What is familial cold urticartia characterised by?
IL-1 like response to cold
What is purine converted to in gout that forms crystals?
Does anakinra cure gout?
No, it only treats the symptoms
Why is it good (for the host) that pathogens activate caspase-1?
Activation of the inflammasome usually leads to cell death via pyroptosis > means the intracellular pathogen will be exposed to neutrophils
What gene is mutated in familial cold urticaria?
Cryopyrin now know as one of the NOD-like receptor
What causes the signs in acute inflammation
Vascular dilation, increase blood flow (redness, heat, loss of function)
Leukocyte and plasma protein extravasation (swelling)
Leukocyte activation and mediator release (pain)
When was IL-1 discovered?
Which end of pro-IL-1 is cleavaged off to activate it?
What does IL-1 do in metabolic syndrome?
Increases insulin resistance
For which diseases is anakinra used?
Maybe type II diabetes and metabolic disease
What is interleukin converting enzymes (ICE) now called?
TLRs provides 2 signals for inflammasome activation of IL-1 activation, what are they?
Activates transcription of pro-IL-1
Cleaves pro-caspase-1 to activates inflammasome
What does the inflammasome do?
Cleave pro-IL-1 to IL-1
What is pyroptosis?
Programmed cell death associated with release of inflammatory mediators
How is IFNgamma released in response to salmonella infection?
Intracellular infection > activation of inflammasome > Caspase-1 act. pro-IL-18 > IL-18 act CD8 T cells > CD8 T cells release IFNgamma
How is the inflammasome activated in metabolic syndrome?
Fat gets deposited in tissue > crystalises > crystals directly activate the inflammasome
How is the inflammasome activated in gout?
Crystals directly activate inflammasome
What is red meat rich in that contributes to goat?
Why does monosodium-urate accumulate in gout?
The amount of it exceeds the metabolic capacity of the kidneys
What is anakinra?
A IL-1 receptor antagonist