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Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (184):
1

Which layers of the thoracolumbar fascia is the quadratus muslce contained in?

Ant and middle layers

1

The oesophageal opening into the stomach is called the ...?

Cardiac orifice

1

What is the hilum of the liver called?

The porta hepatis

1

The tail of the pancreas leads to what?

The spleen

1

Do all unpaired structured of the GIT have mesentery?

No. The did originally but some structure had theirs reabsorbed - these are the secondary retroperitoneal structures

1

Where does the superior mesenteric artery come off the aorta?

1cm below the celiac trunk

2

Between which muscles does the neuro-vascular plane lie?

Internal oblique and transversus abdominis

2

What lies inbetween the right and caudate lobes of the liver?

The IVC

3

What is the ucinate process?

The "tongue" off the head of the pancreas

3

What structures are from the midgut?

Second half of the duodenum

Jejunum and ileum

Ascending and transverse colon

Appendix

 

4

What feature in the jejunum reflects that there is more absorption there cf to the ileum?

Greater mucosal folding

5

All unpaired structures of the GIT are derived from what?

The primative tube

6

The fundus of the stomach usually contains what?

Gas bubble

6

What are the three major mesentery's

The mesogastrium

The mesentery

The transverse mesocolon

7

Upon which muscle do the kidneys sit?

Quadratus lumborum

7

With which muscle does the ureter travel in the abdomen?

The psoas muscle

7

The diaphragmatic surface of the liver is separated into two lobes by what

The falciform ligament

7

Where does the superior mesenteric artery run?

Along the root of The mesentary

8

What is the gastroesophageal junction?

Transition point between oesophagus and stomach

8

What is the major duodenal papilla?

Point of insertion for the bile and pancreatic duct

8

Is the pancreas retro or intraperitoneal?

Retro

9

In what order do the vessels of the kidneys sit (from anterior to posterior)

Vein > Artery > Renal pelvis

9

Which is longer the jejunum or ileum?

Ileum

10

LNs from abdo structures are situated where?

On and beside the aorta

12

What structure does the pyloric area of the stomach make?

A funnel

12

How does bile enter the gallbladder?

When the sphincter is closed it backs up into the common bile duct (not the pancreatic) and drains into the gallbladder

13

What does the cystic duct drain?

The gall bladder

14

Is the hepatic vein in the hilum of the liver?

No

15

At what level does the oesophagus travel through the diaphragm?

T10

15

Parasympathetic innervation is from the vagus for which structures?

Foregut 

Midgut

16

What is the significance of the narrowings the ureter?

Kidney stones can stop there

18

What is the function of the quadratus lumborum?

Lateral flexor of the spine

Stabiliser of the hip

19

Which of the liver's lobes is the biggest?

The right

20

What veins drain the abdominal wall?

IVC and portal vein

21

What does the renal sinus contain?

Fat

21

What does the spleenic artery supply?

Spleen

Pancreas

Left gastroepiploic artery

23

What is the difference in the rectus sheath between the superior and anterior part?

Superiorly it completely surrounds the rectus abdominis (external's aponeurosis infront, internal split and transersus behind). But inferiorly all three aponeurosis are ant to the rectus muscle and behind is the arcuate line.

23

T/F all the duodenum is intraperitoneal

False, only the first inch is intraperitoneal, the rest is retroperitoneal

24

What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?

Controls food exiting from the stomach

24

Name the secondary retroperitoneal structures

Ascending and descending colon 

Pancreas

Bile duct

Duodenum

 

25

Where does the ileum insert into the large intestine?

Cecum

25

Where do ganglia for the hindgut come from?

T12-L3

25

Where is pain from unpair abdo structures down from midway along the sigmoid colon to the anus referred to?

Perineal region

28

In which part of the stomach do the left and right gastric arteries run?

Lesser curvature of the stomach

29

What is the course of the splenic artery?

Long turtuous

Along the pancreas, behind the stomach and into hilum of spleen

31

What is the origin and insertion of the quadratus luborum?

O: Transverse process and 12th rib

I: Post aspect of the iliac crest

32

What is the course of the greater omentum?

Starts on the greater curvature of the stomach

Extends over the transverse colon and small intestine

Folded backwards at the bottom and travels back to over the transverse colon and towards to post abdo wall

 

33

What are epiploic appendages?

Fat tags that hang from the colon

35

What is the minor duodenal papilla for?

Opening for the accessory pancreatic duct

35

What demarcates the diaphragmatic and visceral surface of the liver?

Inferior margin of the liver

35

How do the spleenic vein and inferior mesenteric vein drain into the portal vein?

The inferior mesenteric vein joins the spleen vein and they drain into the superior mesenteric vein which becomes the portal vein

36

What are the haustra of the large intestine?

