What is the prevalence of alcohol hepatitis in heavy drinkers?
What can result from the decrease in gluconeogenesis during alcohol metabolism?
Hypoglycaemia > faintness
How fast to do humans clear alcohol from the system?
1 standard drink per hour or ~0.015% decrease in blood alcohol
Apart from the liver, where else can alcohol dehydrogenase be present?
The stomach mucosa
What are the two alternate pathways for alcohol metabolism apart for alcohol dehydrogenase?
Cytochrome P450 - CYP 2E1
Oxidation by catalase
What is acetaldehyde converted into in alcohol metabolism?
What catalyses acetaldehyde to acetate?
At what alcohol percentage is consciousness lost?
At what alcohol percentage does dysphoria replace euphoria?
What happens to serum albumin concentration over the course of chronic liver disease?
It remains stable right up until cirrhosis presents
What limits the rate at which alcohol can be removed from the blood?
The alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism pathway is quickly saturated
How does alcohol affect the CNS?
Disrupts neuronal cell membranes making them leaky and impairing their action
Which GABA receptor agonists helps with alcohol withdrawals?
What is the most significant enzyme involved in the metabolism of alcohol to acetaldehyde?
Where does most alcohol enter the blood from?
Why does gluconeogenesis decrease in response to alcohol consumption?
Alcohol dehydrogenase produces NAPH (as well as acetaldehyde)
What can you give alcoholics to help them stop drinking?
Disulfiram - inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase
What happens to acetate in alcohol metabolism?
Goes into the TCA cycle for energy
or is converted into fat
How much of liver can you loose while retaining liver function??
How fast can you clear alcohol from the blood?
0.015% alcohol per hour
What are the effects of alcohol of drug metabolism?
Prevents drug clearance when alcohol is present (they share the same metabolic pathway)
Promotes drug clearance when alcohol isn't present
Why do some people of Japanese and Chinese descent have trouble with alcohol?
They have an inactive variant of aldehyde dehydrogenase
What are some ways alcohol damaged cells?
Decreases intake of anti-oxidants
Decrease intake of glutathione
CYP2E1 free radicals
Increases absorption of Fe > free radicals
What is the chemical formula for ethanol?
What can slow alcohol absorption?
Food, particularly fatty food
What are indicators of severe alcohol dependency?
When withdrawal causes anxiety, tremors, sweating and vomiting
What chemical do we refer to when we use the common term "alcohol"
What can happen to CYP2E1 in response to chronic alcohol consumption?
Increases up to 4-fold
Does alcoholic cirrhosis occur in all heavy drinkers?
No, only 15-30%
T/F There is a genetic component in alcoholism
Why aren't alcohol as obese as expected from their alcohol consumption?
CYP2E1 metabolism consumes NADPH
T/F The liver metabolises all alcohol consumed
False, it metabolises 90%
Some is metabolised in the stomach
Why are women more likely to be affected by alcohol?
Because it doesn't distribute into fat
Name some signs of alcoholism
Enlarged collateral vessels
Does alcohol get through the BBB?
How does alcohol cause dehydration?
Interferes with the pituitary to decrease it production of anti-diuretics
What is the cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
How is testosterone affected by alcohol consumption?
What daily alcohol consumption is a low risk to health?