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Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (38):
1

Mutations for oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes have to be more targeted? 

Oncogenes

1

What is carcinoma?

Cancer of epithelium

1

What is the most common familial colorectal cancer syndrome?

Lynch's syndrome

2

What is Barrett's oesophagus?

Abnormal metaplasia of the cells in the lower portion of the oesophagus

3

What is the name of the histological feature that is a hallmark of HPV infection?

Koilocytosis

4

Name 3 types of tumour driving genome changes

Chromosomal translocation

Gene amplication

Sequence mutation

5

What happens at the cervical transformation zone?

Change from squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium

6

Name the 4 modes of metatastic spread

Direct spread

Haematogenous

Lymphatic

Perineural

7

Describe koliocytosis?

Nucleur enlargement

Hyperchromasia

Perinuclear halo

 

7

Where are lymphatics present in the colon?

Submucosa

8

What is the increased relative risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's oesophagus?

30-60 fold

8

A colorectal cancer in which part of the colon is generally bulky?

Proximal

10

What is a common site of metastasis for colorectal malignancies?

Liver due to portal circulation

11

Where in the skin do initial abnormalities tend to occur?

Deeper layer of epidermis

12

What is the average age of colorectal carcinoma onset in individuals with FAP?

30

 

13

How is HPV transmitted?

Sex

13

What are the four categories for the Australian Clinicopathological Staging (ACPS) of colorectal cancers?

A - Invaded beyond the muscularis mucosa

B - Invaded beyond the muscularis propria (aka muscularis externa)

C - Lymph node metastasis

D - Distant metastasis

15

What is characteristic of Barrett's Oesophagus?

Columnar lining above the gastric oesophageal junction

Goblets cells in that lining (metaplasia)

16

Which gene is disrupted by HPV integration in the host genome?

E2

17

What causes Barrett's oesophagus?

Chronic reflux

18

How may a patient with an ulcerated rectal tumour present?

With anaemia

19

What are the categories in the TNM's Distant Metastasis?

Mx: Distant metastasis can't be equated

M0: No distant metastasis

M1: Distant metasis

21

Where does the human papilloma virus invade?

The transitional zone of the cervix

22

What are adenomatous polyps are precursor of?

Colorectal carcinoma

22

What are the categories in the TNM's Lymph Node Metastasis?

N0: No LN metastasis

N1: Metastasis to 1-3 LNs

N2: Metastasis to 4+ LNs

23

What are the histological features of adenomatous polyps?

Crowded cells

Enlarged, hyperchromatic, pseudostratified nuclei

Less goblet cells

Abnormal complexity in glandular structure

Increased mitotic activity

25

What must occur for a in situ carcinoma to progress to a malignancy?

Breech of the mucosal/anatomical boundary

26

Colorectal cancer in which part of the colon is generally stenosing?

Distal colon

(rectum) 

27

What are the categories in the TNM Depth of Tumour Invasion?

Tis: Carcinoma in situ

T1: Invades beyond muscularis mucosa

T2: Invades into the muscularis externa/propria

T3: Invades beyond the muscularis externa

T4: Invades other organs or perforates visceral peritoneum

28

What is a sarcoma?

Cancer of stroma

29

Which serotypes of HPV are the most associated with the development cervical cancer?

16 and 18

30

What is the sequence of phases of the cell cycle?

G1 > S > G2 > Mitosis > Cell division > G0/G1

32

Where are lymphatics present in the oesophagus?

Mucosa

33

What is the risk of developing early onset colorectal cancer in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis?

100%

35

Do polyps forms in Lynch's syndrome?

No

36

What are the three board categories of classification in the TNM stagings of colorectal cancer?

Depth of Tumour Invasion

Lymph Node Metastasis

Distant Metastasis

37

What are the two type of HPV infections?

1. Transient, episomally replicating with viral replication

2. Chromosomally replicating, high risk 

38

A mutation in which gene is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis?

APC