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Pharmaceutics Spring 2016 > Nuclear Pharmacy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nuclear Pharmacy Deck (62)
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1

Why is nuclear pharmacy specialized? (2)

-deals with radioactive material
-radioactive material have a very short life span

2

_____ recognized nuclear pharmacy as a specialty practice in 1975

APhA

3

T/F In 1978 the Board of Pharmacy Specialities made nuclear pharmacy the SECOND specialty certification program

FALSE: FIRST

4

What 2 environments do nuclear pharmacists typically work?

-institutional nuclear pharmacy (large medical center)
-commercial centralized pharmacy (off site)

5

Which environment is the most common for nuclear pharmacists to work in?

commercial centralized pharmacy

6

____ regulates nuclear pharmacy

NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

7

What are the training requirements for nuclear pharmacy? (4)

-registered pharmacist
-board certified by BPS
-Exam
-4000 hours training (classroom + practical training)

8

brachytherapy

placing radioactivity AT the site you are trying to destroy

9

T/F Brachytherapy is a NON-INVASIVE procedure

TRUE--> typically the theraseeds only have to be placed in the body ONCE

10

T/F If beta radiation is completed correctly, it is very localized

TRUE

11

Imaging uses _____ radiation

gamma (higher energy)--> travels long distances

12

Therapeutic radiation uses ________ radiation

beta (travels short distance)

13

Who has control in nuclear pharmacy? (3)

-NRC
-BOP
-State BOP (state agency)

14

A nucleotide generator uses

99mTcO4 (6 hour half life)

15

What is the purpose of the fume hood in radoopharmaceuticals?

filters to trap radioactive gases

16

Why are the containers used during radiopharmaceutical preparation made out of lead?

Because it is releasing gamma radiation (LEAD can stop GAMMA radiation)

17

_____ is the RATIO of radioactivity of the RADIONUCLIDE to the TOTAL activity in the preparation

radionuclide purity

18

_____ is the PERCENTAGE of the RADIONUCLIDE present in a specific CHEMICAL form

radiochemical purity

19

radionuclides must be: (3)

-sterile
-pyrogen free
-no particulate matter

20

Quality of assurance radionuclides is maintained by considering: (5)

-sterility
-pyrogenicity
-absence of foreign particulate matter
-particle size
-pH

21

_____ is a radioactive pharmaceutical agent that is used for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures

radiopharmaceutical

22

For a product to be classified as a radio- pharmaceutical agent safe for human use, the preparer must:

-satisfy a state agency (State BOP)
-FDA
-NRC

23

T/F The FDA and NRC responsibilities have overlapping jurisdictions

TRUE

24

What two areas are radoopharmaceuticals divided into?

-diagnosis (well established)
-therapeutic (evolving)

25

The largest portion of radiopharmaceutical products have applications in what areas? (3)

-cardiology (myocardial perfusion)
-oncology (tumor imaging)
-neurology (cerebral perfusion

26

What do radiopharmaceutical consist of? (2)

-drug component
-radioactive component

27

Most radionuclide contain a component that emits ____ radiation

gamma (high energy; short wavelength)

28

Substances that have varying numbers of protons and neutrons as compared to stable elements are called_____

radionuclides

29

Nuclides can be ___ or _____

stable or unstable

30

What is an important distinction between radiopharmaceuticals (RP) and traditional drugs?

radiopharmaceuticals lack pharmacologic activity

31

What is an advantage of RP?

radioactivity allows non-invasive external monitoring or targeted therapeutic irradiation with very little effect on the biologic processes in the body

32

T/F RP have very high adverse effects

FALSE; incidence are extremely low

33

Systemic administration of radiopharma- ceuticals for site-specific use allows the phy- sician to treat ______

treat widely disseminated diseases

34

Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are designed for _________ and based solely upon _________ of the target organ even if the actual location of the cancerous tumor is unknown.

site specificity ;physiological function

35

T/F ALL of the atoms of an unstable radionuclide completely rearrange at the same instant

FALSE: NOT ALL

36

The time required for a radionuclide to decay to 50% of its original activity is termed its _________

radioactive half-life

37

The activity of a radioactive material is expressed as...

the number of nuclear transformations per unit of time

38

Because of decay, all radioactivity ______ with time because fewer atoms remain as the atoms decay

decreases

39

The fraction of nuclei disintegrating with time is always ______

constant

40

The _______ the decay constant the faster the decay and the ______ the half- life.

larger; shorter

41

Half life is ______ proportional to the decay constant

inversely

42

What is the fundamental unit of radioactivity?

Curie (Ci)

43

The amount of radiation absorbed by body tissue in which a radioactive sub- stance resides is called______

radiation dose (measured in rad)

44

___ is the international unit of absorbed dose

Gray (Gy)

45

What are the 3 types of radiation decay?

-alpha
-beta
-gamma

46

_____ has the largest mass and charge radiation ( 2 protons and 2 neutrons)

alpha

47

As an alpha particle loses energy, its velocity ______

decreases

48

T/F Most alpha particles are unable to pierce the outer layers of skin or penetrate a thin piece of paper.

TRUE

49

______ because the charge is large, it does cause a great deal of damage to the immedi- ate area by breaking down DNA.

alpha particles

50

_____ may be either electrons with negative charge, negatrons, or positive electrons, posi- trons.

beta particles

51

T/F Beta particles are be used for therapeutic us

TRUE

52

Where do Auger electrons originate from?

the nucleus

53

Auger electrons are similar to ____ particles

beta

54

The optimum dose of a radiopharmaceutical is that which allows acquisition of the desired information with the ______ amount of radiation dose or exposure to the patient.

least

55

Best diagnostic images at the lowest radiation dose are attained if the radionuclide has a ______ and emits only _____ radiation

short half-life; gamma

56

It is commonly known as the “ideal” radionuclide for DIAGNOSTIC imaging.

99mTc

57

For therapeutic use, radionuclides should emit ______, which deposits the radiation within the target organ

beta radiation

58

____emits both beta and gamma, so it can used for diagnosis and therapeutic procedures

131I

59

RP can be used: (4)

-to diagnose disease
-evaluate progression of disease
-evaluate drug toxicity
-treat diseased tissue

60

Imaging procedures are classified as either ____ or _____

dynamic or static

61

The ________ provides useful information through the rate of accumulation and
removal of the radiopharmaceutical from a specific organ

dynamic study

62

A ________ merely provides perfusion and morphologic informa- tion, such as assessing adequacy of blood flow;

static study