Alcohol Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Alcohol > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohol Deck (39):
1

What is the prevalence of alcohol hepatitis in heavy drinkers?

50%

1

What can result from the decrease in gluconeogenesis during alcohol metabolism?

Hypoglycaemia > faintness

3

How fast to do humans clear alcohol from the system?

1 standard drink per hour or ~0.015% decrease in blood alcohol

3

Apart from the liver, where else can alcohol dehydrogenase be present?

The stomach mucosa

4

What are the two alternate pathways for alcohol metabolism apart for alcohol dehydrogenase?

Cytochrome P450 - CYP 2E1

Oxidation by catalase

5

What is acetaldehyde converted into in alcohol metabolism?

Acetate

5

What catalyses acetaldehyde to acetate?

Aldehyde dehydrogenase

6

At what alcohol percentage is consciousness lost?

0.3%

7

At what alcohol percentage does dysphoria replace euphoria?

0.16-0.2%

8

What happens to serum albumin concentration over the course of chronic liver disease?

It remains stable right up until cirrhosis presents

8

What limits the rate at which alcohol can be removed from the blood?

The alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism pathway is quickly saturated

9

How does alcohol affect the CNS?

Disrupts neuronal cell membranes making them leaky and impairing their action

10

Which GABA receptor agonists helps with alcohol withdrawals?

Acamprosate

11

What is the most significant enzyme involved in the metabolism of alcohol to acetaldehyde?

Alcohol dehydrogenase

12

Where does most alcohol enter the blood from?

The intestines

13

Why does gluconeogenesis decrease in response to alcohol consumption?

Alcohol dehydrogenase produces NAPH (as well as acetaldehyde) 

14

What can you give alcoholics to help them stop drinking?

Disulfiram - inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase

15

What happens to acetate in alcohol metabolism?

Goes into the TCA cycle for energy

or is converted into fat

17

How much of liver can you loose while retaining liver function??

60%

18

How fast can you clear alcohol from the blood?

0.015% alcohol per hour

18

What are the effects of alcohol of drug metabolism?

Prevents drug clearance when alcohol is present (they share the same metabolic pathway)

Promotes drug clearance when alcohol isn't present

19

Why do some people of Japanese and Chinese descent have trouble with alcohol?

They have an inactive variant of aldehyde dehydrogenase

20

What are some ways alcohol damaged cells?

Decreases intake of anti-oxidants

Decrease intake of glutathione

CYP2E1 free radicals

Increases absorption of Fe > free radicals

21

What is the chemical formula for ethanol?

C2H5OH

23

What can slow alcohol absorption?

Food, particularly fatty food

24

What are indicators of severe alcohol dependency?

When withdrawal causes anxiety, tremors, sweating and vomiting

25

What chemical do we refer to when we use the common term "alcohol"

Ethanol

27

What can happen to CYP2E1 in response to chronic alcohol consumption?

Increases up to 4-fold

28

Does alcoholic cirrhosis occur in all heavy drinkers?

No, only 15-30%

29

T/F There is a genetic component in alcoholism

True

30

Why aren't alcohol as obese as expected from their alcohol consumption?

CYP2E1 metabolism consumes NADPH

31

T/F The liver metabolises all alcohol consumed

False, it metabolises 90%

Some is metabolised in the stomach

32

Why are women more likely to be affected by alcohol?

Because it doesn't distribute into fat

33

Name some signs of alcoholism

Jaundice

Ascites

Palmar erythema

Gynacomastia

Enlarged collateral vessels

Hand tremor

Neurological disturbances

Oesophageal varices

 

35

Does alcohol get through the BBB?

Yes

36

How does alcohol cause dehydration?

Interferes with the pituitary to decrease it production of anti-diuretics

37

What is the cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?

Thiamin deficiency

38

How is testosterone affected by alcohol consumption?

Destroyed

39

What daily alcohol consumption is a low risk to health?

2