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Pharmaceutics Spring 2016 > Solutions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Solutions Deck (27)
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1

Advantages of solutions (4)

-can be used externally
-drugs absorbed in dissolved state
-easily adjusted
-convenient for those unable to swallow solid dosage

2

Disadvantages of solutions (4)

-hard to do taste masking
-drug may not be stable
-bulky and heavy
-dose measurement inaccurate

3

Ways to make purified water (3)

-distillation
-ion exchange resin
-reverse osmosis

4

What method?
Cation and Anion exchangers used successively or simultaneously to remove both cations and anions from water (uses demineralized or deionized water)

Ion-exchange method

5

solubility vs. saturated solution
Concentration of solute in a saturated solution
at a certain temperature

solubility

6

solubility vs. saturated solution
Has dissolved the maximum amount of solute possible
at a given temperature

saturated solution

7

The U. S. Pharmacopeia and National Formulary lists the solubility of drugs as the number of _______ of solvent in which ____ of solute will dissolve.

milliliters; 1 gram

8

Alcohol is a widely used solvent, but has ____ at concentrations greater than 15%

preservative

9

What are some examples of commonly used solvents? (3)

-glycerin
-propylene glycol (PG)
-PEG 400

10

______ is a 85% solution of sucrose in purified water

simple syrup

11

Concentrated sugar solutions are......

resistant to microbial growth--> generally no preservative needed

12

T/F Sucrose can be replaced in whole or in part by other sugars

TRUE

13

T/F The characteristic viscosity and sweetness of syrup can mask the taste of added medicinal agents

TRUE

14

How can syrups be prepared? (3)

-solution with heat
-agitation without heat
-percolation

15

percolation

a column with sucrose and liquid is passed through to dissolve the sucrose

16

Stability?
Dodecyl gallate; octyl gallate, propyl gallate;
BHA, BHT
Vitamin E

antioxidants-> prevent oxidation

17

Stability?
Citric Acid and EDTA

cheating agents--> minimize metal effect

18

Preservatives help to protect against_______

microbial contamination

19

Elixir = _______ + _______

water + alcohol

20

What can elixirs dissolve? (2)

-water soluble
-alcohol soluble

21

_______ clear, sweetened hydroalcoholic liquids intended for oral use

elixir

22

_____ replace the ions/fluid lost by diarrhea

oral rehydration solutions

23

nasal solutions are ____ to the nasal fluid and buffered to the normal pH range of 5.5 to 6.5

isotonic

24

_____ glycerin is used in ear drops

anhydrous

25

anhydrous

viscosity and removal of moisture (takes out water that may be in the ear)

26

douches, enemas, gargles, mouth washes are all examples of ....

solutions

27

T/F Solutions can be in a dry powder form then reconstituted for use within 7-14 days

TRUE