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Flashcards in Oesophageal disorders Deck (20):
1

Where does the oesophagus begin and end?

Begins at lower level of cricoid cartilage (C6)
Terminates at T11-12

2

What type of epithelium is present in the oesophagus?

Stratified squamous

3

What type of muscle is present in the oesophagus?

Upper part is striated muscle, lower part is smooth muscle

4

What are the symptoms of oesophageal disease?

Heartburn
Dysphagia
Odynophagia

5

What are the causes of oesophageal dysphagia?

Benign or malignant stricture
Motility disorders (achalasia)

6

What investigations are used for oesophageal disease?

Endoscopy
Contrast radiology
Oesophageal pH and manometry

7

What is achalasia?

Functional loss of myenteric plexus ganglion cells?

8

What are the symptoms of achalasia?

Progressive dysphagia
Weight loss
Chest pain

9

What is the treatment for achalasia?

Nitrates
Calcium channel blockers
Botulinum toxin
Pneumatic balloon dilation
Surgery (myotomy)

10

What are the complications of achalasia?

Aspiration pneumonia
Increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus

11

What are the symptoms of gastro oesophageal reflux disease?

Heaetburn
Cough
Waterbrash
Sleep disturbance

12

What are the risk factors for gastro oesophageal reflux disease?

Pregnancy
Obesity
Smoking
Alcoholism
Hypomotility
Drugs lowering LOS pressure

13

What happens biologically with gastro oesophageal reflux disease?

Relaxations of LOS
Delayed gastric emptying
Delayed oesophageal emptying
Decreased tissue resistance to acid/bile

14

What happens to the pathophysiology with gastro oesophageal reflux disease?

Mucosa exposed to acid and bile
Increased cell loss
Erosive oesophagitis

15

What are the complications of gastro oesophageal reflux disease?

Ulceration
Stricture
Glandular metaplasia (Barrett's oesophagus)
Carcinoma

16

What happens to the epithelium in Barrett's oesophagus?

Changes from squamous to mucin secreting columnar

17

How is gastro oesophageal reflux disease treated?

Lifestyle changes
Alginates
Proton pump inhibitors
H2RA
Anti reflux surgery

18

What are the different types of oesophageal cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma

19

What are the symptoms of oesophageal cancer?

Progressive dysphagia
Weight loss
Odynophagia
Chest pain
Cough
Haematemesis

20

How is oesophageal cancer treated?

Surgery with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy
Endoscopic stent
Most palliative care