Flashcards in Oesophageal disorders Deck (20):
Where does the oesophagus begin and end?
Begins at lower level of cricoid cartilage (C6)
Terminates at T11-12
What type of epithelium is present in the oesophagus?
What type of muscle is present in the oesophagus?
Upper part is striated muscle, lower part is smooth muscle
What are the symptoms of oesophageal disease?
What are the causes of oesophageal dysphagia?
Benign or malignant stricture
Motility disorders (achalasia)
What investigations are used for oesophageal disease?
Oesophageal pH and manometry
What is achalasia?
Functional loss of myenteric plexus ganglion cells?
What are the symptoms of achalasia?
What is the treatment for achalasia?
Calcium channel blockers
Pneumatic balloon dilation
What are the complications of achalasia?
Increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus
What are the symptoms of gastro oesophageal reflux disease?
What are the risk factors for gastro oesophageal reflux disease?
Drugs lowering LOS pressure
What happens biologically with gastro oesophageal reflux disease?
Relaxations of LOS
Delayed gastric emptying
Delayed oesophageal emptying
Decreased tissue resistance to acid/bile
What happens to the pathophysiology with gastro oesophageal reflux disease?
Mucosa exposed to acid and bile
Increased cell loss
What are the complications of gastro oesophageal reflux disease?
Glandular metaplasia (Barrett's oesophagus)
What happens to the epithelium in Barrett's oesophagus?
Changes from squamous to mucin secreting columnar
How is gastro oesophageal reflux disease treated?
Proton pump inhibitors
Anti reflux surgery
What are the different types of oesophageal cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma
What are the symptoms of oesophageal cancer?