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Pharmaceutics Spring 2016 > Topical Dosage Forms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topical Dosage Forms Deck (39)
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1

Topical dosage forms are meant for...

localized effects

2

Semisolid dosage forms are intended for topical application to_____ or _____

skin; mucous membrane

3

3 Types of ointments

-mediated
-non-mediated
-pastes

4

examples of medicated ointments

itching, acne, athletes foot
-used as vehicle

5

examples of nonmedicated ointments

vasoline
-used as emollient or lubricant

6

examples of paste ointments

zine oxide paste
-large percentage of solid material

7

What are the 4 classifications of ointments?

-oleaginous (hydrocarbon)
-absorption
-water-removable
-water-soluble

8

HYDROCARBON BASES:
-3 types for Petrolatum alone

-liquid hydrocarbon
-semisolid hydrocarbon
-solid hydrocarbon

9

HYDROCARBON BASES:
Liquid hydrocarbon-->

mineral oil

10

HYDROCARBON BASES:
Semisolid hydrocarbon-->

yellow petrolatum --> if you decolorize you get white petrolatum

11

HYDROCARBON BASES:
Solid hydrocarbon-->

paraffin wax

12

You can change the viscosity of petrolatum by...

adding wax or mineral oil

13

To make petrolatum more viscous

ADD wax

14

To make petrolatum less viscous

ADD mineral oil

15

T/F Oleaginous bases have BAD occlusive and emollient properties

FALSE: GOOD

16

occlusive? emollient?

occlusive: blocks water loss
emollient: smoothing of the skin

17

Yellow ointment is an example of...

hydrocarbon base

18

absorption bases

w/o emulsion or an anhydrous base that can be converted to w/o emulsion

19

What is an examples of a w/o emulsion?(2)

-Lanolin
-Cold Cream

20

T/F There is NO emulsifying agent in cold cream.

TRUE (there is a reaction with free acids from waxes+ sodium borate = sodium soap (surfactant which is the emulsifier)

21

Water removable bases are

-o/w emulsion
-easily wash off

22

Parabens found in hydrophilic ointments act as

preservatives

23

Sodium Alcohol and white petrolatum found in hydrophilic ointments act as

oily components

24

Sodium Lauryl sulfate found in hydrophilic ointments act as

emulsifying agent

25

water soluble bases (2)

-greaseless bases
-polyethylene glycol ointment (PEG 3350 and PEG 400)

26

viscous

having a thick, sticky consistency

27

How can ointments be prepared? (2)

-incorporation
-fusion

28

Geometric dilution and/or legivation are included in which ointment preparation?

incorporation
legivation: reduce particle size by mixing with a vehicle in which the drug is not soluble

29

FUSION preparation of ointments

the melting point will be lower than the highest individual component when melted separately

30

Products applied topically should be free of _____ and ______

P aeruginosa
S aureus

31

Products intended for rectal, urethral, or vaginal use should be tested for____ and ______

yeast and molds

32

T/F Ointments DO NOT have to be sterile

TRUE

33

T/F ALL emulsion forms of ointments require an antimicrobial agent

TRUE

34

The ointments tubes are usually in packages made of HDPE

high density polyethylene

35

Vanishing cream is an example of

o/w emulsion

36

Gels can be made of _____ or _____

carbopols (carbomers)
hydroxyethylcellulose

37

_______ is ONLY a neutralizing agent for carbopol gel

sodium hydroxide

38

Isopropyl myristate is a ______ in gels

chemical enhancer

39

4 Types of Irritation testing

-chromameter (measures changes in skin color)
-transepidermal water loss
-animal testing
-cell culture