Mutations for oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes have to be more targeted?
What is carcinoma?
Cancer of epithelium
What is the most common familial colorectal cancer syndrome?
What is Barrett's oesophagus?
Abnormal metaplasia of the cells in the lower portion of the oesophagus
What is the name of the histological feature that is a hallmark of HPV infection?
Name 3 types of tumour driving genome changes
What happens at the cervical transformation zone?
Change from squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium
Name the 4 modes of metatastic spread
Where are lymphatics present in the colon?
What is the increased relative risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's oesophagus?
A colorectal cancer in which part of the colon is generally bulky?
What is a common site of metastasis for colorectal malignancies?
Liver due to portal circulation
Where in the skin do initial abnormalities tend to occur?
Deeper layer of epidermis
What is the average age of colorectal carcinoma onset in individuals with FAP?
How is HPV transmitted?
What are the four categories for the Australian Clinicopathological Staging (ACPS) of colorectal cancers?
A - Invaded beyond the muscularis mucosa
B - Invaded beyond the muscularis propria (aka muscularis externa)
C - Lymph node metastasis
D - Distant metastasis
What is characteristic of Barrett's Oesophagus?
Columnar lining above the gastric oesophageal junction
Goblets cells in that lining (metaplasia)
Which gene is disrupted by HPV integration in the host genome?
What causes Barrett's oesophagus?
How may a patient with an ulcerated rectal tumour present?
What are the categories in the TNM's Distant Metastasis?
Mx: Distant metastasis can't be equated
M0: No distant metastasis
M1: Distant metasis
Where does the human papilloma virus invade?
The transitional zone of the cervix
What are adenomatous polyps are precursor of?
What are the categories in the TNM's Lymph Node Metastasis?
N0: No LN metastasis
N1: Metastasis to 1-3 LNs
N2: Metastasis to 4+ LNs
What are the histological features of adenomatous polyps?
Enlarged, hyperchromatic, pseudostratified nuclei
Less goblet cells
Abnormal complexity in glandular structure
Increased mitotic activity
What must occur for a in situ carcinoma to progress to a malignancy?
Breech of the mucosal/anatomical boundary
Colorectal cancer in which part of the colon is generally stenosing?
What are the categories in the TNM Depth of Tumour Invasion?
Tis: Carcinoma in situ
T1: Invades beyond muscularis mucosa
T2: Invades into the muscularis externa/propria
T3: Invades beyond the muscularis externa
T4: Invades other organs or perforates visceral peritoneum
What is a sarcoma?
Cancer of stroma
Which serotypes of HPV are the most associated with the development cervical cancer?
16 and 18
What is the sequence of phases of the cell cycle?
G1 > S > G2 > Mitosis > Cell division > G0/G1
Where are lymphatics present in the oesophagus?
What is the risk of developing early onset colorectal cancer in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis?
Do polyps forms in Lynch's syndrome?
What are the three board categories of classification in the TNM stagings of colorectal cancer?
Depth of Tumour Invasion
Lymph Node Metastasis
What are the two type of HPV infections?
1. Transient, episomally replicating with viral replication
2. Chromosomally replicating, high risk
A mutation in which gene is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis?