially ulcerative colitis, thought to be autoimmune

10

What are the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma?

Primary sclerosis cholangitis
Congenital cystic disease
Biliary enteric drainage
Hepatolithiasis

11

What are the 3 types of cholangiocarcinoma

Mass forming
Peri ductal
Intra ductal

12

How does cholangiocarcinoma present?

Obstructive jaundice
Itching
None specific symptoms

13

What investigations are used for cholangiocarcinoma?

Lab
ERCP
Ultrasound
EUS
CT
MRCP

14

How is cholangiocarcinoma managed?

Surgery only potential curative option
Palliative (bypass, stenting)
Radio/chemo don't work

15

What are the treatment options for ampullarf tumours?

Endoscopic excision
Trans duodenal excision
Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple)