Gastro Drugs Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Gastro Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastro Drugs Deck (78):
1

What is a potential side effect of systemic antacid use?

Metabolic alkalosis

1

What type of drugs are Neurokinin1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists?

Anti-emetics

2

What does H1 receptor antagonists treat?

Motion sickness

Hay fever

Nausea and Vomiting

2

How do bulking agents work?

They absorb water > increase in size > stimulates movement

3

How does hyoscine butylbromide act as a anti-diarrhoeal?

Muscarinic receptor antagonists therefore decrease gut motility

4

What is misoprostol?

A synthetic prostaglandin E2 analogue

 

4

What effect do cannabinoids have?

Anti-emetic

4

What is the problem with lipid paraffin?

Takes vitamins with it

Leaks out of the anus

Can cause pneumonia is aspirated

5

What is hyoscine hydrobromide?

A muscarinic receptor antagonist used for motion sickness

6

What drugs are used for nausea associated with migraine?

Metoclopramide

Chlorpromazine

7

How long is it advisible to stay on proton pump inhibitors for ulcers to heal?

8 weeks

7

Metoclopramide has another effect apart from being a anti-emetic, what is it?

Increase stomach and upper small intestine motility

8

What type of drug is Esomeprazole?

Proton pump inhibitor

9

What drugs target the chemoreceptor trigger zone?

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists - Metoclopramide and Prochlorperazine

9

How does metoclopradine increase gut motility

Block dopamine's inhibition of ACh release (being a dopamine D2 receptor antagonists)

Agonist of 5HT4 receptor > increase ACh release

Note: ACh acts on gastric smooth muscle to increase motility

9

Name a Serotonin 5HT3-Receptor Antagonists 

Ondansetron

10

What are Ranitidine and Cimetidine?

H2 receptor antagonists

11

What type of drug is Hyoscine butylbromide?

Spasmolytic

12

At what point do extrapyramidal side effects of certain anti-emetic drugs become irreversible?

When tardic dyskinesia develops

14

Parkinson's like symptoms or extrapyramadial side effects are cause by which class of drugs?

Dopamine D2 antagonists

15

What are Serotonin 5HT3-Receptor Antagonists used for?

Extremely potent anti-emetics

16

How does Rantidine work?

It is a H2 receptor antagonist

It blocks histamine stimulation of acid secretion in parietal cells

17

What are the side effects of H2 receptor antagonists?

No major side effects in current ones

Cimetidine causes gynecomastia in males

17

What are some causes of constipation?

Drugs (esp opioids)

Inadequate dietary fibre/water

Inadequate exercise

Spinal injury

Ignoring the "call" to go

Bowel cancer

Depression

18

Which opioid is used as an anti-diarrhoeal? Why?

Loperamide

Doesn't cross the BBB therefore doesn't cause the CNS effects

19

Which class of drug was classically thought to danger the colon with long term however has recently been found not to?

Irritant laxatives

20

What type of drug is liquid paraffin?

Oil lubricant

20

What are the most used laxative currently?

Irritant laxatives

21

What is the main side effect of Promethazine and other drugs of its class?

Sedation

23

What are H2 receptor antagonists indicated for?

Gastric ulcers

24

Name a bulking agent

Brann

26

How must antacids be administered to allow for ulcer healing?

Constant use - their action is short lived

27

Name a detergent laxative and their mechanism of action

Docusate

Increase water content of faeces

28

What type of drug is bisacodyl?

Irritant laxative

29

Name the two important inputs to the vomiting centre due to their being targeted by anti-emetic drugs

Chemoreceptor trigger zone

Vestibular apparatus

30

When are proton pump inhibitors indicated?

Ulcers

Reflux

Tumours

GORD

30

Name a prostaglandin E2 analogue

Misoprostol

31

Name some important antacids

Magnesium hydroxide

Sodium bicarbonate (systemic)

 

32

What side effects do all muscarinic receptor antagonists have?

Anti-cholinergic effects = decrease SLUD therefore: 

Dry mouth

Blurring vision 

Urine retention

Constipation

32

What are dopamine D2 receptor antagonists indicated for?

Nausea and vomiting

 

32

Name two stimulant/irritant laxatives

Senna

Bisacodyl

33

What are emetic drugs used for?

Induce vomiting for the removal of ingested poisons/toxins

35

Name an important spasmolytic drug

Hyoscine butylbromide

36

How do irritant laxatives work?

Directly stimulate colonic myenter nerve plexus

38

What do spasmolytic drugs do?

Prevent smooth muscle spasm to reduce their associated pain

39

What specific conditions can metoclopramide be used for?

Migraine

Reduced motility to neurodamage in diabetes

41

What type of drug is hyoscine hydrobromide?

Muscarinic receptor antagonist

42

What is the problem with prostaglandin E2 analogues?

They cause uterus contraction > abortions

43

What are two proton pump inhibitors?

Omeprazole

Esomeprazole

43

What class of drugs are generally indicated for nausea due to vestibular apparatus problems?

H1 receptor antagonists

45

T/F Hyoscine hydrobromide crosses the BBB

True

45

Name a osmotic laxative and their mode of action

Magnesium sulphate

Increase water content of faeces

47

What is Ranitidine?

A H2 receptor antagonist

49

What type of drug is prochlorperazine?

A D2 dopamine receptor antagonist

50

What does Simethicone do?

Reduces the surface tension of small flatus bubbles thereby facilitating their aggregation into larger bubbles and passage out of the anus

51

What are prostaglandin E2 analogues used for?

Reduce gastric acid secretion

Increase blood flow

Increase mucous secretion

52

How do proton pump inhibitors block acid secretion?

Irreversibly bind to proton pumps

53

What type of drug is docusate?

Detergent laxative

54

What does metaclopramide treat?

Nausea and vomiting

56

What came first, antacids or H2 receptor antagonists?

Antacids

58

How do cytoprotective agents work?

They coat ulcer to protect it

59

What must opioids be given with?

A laxative

60

Name two dopamine D2 receptor antagonists

Metoclopramide

Chlorpromazine

Prochlorperazine

62

Name a H1 receptor antagonist

Promethazine

63

What type of drugs typically cause constipation?

Muscarinic receptor antagonists

64

What is bismuth chelate

A cytoprotective agent

65

What is the problem with cytoprotect agents?

They blacken the teeth, tongue and faeces

67

When shouldn't Brann or drugs from its class be used?

When underlying motility is slow as it contributes to constipation

69

Apart from being a dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, what other effects does metoclopramide have?

5HT3 receptor antagonist

5HT4 receptor agonist

70

In what setting are dopamine D2 receptor antagonists generally used?

Hospitals to relieve the symptoms associated with chemo/radio therapy and post anaesthetics 

71

Which dopamine D2 receptor antagonists cause extrapyramidal side effects with long term use?

Metaclopramide

Prochlorperazine

72

What is Promethazine?

A H1 receptor antagonist

73

How is Senna usually taken?

With docusate for opioid induced constipation

74

T/F Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists are used on their own

False, they are used with Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists

75

What do dopamine D2 receptor antagonists treat?

Nausea 

Vomiting

76

Are extrapyramadial side effect reversible?

Yes if the drugs hasn't been used for too long

77

What is hyoscine hydrobromide indicated for?

Motion sickness

78

How does Ondansetron work as an anti-emetic?

Blocks 5HT3 receptors in the CNS and local vagal sensory fibres