GIT Histology Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > GIT Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in GIT Histology Deck (71):
1

What are the components of the enteric nervous system?

Sensory neurones

Motor neurones

Interneurones

1

What class of cells are in the anal mucosa?

Stratified squamous

2

What do paneth cell secrete?

Anti-microbial peptides

2

Are sinusoids derived from hepatic arteries or portal veins?

Both

3

Do hepatocytes have microvilli?

Yes

4

How is the portal lobule model defined?

By the direction of bile flow - towards the hepatic triads

5

What is contained in the lamina propria?

CT

Nerves

Small vessels 

Immune cells

5

What is the direction of the 3rd layer of muscle in the stomach?

Oblique - changes over the course of the stomach

5

Name 5 functions of the liver

Absorption of fat

Production of proteins

Detoxification

Metabolism

Storage

5

What does the liver store?

Iron 

Some vitamins

Glycogen

Glucose

 

6

What the capillaries of the liver called?

Sinusoids

7

How are lobules divided?

They are defined by their blood supply

7

Which part of pancreatic cells is darker?

Basal

8

What is the function of the central vein?

Drain blood from the sinusoids into the hepatic veins

8

What makes the basal region of pancreatic cells darker?

Rough ER

9

What does the rough ER of hepatocytes do?

Protein synthesis

11

What distinctive features does the ileum have?

Peyer's patches

Short villi

Lots of goblet cells

11

What class of cells are in the gall bladder?

Simple columnar absorptive

12

What is the connective tissue of the liver called?

Stroma

13

What do the Islets of Langerhan produce?

Insulin and glucagon

14

What are the layers of the mucosa?

Epithelium

Lamina propria

Muscularis mucosae

15

What is contained in the submucosa?

Vessels

Nerves 

Small ganglia 

Sometimes: Immune cells

Glands

15

How do sinusoids differ from capillaries?

Larger

Have discontinuations in their endothelium

15

What are macrophages that interface with hepatocytes called?

Kupfer cells

16

What is the functions of enterocytes?

Fluid transport/absorption

17

What are the common layers of the GIT?

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis externa

Serosa/adventitia

18

What is the structure of pancreatic acini?

Ball of cells around a central duct

20

Where in the GIT are enterocytes found?

Small intestine

Colon 

Appendix

22

Where are the neuronal components for controlling smooth muscle activity?

Myenteric ganglia

23

What is the name of the connective tissue that surrounds hepatocytes?

Reticular fibres

24

What is exceptional about hepatocytes?

They can have multiple nuclei

They have prominant smooth and rough ERs

They have many mitochondria

25

What is the lifespan of a hepatocyte?

150 days

26

What does the smooth ER of the liver do?

Fat and steroid metabolism

28

T/F The jejunum has Peyer's patches?

False, they don't yo

29

Why are their striated muscle cells in the upper oesophageal muscularis externa?

Because swallowing has corticol control

30

What is the name of the sphincter at the major duodenal papilla?

The sphincter of Oddi

31

What percentage of the pancreas is endocrine?

1-2%

33

What direction due muscle fibres of the muscularis externa lie?

Circumferential on the inner layer

Longitudinal on the outside

34

What is the function of the gall bladder?

Store bile 

Concentrate bile by removing water and salts

35

What determines whether the outer layer will be adventitia or serosa?

Adventitia is present where organs are connected to each other

Serosa is present where organs lie against each other

36

What are the three generations of folding in the small intestine?

Plica circulares 

Villi

Microvilli 

37

What do Brunner's glands secrete?

Alkaline mucous to neutralised stomach acid and digestive enzymes

39

What do inter-neurones do?

Control the intrinsic reflexes

40

How can you tell a hepatic artery from a hepatic portal vein?

Hepatic arteries are more circular while hepatic portal veins have a thinner wall

42

T/F the large intestine is just the colon?

False, it includes in the rectum and anal canal

43

What is the name of the endocrine glands of the pancreas?

Islets of Langerhan

44

In terms of plica circulares and villi, how would you describe the duodenum?

Low plica circulares

Long villi

45

What is the main feature of secretory mucosa (eg stomach mucosa)

Long pits of glands

46

T/F Each portal triad supplies one lobule

False, each supplies many

47

What is the composition of blood in sinusoids?

80% deoxygenated

20% oxygenated

48

What makes the lumenal part of pancreatic cells lighter?

Zymogen granules of inactive enzymes

49

What class of cells is the serosa?

Simple squamous

50

What cause the gall bladder to contract and the sphincter of Oddi to relax?

CCK

51

How is the acinar lobule model defined?

By the relative amounts of O2 and metabolites - less towards the central vein

52

What are reticular fibres composed of?

Type I/III collagen

53

What are the channels that collect bile called?

Canaliculi

55

Cf to the small intestine, how many Paneth cells does the large intestine have?

It has less

56

What lies inbetween the muscle layers of the muscularis externa?

Myenteric ganglia (small ganglia)

58

What is the submosa?

Dense, irregular connective tissue

59

What is the function of the muscularis mucosae?

Facilitate mixing

60

What are the 4 cell types of the gastric pits? What do they secretion?

Mucous cells - mucous

Parietal cells - acid

Enteroendocrine cells - hormones (gastrin)

Chief cells - pro-enzymes (pepsinogen)

61

What class of cell make up the epithelium of the oesophagus?

Stratified squamous 

63

The structure of Brunner's glands could be described as ...?

Very coiled

64

What are crypts?

Tubular glands in between villi

65

Approximately how big are the lobules of the liver?

0.7mm x 2mm

66

How is the classic lobule model defined?

By the direction of blood flow with the central vein in the middle

67

What is a space of Disse?

Discontinuation of endothelium of a sinusoid

68

What percentage of the products of digestion are absorbed in the small intestine?

85%

69

Given the contents of the large intestine is more solid, what types of cells does it have more of?

Goblet cells

70

What does the portal triad contain?

Hepatic portal vein 

Hepatic artery

Bile duct

Lymphatic

71

How you can tell a bile duct from a vessel in the portal triads?

They have a simple columnar endothelium