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Pharmaceutics Spring 2016 > Aerosols > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aerosols Deck (43)
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1

When we say deep lung inhalation, this means....

to the alveoli where there is a huge surface area

2

Propellants are used to.....

break the formulation into mist

3

What type of particles are required to reach the deep lung?

aerodynamic diameter

4

route of inhalation (4)

trachea--> bronchi-->bronchioles-->alveoli (tiny sacs)

5

aerodynamic diameter is also known as

mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)

6

There are ____ and _____ factors that affect particle deposition

pharmaceutical
physiological

7

Factor: pharmaceutical vs. physiological
-size
-density
-shape
-charge

pharmaceutical

8

Factor: pharmaceutical vs. physiological
-breathing pattern
-vasculature
-lung anatomy

physiological

9

Factor: pharmaceutical vs. physiological
-mucociliary clearance
-coordination of aerosol generation and inspiration

physiological

10

Factor: pharmaceutical vs. physiological
-velocity
-device
-pattern
-dose
-drug properties

pharmaceutical

11

advantages for inhaled drug (4)

-rapid onset
-huge surface area due to alveoli
-reduce dosage and side effects
-avoid first pass metabolism

12

What do aerosol depend on for power to disperse the active ingredients in a mist, foam, or semisolid? (2)

liquefied or compressed gas

13

The _____ and _____ are an integral part of the formulation for aerosols.

valve assembly
propellant

14

What does the particle size control for aerosols?

the site of action
bigger particle (localized effect in trachea) to smaller particle (alveolar ducts and alveoli)

15

liquefied vs. compressed gas

liquefied: more powerful expansion power (broken up into fine mist)
compressed: more coarse/wet particles

16

T/F You DO need liquefied gas for semisolid aerosols

FALSE; do not

17

T/F There is no contamination of residual product; sterility is maintained without preservative

TRUE

18

T/F Dosage is controlled by metering valves in some aerosols

TRUE

19

What is the story behind fluorinated hydrocarbons?

best for deep lung delivery, but they damage the ozone layer
(extremely effective, relatively inert, nontoxic, and nonflammable)

20

Types of aerosol propellants? (2)

-hydrocarbons
-compressed gas (do not give fine mist)

21

What will happen to the pressure in an aerosol container as some product is released?

-liquefied propellant is used: pressure remains constant
-compressed gas is used: pressure decrease because gas amount decreases

22

Types of aerosol filling (2)

-cold filling
-pressure filling

23

When can cold filling be used?

product first then valve
-if it's a known aqueous solution

24

Which filling is most common in pharmaceutics?

pressure filling
-valve first then product

25

______ of propellant exerts pressure in all directions

vapor pressure

26

_____ this pressure forces the liquid up the dip tube and out the valve orifice

upon actuation of valve

27

________ propellant vaporizes to break the formulation into a fine mist

upon release

28

What controls the pressure/type of aerosol? (3)

-type and amount of propellant
-product concentrate
-valve

29

What happens when a drug is not mixable with the propellant?

it will break out into layers

30

types of aerosols? (4)

-space spray
-surface spray
-foams
-inhalation aerosols

31

types of aerosol?
-a lot of propellant
-high pressure

space spray (ex. deodorizer)

32

types of aerosol?
dermatological spray

surface spray

33

types of aerosol?
emulsion

foams (ex.shaving cream)

34

types of liquid inhalers? (2)

-metered dose inhaler
-nebulizer

35

metered dose inhaler

-defined dose given (limited volume discharge)

36

nebulizer (2)

-no propellant instead have compressed air (used to break the drug solution into fine particles)
-valve attached to external pump

37

T/F CFC free MDI are available

TRUE

38

A metered dose inhaler is designed to deliver an asthma medication-does it have to be sterile? Will it be single or multiple dose? preservative? How about a nebulizer?

-YES because it is going into the lung system (lung is a delicate organ)
-Multiple with no preservative due to positive pressure
-Yes sterile, but no preservative due to external pump; single dose

39

T/F Dry powder inhalers can deliver drugs to deep lung

TRUE

40

What is an advantage of dry powder inhalers?

aerosol particles contain drug in very concentrated form allowing deliver of therapeutic dose in one or three puffs

41

T/F Risk of microbial growth, which can cause lung infections, is LESS in liquids than in solids

FALSE: greater

42

Aerosolization generates excessive air/water interface....

may lead to denaturation or aggregation (evaporation of droplets may cause increase in protein concentration)

43

What is purpose of spacer?

to give the particles a longer time to break down before it gets to the mouth