The collections/bulges that are divided by folds

37

Most of the pancreas is behind which GIT structure?

The stomach

38

Where are the oblique muscle aponeurotic?

Medially

39

In what direct do the pyramid of the kidney's medulla point?

Towards the hilum

40

Which has more fat in its mesentery, the jejunum or the ileum?

Ileum

41

What structures form the inguinal canal?

Floor: inguinal ligament

Roof: is the arching fibres of the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis

43

How is the stomach divided?

Fundus

Body (corpus)

Pylori (pyloric antrum then canal)

44

Parasympathetic innervation is from the pelvic splanchnics for which GIT structures?

Hindgut

45

Which artery supply the hindgut?

Inferior mesenteric artery

46

Where does the celiac trunk branch from the aorta?

T12

47

What is the falciform ligament?

A double fold of peritoneum

47

What is bad about liver fibrosis for the hepatic venous system?

Fibrosis impedes blood flow > increased pressure in an otherwise low pressure system > Veins that are alternate routes enlarge

49

What are the lobes of the liver?

Right

Caudate

Quadratic 

Left

50

Name the paired structures of the abdomen?

Kidneys

Adrenal glands

Ureters

52

What is the length of the oesophagus in the abdomen?

1/2 an inch

52

Which parts of the colon are retroperitoneal?

The ascending and descending

53

The horizontal part of the duodenum runs between which muscles?

Right to left psoas muscles

54

In which part of the duodenum do the bile and pancreatic duct insert?

The middle part that runs downwards

56

Around which organ does the duodenum line?

Head of the pancreas

57

T/F Part of the greater omentum and transverse mesocolon attach to the post abdo wall at the same place. If so, where?

True

Above and behind the transverse colon

57

Where are sympathetic ganglia located?

Around unpaired branches of aorta and renal arteries

58

What is the name of the membrane that surrounds the post abdo wall muscles?

thoracolumbar fascia

58

Where are the cisterna chyli located? What comes from them?

Just below the diaphragm

Thoracic duct

60

What are the origins, course and insertions of the internal oblique muscle?

Origin: Thoracolumbar fascia, ant 2/3 of the of iliac crest, connective tissue deep to the lateral third of the linguinal ligament

Courses towards the linea alba

Insertions: Interferior borders of costal margin, linea alba, pubic crest via the conjoint tendon

61

Which is darker in colour, the cortex or medulla of the kidney?

Medulla

63

What is the difference between parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum?

Visceral peritoneum surrounds organs while parietal peritoneum lines cavity walls

64

Which quadrant is the spleen in?

Upper left

65

Which renal artery has a shorter trip to the its kidney?

Left

67

What is special about the free edge of the lesser omentum?

It contains the portal vein, hepatic artery and ducts

It demarcates the foramen of Winslow (omental foramen)

68

Where does the inferior mesenteric artery arise from the aorta?

L3

69

What is the common bile duct joined by?

The pancreatic duct

71

What lies inbetween the right and quadratus lobe of the liver?

The gall bladder

72

Why do psoas abscesses end in the inguinal area?

Because when they burst through the vertebrae they can't break through the thoracolumbar fascia

73

Describe the passage of the testis during development

Start at the extra peritoneal fat in the poster lumbar region inside the abdominal cavity

Travel to the deep ring which is located in the aponeurosis of the transversis abdominis, half way between the ASIS and the pubic tubercle, a finger's width above the inguinal ligament

Enter the inguinal canal 

Travel down the canal and out the superficial ring (the triangle structure) 

Go into the scotum

74

Which arteries run along the greater omentum of the stomach?

Left and right gastroepiploic

75

What is the name of the tubes that transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder?

Ureters

76

On which side of the body is the splenic flexture?

Left

77

What are the origins, course and insertions of the transversus abdominis

Internal/underlap of the costal margin, thoracolumnar fascia, illiac crest and lateral 1/3 of the inguinal ligament. 

Runs horizontally

Inserts into the linea alba and joins with the internal oblique to insert in the pubic crest via the conjoint tendon

77

How do the vessels of the jejunal mesentery differ from the vessels of the ileum's mesentery?

There are fewer arterial arcades but longer vasa recta

78

Apart from making the fatty apron, where else does the greater omentum go?

One part goes lateral over the spleen

The other goes superio-lateral straight to the post abdo wall

79

What is contained in the porta hepatis?

Portal vein (behind)

Proper hepatic artery and common hepatic ducts (infront)

(nerves and lymphatics)

81

What are the part of the small intestine?

Duodenum

Jejunum

Ileum

82

What does the gastroduodenal artery do and supply?

