Viral Hepatitis Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Viral Hepatitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Viral Hepatitis Deck (75):
1

What is the most common mode of transmission of HBV in high prevalence areas?

Perinatal

2

How does HBV and HCV get from the intestinal epithelium to the liver?

Via the blood

3

What are the symptoms of chronic viral hepatitis?

General malaise

(Cirrhosis, liver cancer)

3

Which population gets the most severe acute diseaes from HBV infection?

> 5 years old

4

What are the symptoms of acute viral hepatitis?

Non specific, flu-like symptoms

Jaundice

Black urine

Pale faeces

 

 

4

How does HCV make protein?

Translates a single large polyprotein which it cleaves into different proteins

5

How long do symptoms last in Hep A infection?

2-3 weeks

5

What does HBV package with it in its virion?

DNA polymerase

5

Hepatitis B can lead to what type of cancer?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

6

What is a marker of active replication of HBV?

HBeAg

7

What family of virus is Hep E?

Hepeviridae

8

Which is more infectious, Hep A or E?

A

9

What is the incubation period of Hep E?

40 days average, 2-10 weeks

10

What are the symptoms of viral fulminant hepatitis?

Acute-like symptoms followed by liver failure and death

10

What does HCV virion associate with when excreted from cells?

Lipid droplets

11

Which virus particle is more fragile, Hep A or E?

E

11

What is the incubation period of HCV?

6-7 weeks average

12

Name some treatments for Hep E infection

Supportive therapy only

No immunoglobulin

12

What percentage of Intravenous drug users have HCV?

50-60%

13

Which virus family is Hep A from?

Picornaviridiae

13

Do HCV and HBV replicate in the intestinal epithelium?

No

14

What is a limitation of the Hep A vaccine?

It's expensive to produce (requires diploid cells) 

Requires 2-3 shots

15

How does Hep B infection lead to hepatocellular carcinoma?

Random integration into the hepatocyte genomes

16

Hepatitis infection in younger people tend to be what?

Less severe

Greater chance of chronic infection

17

T/F Hepatitis is cytolytic

False, damage is done by the immune response

18

How often does cholestasis occur in Hep E?

50%

19

When do you get Hep D infections?

When you already have HBV because HBD uses HBV surface ag

20

What type of HBV particles are there?

Double walled, infectious virion

Incomplete particles containing only surface protein

20

How many Australians are infected with HCV?

200,000

22

What translational technique utilised by HBV limits its ability to mutate?

Translation of the surface protein and the polymerase off the same transcript by using multiple reading frames

23

What are some sequelae of Hep C?

Liver fibrosis

Cirrhosis

Liver failure

Hepatocellular carcinoma

24

What are some complications of hep A infection?

Fulminant hepatitis

Cholestatic hepatitis (blockage of bile flow from liver to duodenum)

24

When is virus secreted in faeces in Hep E infection?

2 week before and 1 after symptoms

25

What percentage of infected individuals clear HCV infection?

30%

26

What ELISA results indicates an acute hep infection?

IgM ab 

Rising IgG titre

26

Which hepatitis virus has the greatest amount of sexual transmission?

Hep B

28

What happens to the RNA progenome during HBV replication?

It acts as a template for reverse transcriptase 

29

What percentage of >14 y.o. get symptoms in Hep A infection?

70-80%

31

What percentage of Hep B infected individuals develop hepatocellular carcinoma?

2-10%

32

What type of virus is Hep E?

Non-enveloped 

+ ssRNA

isocosahedral

33

Which group of people is most at risk of death with Hep E infection?

Pregnant women (25-30% case fatality rate)

34

How many Australians develop cirrhosis each year?

5300

36

What anti-virals are available vs HBV?

Interferon-alpha

Nucleoside/tide analogues

37

An increase is ALT in the blood during hepatitis indicates what viral behaviour?

The virus is replicating

38

How many serotypes of Hep A are there?

1

40

What do the new antivirals for Hep C target?

Non-structural proteins

41

Why is it so difficult to develop a vaccine for Hep C?

It induces a weak immune response

42

Where does Hep A virus replicate in the body?

Intestinal epithelia

Hepatocytes

 

43

What viral proteins does the HBV genome encode?

Core

Polymerase

Surface

"X"

45

What type of genome does HBV have?

dsDNA

47

What type of virus of Hep A?

Non-enveloped

+sense ssRNA

30nm

49

Which ab's are detectable in chronic HBV infection?

anti-HBcAb IgG

51

What type of vaccine is the hep A vaccine?

Inactivated

52

Which is more prevalent in Australia, HBV or HCV?

HCV

54

What type of virus is Hep C?

+ sense, ssRNA

Flavivirus

55

What is the problem with IFN-alpha treatment for Hepatitis?

It gives flu-like side effects

Only 30-40% response rate

57

What is the serological sign of a chronic HBV carrier?

Positive serum HBsAg

58

What is the incubation period of HBV?

60-90 days average

59

In which fluids is HBV most concentrated?

Blood

Serum

Wound exudates

60

How can the HCV polymerase be described?

Highly error prone

61

What is the incubation period of hep A infection?

Average 30 days, 15-50 days

62

Which hepatitis virus has the greatest perinatal transmission?

Hep B

63

What is the lifetime mortality of HCV infection?

~5%

64

How many carriers of are there of HBV worldwide?

350 million

65

What ag are detectable in chronic HBV infection?

HBeAg

HBsAg

66

What is the best diagnostic test to diagnose hepatitis?

Serology - ELISA

67

What is marker for acute HBV infection?

Anti-HBc IgM

68

What is a marker for recovery/immunity/vaccination against Hep B?

Anti-HBs Ig

69

What is the problem with the new HCV antivirals?

They're extremely expensive

70

Which type of hepatitis is the most common is Australia?

Hep A

71

What occurs inside the host nucleus during HBV replication?

The epigenome is closed by covalent bonding and transcribed into a RNA progenome which is exported out of the nucleus

72

What is the rate of premature mortality from chronic liver disease?

15-25%

73

What treatment options are available for Hep A infection?

Immunoglobulin - only within 2 weeks of infection though

74

What is the difference between nucleotides and nucleoside analogues?

Nucleotide analogues have a phosphate group added

75

What percentage of HCV infections are due to intravenous drug use in Australia?

80%