Travel down behind the duodenum

Supplies the head of pancreas, first part of duodenum and greater curvature of stomach (via R gastroepiploic)

83

The preaortic LNs and paraaortic LNs form trunk and collect at what?

Ciscerna chyli

84

The liver receives blood from the other organs via what vein?

Portal

85

What are ganglia for foregut structures derived from?

T6-9

 

87

T/F The appendix most commonly extends into the pelvis

False, 65% lie retrocecal

88

What is the name of the gastric folds on the stomach?

Rugae

89

Which side of the stomach is the greater curvature?

Left

90

Foregut structures are supplied which arteries?

Celiac trunk

91

Which structures are derived from the hindgut?

Descending sigmoid colon

Rectum

93

What point demarcates the end of body of the stomach?

Angular notch

94

What is the origin and insertion of the iliacus muscle?

O: Iliac fossa

I: Conjoint tendon of the lesser trochanter of the femur

95

What are the 3 branches of the celiac trunk

Splenic artery

Common hepatic artery

Left gastric a.

97

How is the pancreas divided?

Head > Neck > Body > Tail

98

What is mesentery?

Name for a double fold of parietal peritoneum

99

T/F there is perirenal fat outside the renal fascia

False, it is inbetween the kidney's fibrous capsule and the renal fascia

100

What is the course of the left gastric a. 

Branches off the celiac trunk

Goes up and left

Onto the superior aspect of the lesser curvature of the stomach and travel down that

102

What is a hiatal hernia?

When the stomach herniates through the diaphragm

103

Into how many segmental arteries do the renal arteries split?

5

104

Name the foregut structures

Stomach

First part and half of the second part of duodenum

Liver

Spleen

Gall bladder

Pancreas

106

T/F the duodenum is attached to the right psoas muscle via fibrous tissue

False, it's attached to the left

107

A what point is the greater and lesser sack continuous?

Foramen of Winslow/Epiploic foramen

109

Which renal vein has the shortest route to the IVC?

Right

110

Where are the kidneys in relation to the vertebral column?

T12 to L3

111

What is the origins and course of the lesser omentum?

Lesser curvature and first part of duodenum to the under surface of the liver.

Once at the liver it splits and surrounds it

112

What is the of the course inferior mesenteric a. and what does supply?

Turns left and down towards the iliac fossa

It gives off left colic branch for descending colon and sigmoid colic branch for the sigmoid colon

Becomes the superior rectal artery

113

T/F the jejunum is intraperitoneal while the ileum is retroperitoneal

False, both are intraperitoneal

114

What is the ligamentum teres?

A round ligament at the end of the falciform ligament that used to transmit blood from placenta to the fetus

115

What are the intraperitoneal structures?

Oesophagus

Stomach

Jejunum and ileum

Transverse and sigmoid colon

Caecum and appendix

116

What is attached the lesser curvature of the stomach?

Lesser omentum

117

What does the common hepatic artery split into?

Proper hepatic artery

Gastroduodenal artery

118

How is the structure of the psoas minor similar to other evolutionary declining muscles?

The majority of its course is tendon

119

Where is the lesser sack?

Behind the stomach and liver

120

What is the function of the psoas muscle?

Flex hip

Posture

121

Where will pain from unpaired abdo viscera from top to mid sigmoid colon be refered to?

Midline of the anterior abdominal wall

122

What does The mesentery supply?

Jejunun and ileum

124

Where are the tendenous intersections of the rectus abdominis located?

Level of the xiphoid process and umbilicus and one inbetween 

 

125

What nerves supply the abdominal wall?

T7-11 of the thoracoabdominal 

126

Apart from the liver, where does the falciform ligament connect to?

The ant. abdominal wall

127

Where is the base of The mesentery?

Post. abdo wall from the duodenum to start of ascending colon, over the aorta, IVC and R ureter on the R psoas

128

What does the proper hepatic artery do and supply?

Turn up and travel in the lesser omentum

Supplies the liver (via L and R hepatic arteries) and the gall bladder (via cystic artery)

129

What is the inguinal ligament?

Thickened, undercurving, fibrosus band of the posterior border of the external oblique muscle. Spans from the ASIS to the pubic tubercle. Has a triangular opening before it beds down and attaches to the puberic crest

130

Where do ganglia for the midgut come from?

T8-12

 

131

Where is the cortex located within the kidney?

Outer layer

132

In what position is the duodenum in the abdomen?

It overlying the lumbar vertebral column

133

Which vein (being joined by others) becomes the portal vein?

Superior mesenteric vein

135

What the colonic flextures?

Directional changes in the colon, ie hepatic flexture is where the ascending become the transverse

136

What is the name of LNs that receive lymph from unpaired organs?

Preaortic LNs

137

What is the shape and where is the base of the sigmoid mesocolon?

Small V shape 

Base is over the division of the L common illiac artery

138

Which ducts make up the common bile duct?

The common hepatic duct and the cytic duct

139

Which artery supplies the midgut?

Superior mesenteric artery

141

Where does the psoas major lie?

In the paravertebral gutter (between the body and transverse process of lumbar vertabrae)

 

142

The adrenal gland on top of which kidney is described as cresent shaped?

Left kidney

143

What are omenta?

Double folds of peritoneum that connect organs

144

From where do paraaortic LNs receive lymph?

Abdo walls

Kidneys

Adrenals

Testis/Ovary

Pelvis

Lower limb

145

Where are there narrowings in the oesophagus?

Upper oesophageal sphincter

Aortic arch, LMB

Diaphragmatic orifice

146

How many major calyces generally branch off the renal pelvis? 

2-3

147

From outside to in, what are the layers of the abdominal wall?

Skin

Superficial fascia - fatty and membraneous layer

External, internal and transversus abdominis muscle/rectus abdominis

Transversalis fascia 

Extraperitoneal fascia

Parietal peritoneum 

 

148

What are in origins and insertions of the rectus abdoninis?

Origin: anterior surface of the 5th,6th and 7th ribs

Runs vertical

Attaches to the pubic crest and tubercle

148

What is the size of the kidney?

10cm long

5cm wide

2.5cm thick

149

What is the angular notch?

An angle at the base of the less curvature of the stomach

150

T/F the right renal artery travels over the IVC?

False, it travels behind the IVC - generally arteries travel behind veins 

152

What are tenia (in the L intestine)

Strips of muscle

153

What are the origins, insertions and course of the external obliques?

Origin: External surfaces of the 5th-12th ribs, overlaps the costal margin 

Course: Fibres are is the front pocket conformation

Insertion: Linea alba, Anterior aspect of the iliac crest, pubic tubercle

154

Which arteries supply the abdominal wall?

Musclophrenic

Superior epigastric

Inferior epigastric

Superficial epigastic 

155

Which ant. abdo muscles originate from the thoracolumbar fascia?

Transversus abdominis

Internal oblique

156

Where in the duodenum do most peptic ulcers occur?

The first part that runs posterior

159

How many minor calyces branch off the major calyces?

2-3

160

Generally where do the ant abdominal muscles start and finish?

Costal margin 

 

Linear alba, Illiac crest, ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine), pubic crest and pubic tubercle 

161

For the most part of it's course the greater omentum is made up of how many layers?

4

162

T/F the erector spinae muscle is contained the thoracolumbar fascia

T

164

What landmarks make up the boarder (top and bottom) of the post abdo wall?

12th rib

Post. iliac crest

165

What are the 3 muscles on the post abdo wall?

Psoas major (and minor)

Quadratus lumborum

Iliacus

166

Where the aorta and IVC sit in relation to each other in the abdomen?

Aorta to the left of the IVC

167

At level does the aorta split into the L and R common iliac arteries?

L4

168

What branches does the superior mesenteric artery give off? What do they supply?

Inferior pancreaticduodenal artery - last part of the duodenum

Jejunal and ileal arteries

Middle colic a. - transverse colon

Right colic a. - ascending colon

Ileocolic a. - ileum, cecum and appendix

169

Where are the three point of narrowing the ureter?

At its origin in the renal pelvis

When is travels over the pelvis brim

When inserts into the bladder

170

Where does the base of the transverse mesocolon run?

Over the middle of the duodenum, head and body of the pancreas

171

What does the left gastric a. supply?

Some oesophagus 

Lesser curvature of stomach

172

The abdo aorta must supply three groups of structures, what are they?

Unpaired structures of the GIT

Paired structures in the retroperitoneum

Abdo wall

173

Which ribs is the spleen close to?

9, 10 and 11

174

Which kidney is lower, R or L?

R - because of the liver

175

In which quadrant is the stomach located?

Upper left

176

What is the name of the divisions of the renal pelvis?

Calyces

177

What shape does the duodenum make?

C shape

178

How does pain in appendicitis progress?

Starts as dull localised pain (due to stretching of visceral peritoneum)

If inflammatory continues and parietal peritoneum is impinged on then the pain becomes sharp and localised

179

What are the parts of the gallbladder?

The fundus >

Body > 

Neck (continuous with the cytic duct)

180

What is between the caudate and quadratus lobe and the left lobe?

The ligamentum venosum and the ligamentum teres

181

Does the internal oblique have any free edges?

Nay

182

Where does peritoneum receive it nervous supply?

The structures it supplies

183

Where does the psoas origin and insert

O: T12 to L1

I: Lesser trochanter of the femur

184

What vessel drains blood from the liver into the IVC?

Hepatic vein